padaarth (bhaarateeya darshan)

manushya sarvada se hi vibhinn prakaar ki praakrutik vastuon dvaara chaaron taraf se ghira hua hai. srushti ke aavirbhaav se hi vah swayam ki ant:prerana se parivrtanon ka adhyayan karta raha hai- parivartan jo gun vyavahaar ki reeti ityaadi mein aaye hain- jo praakrutik vigyaan ke vikaas ka kaarak bana. sambhavat: isi ant: prerana ke kaaran maharshi kanaad ne 'vaisheshik darshan' ka aavirbhaav kiya.

maharshi kanaad ne bhautik raashiyon 1 (amoort) ko dravya, gun, karm, saamaanya, vishesh aur samavaaya ke roop mein naamaaङakit kiya hai. yahaaain 'dravya' ke antargat thos (pruthvi), drav (ap), oorja (tejas), gas (vaayu), plaajma (aakaash), samay (kaal) evam mukhyataya sadish lambaai ke sandarbh mein dik, 'aatma' aur 'man' sammilit hain. 2 prakrut prasaङag mein vaisheshik darshan ka adhikaarapoorvak kathan hai ki uparyukt dravyon mein pratham chaar srushti ke pratyaksh kaarak hain, 3 aur aakaash, dik aur kaal, sanaatan aur sarvavyaapt hain. 4

poorv mein yeh kaha gaya hai ki bhautiki mein adhunaatan 'aatma' aur 'man' ke vishay mein kuchh bhi adhyayan naheen hua hai, jab ki vaisheshik darshan inhein kramash: indriya gyaan aur anubhav ka kaarak maanata hai, arthaat 'aatma' prekshak hai aur 'man' anubhav praapt karne ka usaka upakaran. is hetu padaarthamaya sansaar ki bhautik raashiyon ki seema se bahishkrut rahane par bhi, vaisheshik darshan dvaara 'aatma' aur 'man' ko bhautik raashiyon mein sammilit karna nyaaya sangat prateet hota hai, kyonki ye tatv prekshan aur anubhav ke liye nitaant aavashyak hain. tathaapi aadhunik bhautiki ke anusaar 'aatma' aur 'man' ke vyatirikt, prastut prabandh mein 'pruthvi' se 'dik' paryant vaisheshikon ke pratham saat dravyon ki vivechana karte hue bhautiki mein ullikhit unke pratiroopon ke saath tulanaatmak aghyayan kiya jaayega.

anukram

vaisheshik darshan ka bhautiki svaroop

bhautiki ke anusaar 'padaarth' ko bhautik raashi (physical quantity) ke samatulya maana ja sakta hai, jab ki vaisheshik maanyataanusaar padaarth mein 'bhoot' (Basic Matter) aur aadhibhautik (aatma aur man) se sambandhit raashiyaaain sammilit hoti hain, jahaaain 'bhoot' bhautik indriyon dvaara graahya hai. samprati bhautik raashi ko adholikhit prakaar se paribhaashit kar sakte hain- bhoot vishisht gyaan ko bhautik padaarth kehte hain. arthaat ise (i) bhoot (Basic Matter) (ii) isse sambandhit vishisht gyaan, athva (iii) ubhaya roop mein seemaabaddh kiya ja sakta hai. pun: (i) bhoot ko saakshaatkaar ;(identity), saakshaatkaar ke saanyogik sambandh (Conjunctive Relation of Identity) aur yahaaain tak ki indriyon se sampoorn roop se asambaddh jaanane yogya gyaan (cognition of cognizables) se paribhaashit kiya jaata hai.

uparyukt paribhaasha mein 'vishisht gyaan' ka arth hai- iska aadhaar, iska sahagaami kaarak se sanyog aur iska aadhaar (aashray) ke atirikt anya se sambandh. is hetu thos, drav, oorja, gas aur plaajma 'bhoot' hain athva bhinn-bhinn avasthaaon ke padaarth hain, kyonki ye bahirindriyon jaise naak, rasana, aaainkh, tvacha aur kaan ke dvaara pratyaksh graahya hain. athva yeh kah sakte hain ki indriyon se graahya vishesh gunavaan padaarth bhautik padaarth hain.

