padaarth ki maatra

kisi namoone ya pranaali ke padaarth ki maatra, n, ek bhautik maatra hai, jo ki usamein sthit maulik astitv kanon ki sankhya ke anupaat mein hai. "maulik astitv kan" anu, parmaanu, aayan, ilektraan ya koi aur kan bhi ho sakte hain, jiska chunaav sandarbh aadhaarit hai aur niyat hona chaahiye. padaarth ki matra kabhi kabhi raasaayanik maatra ya galat roop mein mol ki sankhya bhi kaha jaata hai.[1]

padaarth ki maatra ke liye SI ikaai hai mol. iski paribhaasha hai:

padaarth ki vah maatra, jismein baraabar sankhya mein maulik astitv kan hon, jitne ki 12 g kaarban-12 mein hote hain. vah sankhya hai evogaadro sankhya, NA, jiska maan hai[2] of 6.02214179(30)×1023 mol−1.

anukram

vivran

kitna padaarth hai, yeh bataane hetu bhaar ya aayatan ke bajaay padaarth ki maatra, kyon prayog karein? yeh isaliye hai, kyonki raasaayanik kyiyaaon mein anu se anu, parmaanu se parmaanu, aayan se aayan kriya karte hain. kyonki bhinn anu aur paramaanuon ka bhinn bhaar hota hai, 100 gram ke in padaarthon mein sabhi mein samaan maatra mein padaarth naheen hota hai. udaaharanaarth, 100 gram aakseejan mein 100 gram kaarban se kam anu hote hain.

dekhein: stauykiyometri

shabdaavali

Wiktionary-logo-en.png
maatra ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.

kisi padaarth ki maatra bataate samay, sandarbhit astitv kan bataana aavashyak hai (jab tak ki sanshaya na hona nishchit ho). ek mol kloreen ka arth kloreen parmaanu (jaise ki 58.44 g sodium chloride) bhi ho sakta hai aur klorin anu (jaise 22.711 dm3 kloreen gas mein STP par) bhi ho sakta hai. sanshaya ko hataane ki saralatam vidhi hai ki "padaarth" shabd ke sthaan par astitv kanon ke naam diye jaayein, ya empeeyareekal sootr bataaya jaaye. udaaharanaarth:

klorofaarm ki maatra, CHCl3
sodiym ki maatra, Na
haaidrojan (paramaanuon) ki maatra, H
n(C2H4)

yeh "maatra" shabd ki takaneeki paribhaasha kahi ja sakti hai. iska anuprayog kai vyutpann maatraaon mein dekha gaya hai.

vyutpann maatraayein

When amount of substance enters into a derived quantity, it is usually as the denominator: such quantities are known as "molar quantities".[3] For example, the quantity which describes the volume occupied by a given amount of substance is called the molar volume, while the quantity which describes the mass of a given amount of substance is the molar mass. Molar quantities are sometimes denoted by a subscript Latin "m" in the symbol,[3] e.g. Cp,m, molar heat capacity at constant pressure: the subscript may be omitted if there is no risk of ambiguity, as is often the case in pure chemistry.

The main derived quantity in which amount of substance enters into the numerator is amount of substance concentration, c. This name is often abbreviated to "amount concentration",[4] except in clinical chemistry where "substance concentration" is the preferred term[5] (to avoid any possible ambiguity with mass concentration). The name "molar concentration" is incorrect,[6] if commonly used.

dekhein

sandarbh

  • saaaincha:SIbrochure
  • IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006–) "amount of substance, n".
  • saaaincha:GreenBookRef
  1. To use "number of moles" to refer to amount of substance is no more correct than to use "number of seconds" to refer to time. The amount of substance is the same whatever unit is used to measure it.
  2. en:International Council of Science en:Committee on Data for Science and Technology (2007). 2006 CODATA recommended values.
  3. a aa saaaincha:GreenBookRef
  4. IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006–) "amount-of-substance concentration".
  5. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (1996). "Glossary of Terms in Quantities and Units in Clinical Chemistry." Pure Appl. Chem. 68:957–1000.
  6. "Molar concentration" should refer to a concentration per mole, i.e. an amount fraction. The use of "[[molar (unit)|]]" as a unit, equal to 1 mol/dm3, symbol M, is frequent, but not (as of May 2007) completely condoned by IUPAC: See saaaincha:GreenBookRef