paashchaatya darshan

adhyayan ki drushti se pashchimi darshan teen bhaagon mein vibhkt kar sakte hain-

1. praacheen darshan

2. madhyakaaleen darshan

3. aadhunik darshan

anukram

praacheen darshan

praacheen paashchaatya darshan pramukh roop se yoonaani darshan hai. vistrut vivechan ke liye yoonaani darshan dekhein.

madhyakaaleen darshan

praacheen darshan mein manushya ki buddhi ko pratyek vishay par sochane ka adhikaar tha. madhyakaal mein isaaiyat ki or se is adhikaar ko lalkaara gaya. madhyakaaleen darshan ka mukhya kaam vishvaas (faith) aur buddhi (reason) ke daavon ki jaaainch karna tha. vishvaas ka daava tha ki satya ka mahatvapoorn bhaag daivi aavishkaar hai, vah buddhi ki samajh mein aae ya na aae ise to maanana hi hoga. aarambh mein isaai vichaarakon ne vishvaas aur buddhi ki dhaaranaaon ko abhinn sveekaar kiya. iske baad darshan ko dharm ki apeksha gaun pad diya aur buddhi ko vishvaas ki daasi banaaya; ant mein buddhi ne apne adhikaar par bal diya aur vishvaas tatha buddhi ke kshetr pruthak ho gaye. William dyurands ne kaha ki satya do prakaar ka hota hai- ek hi siddhaant ek drushti se satya aur doosari drushti se asatya ho sakta hai.

madhyakaal ka darshan pramukh roop mein vidvanmandal (scholasticism) ka darshan hai. aathaveen shati mein iska aarambh hua; 11veen aur 12veen shatiyon mein iska vikaas hua; 13veen shati iska yauvan kaal tha, 14veen aur 15veen shatiyon mein aantarik virodhon tatha kuchh baahari kaaranon ne ise samaapt kar diya.

jo vichaaravishya teevr matabhed ka kaaran ban gaye unamein daarshanik drushtikon ke yathaarthavaad aur naamavaad ka sangharsh pramukh tha. vaiyaktik sthiti mein ham anek manushyon ko dekhte hain, iske atirikt manushya ka pratyaya bhi hamaara ek vichaar hai. is pratyaya ki sthiti satta mein kya hai? yathaarthavaad ke anusaar yeh pratyaya vishesh manushyon se alag astitv rakhata hai; vishesh manushya to iski apoorn nakalein ya iske udaaharan maatr hain. naamavaad ke anusaar vaastavik satta vishesh manushyon ki hai, "manushya" keval ek naam hai, jo kuchh samaanataaon ke aadhaar par ham kuchh vyaktiyon mein se har ek ko de dete hain. vaastav mein yeh yathaarthavaad aur aabhaasavaad ka jhagada tha. isi se milta hua vivekavaad aur anubhavavaad ka matabhed tha. jo log saamaanya ko maanate hi na the, unke liye saara gyaan indriydatt gyaan tha. is daarshanik matabhed ne dharm mein kai siddhaanton ka bhed khada kar diya. vivaad ke pramukh vishay ye the-

  • (1) trimoorti ka siddhaant - paramaatma ek hai aur iske saath hi vah "pita", "putr" tatha "pavitra aatma", teen svaadheen sattaaon ka sanyog bhi hai (dekhiye, "tritv"). avelaard (1039-1122) ne "trimoorti" par nibandh likha. ek parishd ne use sune bina use aparaadhi thaharaaya aur aadesh diya ki vah apne haathon se nibandh ko jalaae.
  • (2) paap ka praayashchitt - saare manushya janm se paayi hai. nyaaya ki maaaing yeh hai ki paapi ko paap ka dand mile. koi manushya paryaapt dand ko sah naheen sakta hai. kya ek manushya ke paap ka dand doosare ko dena nyaaya ke anukool hai? kya shri yeeshu ki mrutyu sabhi manushyon ke paap ka paryaapt praayashchitt hai?
  • (3) moksh manushya ke karmon ka fal hai ya paramaatma ke anugrah se milta hai? vah anugrah kisi niyam par aadhaarit hota hai ya paramaatma ki avihit ichha par?
  • (4) manushya karm karne mein svatantr hai, ya sab kuchh pehle se hi bhaagya ke roop mein nirneet hai?
  • (5) maulik paap nirpeksh roop mein tathya hai, ya shri yeeshu ki maata isse vimukt theen?