ye bhautik padaarth dik aur kaal ke saath saanyogik sambandh rakhate hain. 'gun' karm, saamaanya, vishesh, samavaaya ke saath anubhav karne yogya sambandh rakhate hain. aatma aur man ko, jo bhoot padaarthon ke saath saanyogik sambandh rakhate hain, ko bhautik raashi mein nivisht kiya jaaya athva pruthak roop se aadhi-bhautik raashiyon ke roop mein ullikhit kiya jaaya isse bhautik raashiyon se sambaddh vaisheshik darshan ki vichaaradhaara par koi prabhaav naheen padta.

vaisheshik ke chh: padaarth

kanaad ne bhautik raashiyon ko chh: vargon ya 6 moolabhoot amoort raashiyon mein nibddh kiya hai. ve ye hain -

vaisheshik sootr ke prashastapaadabhaashya ke teekaakaar shreedharaachaarya nein 'nyaayakandali' teeka ke uddeshya prakaran mein in padaarthon ki paribhaashaaऍn adholikhit prakaar se ki hain-

(i) dravya (moolabhoot bhautik raashi) 6 dravya vah hai jinmein gun nihit hote hain.

(ii) gun (Property) 7 gun vah hai jo gun naheen rakhata aur jo sanyog aur vibhaag ka svatantr kaarak naheen hai.

(iii) karm (Motion) 8 karm vah hai jo moolabhoot bhautik raashiyon par aashrit hota hai, parantu gun se viheen, sanyog aur vibhaag hetu svatantr hai.

(iv) saamaanya (Set) 9 saamaanya ekaakaar prateeti ka kaaran hai.

(v) vishesh (Partlessness or Specific) 10 vishesh charam vibhinnata ke bodh ka kaaran hai.

(vi) samavaaya (Concomitance) 11 samavaaya ka arth hai, aadhaar aur aadheya ke madhya ki asanyogik vidyamaanata.

vaisheshik darshan mein uparyukt padaarthon ki upashreniyon ka nirdesh kiya gaya hai-

(i) dravya (Basic Physical Quantity) 12

(1) pruthvi (solid), (2) ap (liquid), (3) tej (energy), (4) vaayu (gas), (5) aakaash (plasma), (6) dik (length vector), (7) kaal (time), (8) aatma (organism) (9) man (mind/attention).

(ii) gun (Property) 13

(1) roop (colour), (2) ras (taste), (3) gandh (smell), (4) sparsh (temperature), (5) sankhya (number), (6) parimaan-ikaai (unit), (7) pruthakatv (seprateness), (8) sanyog (conjunction), (9) vibhaag (disconjunction), (10) paratv (priority largeness), (11) aparatv (posteriority smallness), (12) gurutv (gravity), (13) dravatv (cohesion), (14) snehatv (adhesion), (15) shabdavrutti (waveaspect), (16) buddhi (cognition), (17) sukh (pleasure), (18) du:kh (pain), (19) ichha (desire), (20) dvesh (aversion), (21) prayatn (voliation), (22) dharm (cosmic order), (23) adharm (cosmic degeneracy; entropy), (24) sanskaar (force) [ yaantrik (mechanical), sthitisthaapak (elastic), evam vegaatmak (emotional)].

(iii) karm (Motion) 14

(1) utkshepan (motion against gravity), (2) avakshepan (motion along gravity), (3) aakunchan (motion causing shear stress), (4) prasaaran (motion causing tensile stress), (5) gaman (linear motion).

(iv) saamaanya (Set) 15

(1) par saamaanya (universal set), (2) paraapar saamaanya (subset), (3) upper saamaanya (element)

(v) vishesh (partlessness) 16

(1) parmaanu (quantum; finite), (2) vibhu (continuum, intinite)

(vi) samavaaya (concomitance) 17

vastut: bhaarateeya darshan ki nyaaya-shaakha ke 'padaarthon' ke upayog ke aadhaar par vaisheshik ke padaarthon ka adhyayan aadhunik bhautiki ke samaanaantar kiya ja sakta tha. 18

choonki, nyaaya darshan ki paddhati sv-maton ya siddhaanton ko gahan durbodh bhaasha mein vyakt karti hai, is hetu sarvavidit bhautikeeya siddhaanton ko beejaganiteeya padon dvaara paribhaashit karke adhik shuddhata ya yarthaathata se vyakt kiya ja sakta hai. yadi vaisheshik darshan ke vibhinn siddhaanton ko 'prashastapaad bhaashya' ka anusaran karte hue vyavasthit kiya jaaya, arthaat uchit ganiteeya sameekaranon mein pratiflit kiya jaaya aur aadhunik vaigyaanik upakaranon ka aavashyakataanusaar upayog karke inka vishleshan aur pareekshan kiya jaaya, to vaisheshik darshan ka yeh vaigyaanik adhyayan avashya hi faladaayak siddh hoga aur ismein bhi koi sandeh naheen ki 'aatma (soul / organism) aur man (mind / attention) ki siddhi saamaanya bhautiki ke kshetr ko aur adhik vistrut aur prashast karegi.

