padaarth

rasaayan vigyaan aur bhautik vigyaan mein padaarth (matter) use kehte hain jo sthaan gherata hai va jisme dravyamaan (mass) hota hai. padaarth aur oorja do alag-alag vastuen hain. vigyaan ke aarambhik vikaas ke dinon mein aisa maana jaata tha ki padaarth na to utpann kiya ja sakta hai, na nasht hi kiya ja sakta hai, arthaat padaarth avinaashi hai. ise padaarth ki avinaashita ka niyam kaha jaata tha. kintu ab yeh sthaapit ho gaya hai ki padaarth aur oorja ka paraspar parivartan sambhav hai. yeh parivartan aainsteen ke prasiddh sameekaran E=m*c2 ke anusaar hota hai.

padaarth ki mukhya teen avasthaayein hain - thos, drav tatha gas. iske atirikt kuchh vishesh paristhitiyon mein padaarth plaajma, atitral (suparafluid), atithos aadi anya avasthaayein bhi grahan karta hai.

anukram

paribhaasha

padaarth ki aam paribhaasha hai ki 'kuchh bhi' jiska kuchh-na-kuchh vajan (Mass) ho aur kuchh-na-kuchh 'jagah gherati' (Volume) ho use padaarth kehte hai. uddharan ke taur par, ek car jiska vajan hota hai aur vah jagah bhi gherati hai use padaarth kaheinge.

padaarth ke kanon ki visheshataaye

padaarth ke kanon ki visheshataaye-

  • padaarth ke kan bahut chhote hote hai.
  • padaarth ke kanon ke beech jagah hota hai.
  • padaarth ke kan nirantar ghoomate rahate hai.
  • padaarth ke kan ek doosare ko aakarshit karte hai.

padaarth ki avasthaaen

padaarth teen avasthaaon- thos, drav aur gas mein paaye jaate hain. taap aur daab ki di gayi nishchit paristhitiyon mein, koi padaarth kis avastha mein rahega yeh padaarth ke kanon ke madhya ke do virodhi kaarakon antaraaaanvik bal aur ushmeeya oorja ke sammilit prabhaav par nirbhar karta hai. antaraaaanvik balon ki pravrutti anaon (athva paramaanuon athva aayanon) ko sameep rakhane ki hoti hai, jabki ushmeeya oorja ki pravrutti un kanon ko teevragaami banaakar pruthak rakhane ki hoti hai.[1]

thos

padaarth ki thos avastha

thos mein, kan baareeki se bhare hote hain. thos ke kanon ke aakarshan bal (Force of attaraction) aadhik hone ke kaaran inka nishchit aakaar aur aayatan hota hai. thos ke kuchh aam udharan - jais patthar, it, baul, car, bas aadi.[2]

drav

drav mein kanon ke madhya bandhan thos ki tulana mein kam hoti hai at: kan gatimaan hote hain. iska nishchit aakar naheen hota matlab ise jis aakaar mein dhaal do usi mein dhal jaata hai lekin iska aayatan nishchit hota hai.

gas

gas mein kanon ke madhya bandhan thos aur drav ki tulana mein kam hoti hai at: kan bahut gatimaan hote hain. inka na to nishchit aakaar (Shape) aur na hi nishchit aayatan (Volume) hota hai.

padaarth ki avastha mein parivartan

padaarth ki badalti avasthaae

padaarth teen bhautik avastha mein rah sakte hai :- thos avastha, drav avastha aur gas avastha. udaaharan ke taur par, paani barf ke roop mein thos avastha mein rah sakta hai, paani ke roop mein drav avastha mein rah sakta hai aur bhaap ke roop mein gas avastha mein rah sakta hai.

bhaarateeya darshan mein padaarth

Bhaarat ke vibhinn darshanakaaron ne padaarthon ki bhinn-bhinn sankhya maani hai. Gautam ne 16 padaarth maane, vedaantiyon ne chit aur achit do padaarth maane, raamaanuj ne unamein ek 'ishvar' aur jod diya. saankhyadarshan mein 25 tattv hain aur meemaansakon ne 8 tattv maane hain. vastut: in sabhi darshanon mein 'padaarth' shabd ka prayog kisi ek vishisht arth mein naheen kiya gaya, pratyut un sabhi vishyon ka, jinka vivechan un-un darshanon mein hai, padaarth naam de diya gaya.

sandarbh

  1. rasaayanashaastr, bhaag-1, (kaksha 12), enaseeiaarati, nai Delhi, prushth-2
  2. rasaayanashaastr, bhaag-1, (kaksha 12), enaseeiaarati, nai Delhi, prushth-2

inhein bhi dekhein