vidvanmandal ke pramukh vichaarak

ensailm (Anselm 1033-1109) vidvat siddhaant ka sthaapak samjha jaata hai. darshan ke itihaas mein us yukti ka vishesh sthaan hai, jo ensailm ne ishvar ke astitv ke paksh mein di. can't ne is yukti ko maana naheen, parantu kaha ki jo anya yuktiyaaain di jaati hain, ve ensailm ki yukti ki roopaantar hi hain. madhyakaal ke darshan mein taamas ekvins aur dans skots ke naam vishesh mahatva ke hain. yathaarthavaad aur naamavaad ke teevr vivaad mein ve donon pakshon ke pramukh pravakta the. taamas ekvins ki dhaarana thi ki gyaan ke kuchh kshetr vishvaas ke hi vishay hain; ispar bhi indriydatt gyaan un mool niyamon ki sahaayata se, jo pratyek ki sakriya buddhi mein vidyamaan hain, vishv aur paramaatma ke svaroop ke vishay mein kuchh bata sakta hai. dans skotas ka vichaar tha ki saara gyaan visheshon tak seemit hai; saamaanya pratyayon ka astitv naam maatr hai. dans skots ke yogya shishya okham ne naamavaad ke prasaar mein safal yatn kiya. vidvadvaad tark mein itna ulajh gaya ki dharm se iska sambandh toot sa gaya. dhaarmik vrutti ke logon ko "sanshodhan" ne apni or kheench liya. dharm aur darshan ke paarthakya ne aadhunik darshan ke liye maarg khol diya.

aadhunik darshan

aadhunik darshan ke pramukh jhukaav

aadhunik kaal mein manushya ki buddhi ne fir svaadheen vivechan ka kaam utsukata ke saath aarambh kar diya. kuchh logon ke vichaar mein bekan ne iska maargasanket kiya, parantu bahumat dekaart ko iska sthaapak maanata hai. daarshanikon ke safal aur vifal vivaad ne dekaart ko prerana di ki ho sake to darshan mein ganit ki nishchitta pravisht kare. uske baad spinoja aur laaibanij ki bhi yahi bhaavana rahi. England mein vichaarak manovijnyaaan ki or jhuke or unhonne maanav buddhi ko anusandhaan ka vishay banaaya. anubhavavaad ko lauk, varkale aur hyoom jaise pratham shreni ke vichaarak mil gaye. (Europe) mahaadveepeeya vichaarakon ka vivekavaad aur England ka anubhavavaad do vipreet dishaaon mein jahaaain tak ja sakte the, ja pahuainche. ab Germany daarshanik vivechan ka kendra bana. can't ne vivekavaad aur anubhavavaad ko aalochanaavaad (kritikl filausafi) mein samanvit karne ka yatn kiya. hegal aur shaapenahaavar ne pratyayavaad (aaidialijm) ko aage badhaaya. is aadhunik darshan ki teen pramukh shaakhaaeain ye hain-

  • 1. mahaadveepeeya daarshanikon ka vivekavaad (Rationalism) - dekaart, spinoja, laaibaneej

iske atirikt vishesh vishyon par bhi paryaapt vichaar hua.

vivekavaad

dekaart (1596-1650) ne saamayik sandeh se aarambh kiya. turant hi use pata laga ki yeh sandeh swayam sandeh ka vishay naheen ho sakta. usaka pehla sandigdh bodh yeh tha-

"main chintan karta hooain, isliye main hooain." (angreji : I think, therefore I am; ya, I am thinking, therefore I exist)

adhik vichaar se vah is nishkarsh par pahuaincha ki paramaatma aur bhautik jagat ka astitv bhi viml aur spasht chintan ka fal hai aur isliye asandigdh tathya hain. saari satta do prakaar ki hai - purush aur prakruti. ye donon dravya hain - sarvatha ek doosare se bhinn. purush ka gun chetna hai, prakruti ka gun vistaar ya failaav hai. in donon ka bhed bhed ki paraakaashtha hai.

baarooth spinoja (1632-1677) ne kaha ki dravya ke pratyaya mein anantata nihit hai. anant ek hi ho sakta hai, samagr hi akela dravya hai. anant (dravya) ke anant gun hain, parantu manushya keval do gunon, chintan aur vistaar, ke vishay mein jaan sakta hai. chintan ke vividh aakaar aatma ya jeev kahalaate hain; vistaar ke aakaar bhautik padaarth hain. in donon mein kaaran-kaarya ka sambandh naheen, keval samaanaantarata hai. ekamaatr kaaran to samagr ya ishvar hi hai; manushya anivaaryata ke adheen hain. anivaaryata ki sveekruti hi svadheenata hai. udvegon ko samajhna, unhein aanand aur prem ke shaasan mein karna yahi manushya ka lakshya hai, isi ko ishvaraprem kehte hain.

laaibanij (1646-1716) ne kaha ki dravya ek naheen, parantu ek prakaar ke hain. usane maulik dravya ko chid bindu ka spasht sampark kisi doosare chid bindu se naheen hota. aarambh mein hi paramaatma ne unamein aisa saamanjasya utpann kar diya ki pratyek ka aatmabodh use bata deta hai ki doosaron ki aatmaaon mein kya ho raha hai. ek nipun ghadi banaane vaale ki banaai hui ghadiyaaain ek doosare ko prabhaavit naheen karateen, parantu sabhi ek hi samay dikhaati hain.

dekaart ne dvaitavaad ko, spinoja ne advaitavaad ka aur laaibanij ne aadhyaatmik anekavaad ko apnaaya.