uparyukt vivechan ke anantar ab ham is sthiti mein hain ki dravya ka vivechanaatmak adhyayan vibhinn saapeksh bhautik raashiyon ki tulana mein kar sakein.

sandarbh

1 maharshi kanaad, vaisheshik sootr 1/1/4 (600 E. poo.) "dharmavisheshaprasootaaddravyagunakarmasaamaanyavisheshasamavaayaanaan padaarthaanaan saadharmyavaidharmaabhyaan tattvajnyaaanaanni:shreyasam.. "

2 maharshi kanaad, vaisheshik sootr 1/1/5 (600 E. poo) "pruthivyapastejovaayuraakaashan kaalo digaatma man iti dravyaani.."

3 maharshi kanaad, vaisheshik sootr 1/1/4 (600 E. poo.) "amishvaadyaanaan chaturnaan dravyaanaan dravyaarambhakatvam.."

4 maharshi Kapil, saankhya sootr 2/10/1 (500 E. poo.), "dikkaalaavaakaashaadibhya:.."

5 dau॰ Narayan gopaal dongare, vaisheshiksiddhaantaanaan ganiteeyapaddhatya vimarsh:, pru. 9.. (1995),

6 maharshi kanaad, vaisheshik teeka, nyaayakandali (600 E. poo.) "gunaashrayo dravyam.."

7 maharshi kanaad, vaisheshik teeka, nyaayakandali (600 E. poo.) "saamaanyavaan gun:, sanyogavibhaagayoranapeksho na kaaranan gun:.."

8 maharshi kanaad, vaisheshik teeka, nyaayakandali (600 E. poo.) "ekadravyangunan sanyogavibhaagayoranapekshakaaranan karm.."

9 maharshi kanaad, vaisheshik teeka, nyaayakandali (600 E. poo.) "anuvruttipratyayakaaranan saamaanyam.."

10 maharshi kanaad, vaisheshik teeka, nyaayakandali (600 E. poo.) "atyantavyaavruttibuddhirheturvishesh:.."

11 maharshi kanaad, vaisheshik teeka, nyaayakandali (600 E. poo.), "ayutasiddhayoraashrayaashrayibhaav:samavaaya:.."

12 maharshi kanaad, vaisheshik sootr 1/1/5, (600 E. poo.), "pruthivyapastejo vaayuraakaashan kaalo digaatma man iti dravyaani.."

13 prashastapaad, vaisheshik bhaashya, (200 E. poo.), "ruparasagandhasparshasankhyaaparimaanapruthakattvasanyog-vibhaagaparatvaaparatbuddhisukhadu:khechha dveshaprayatnaashcheti kanthokta: saptadash:. chashabdasamuchchitaashch gurutvadravatvasnehasanskaaraadrushtashabda: saptaivetyevan chaturvinshati guna:.."

14 maharshi kanaad, vaisheshik sootr, (600 E. poo.), "utkshepanaavakshepanaakunchanaprasaaranagamanaani panchaiv karmaani.."

15 prashastapaad, vaisheshik bhaashya, (200 E. poo.), "saamaanyan trividhan paran-aparan-paraaparam.."

16 dau॰ Narayan gopaal dongare, vaisheshik siddhaantaanaan ganiteeya paddhatya vimarsh: (1995), "vigat: sheshoyasmaat vishesh: nirvayava dhaaren nitya: parmaanu vibhuroopatven dvidha."

17 dau॰ Narayan gopaal dongare, vaisheshik siddhaantaanaan ganiteeya paddhatya vimarsh: (1995), "etassamavaaya: tannishthagunakarmanaan chaadhaaraadheyabhaavamoolakan sambandhan ;ganiteeya sameekaranamddh sfuti karoti."

18 maharshi Gautam, nyaaya sootr (500 E. poo.), "pramaanaprameyasanshayaprayojanadrushtaantasiddhaantaavayavatark- nirnayavaadajalpavitndaahetvaabhaasachhalajaatikpatanigrahasthaanaanaan tattvajnyaaanaanni:shreyasaadhigm:.."

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