anubhavavaad

jaan lauk (1632-1704) ne apni vikhyaat pustak "maanav buddhi par nibandh" ko sahaj, apraapt pratyayon ki asveekruti se aarambh kiya. usane kaha ki manushya ka man aarambh mein ek kori takhti sa hota hai, anubhav usapar anek prakaar ke vichaar ankit karta hai. in vichaaron mein kuchh sanved ke roop mein hote hain, kuchh man ke chintan ka fal hote hain. dravya ka pratyaksh doosare prakaar ka vichaar hai. man kuchh gunon ko sanyukt paata hai aur unke sanyog ke aadhaar ki kalpana karta hai, aise aadhar ko dravya samjha jaata hai. bhautik dravya mein kuchh gun vidyamaan hote hain, kuchh, bhram mein usamein sthit samajh liye jaate hain. aakruti, parimaan, thosapan, gati pehle prakaar ke gun hain; roop, rang, ras, gandh, shabd hamaare baahar naheen, apitu hamaare andar hain ye kramash: pradhaan (primary) aur apradhaan (sekandari) gun kahalaate hain. baahya dravya ka jo pratyaya ham banaate hain, vah spasht naheen hota. yeh naheen jaante ki vibhinn gun kaise sanyukt hote hain, na yeh jaante hain ki gunon ke samooh ke vishesh gun kaise baahar bah aate hain.

George Berkeley (1684-1753) ne kaha ki pradhaan gun bhi apradhaan gunon ki tarah maanasik roopaantar hi hain. donon prakaar ke gunon ko chhod dein to shesh asthool vichaar hi rah jaata hai aur aise vichaaron ka koi astitv naheen. is tarah Berkeley ne abhautikvaad ka samarthan kiya. saari satta chetanon aur unke vichaaron ki hai. hamaara bodh, adhik maatra mein, hamapar thopa jaata hai; aaainkh kholne par main nishchaya naheen karta ki mujhe kya dikhaai dega. is bodh ka kaaran paramaatma ki kriya hai. yeh kriya nishchit niyamon ke anusaar hoti hai; in niyamon ka hi praakrut niyam ka naam diya jaata hai. saari satta chetanon aur unki chetanaavasthaaon se hi bani hai.

anubhavavaad mein ek pag uthaana baaki tha, vah David hyoom (1711-1776) ne uthaaya. hyoom ne kaha ki anubhav jo bodh hamein deta hai, ve sab ek doosare se pruthak hote hain, parantu unamein kisi prakaar ka sambandh naheen hota. jin gunon ko ham ek saath dekhte rahe hain, unke samooh ko ek padaarth samajh lete hain. yahi jnyaaata ki sthiti hai, vah bhi chetan avasthaaon ka samooh hi hai. hyoom ne dravya ke pratyaya ko bhaav aur kalpana ki rachana bataaya aur aabhaasavad ka samarthan kiya. vigyaan ki neenv kaaran-kaarya sambandh par hai, hyoom ne anya sambandhon ki tarah, is sambandh ko kalpit bataaya aur anubhavavaad ko sandehabaad mein parint kar diya. anubhavavaad ne is dhaarana ke saath aarambh kiya tha ki hamaara saara gyaan baahar se praapt hota hai, hyoom ne kaha ki anubhavavaad mein nishchit gyaan ki sambhaavana hi naheen.

pratyayavaad

imaanuel can't (1722-1804) ne vivekavaad aur anubhavavaad ki pruthak dhaaraaon ko milaakar unhein ek nadeetal par bahaane ka yatn kiya. usane kaha ki gyaan ki kachchi saamagri baahar se praapt hoti hai, man ise anivaarya aakruti deta hai. can't ka pratyayavaad abhautikvaad na tha, usaki dhaarana thi ki gyaan ke nirmaan mein man ka yogadaan anivaarya ansh hai. sanvedan baahar se praapt hote hain, parantu inhein desh aur kaal ke saaainchon se gujarana hota hai aur tab ye sanyukt haakar vastu-gyaan bante hain. desh aur kaal maanasik aakrutiyaaain hain. pratyayon ki samaanata aur asamaanata ke aadhaar par jo nirnaya bante hain, unke banaane mein man unhein gun, parimaan, sambandh aur aakaar ke sootron mein baaaindhata hai. can't ka pratham uddeshya vigyaan ko hyam ke aakraman se bachaana tha. kuchh samay ke liye usane hyoom ke kaaranata ke siddhaant ko sveekaar kiya. peechhe isi ki aalochna ko apna lakshya banaaya. kaaran-kaarya-sambandh ka astitv to asandigdh hai: prashn yeh hai ki iska aadhaar kya hai. can't is vichaar mein hyoom se sahamat hai ki baahya ghatnaaon mein iska strot naheen. vah kehta hai ki buddhi ise un ghatnaaon par apni or se laagoo karti hai aur nire bahutv ki vyavastha mein badal deti hai. gyaan grahan karna hi naheen, yeh nirmaan hai - man ki kruti iska maulik chinh hai. "vishuddh buddhi" aabhaason ki duniya se pare naheen ja sakti; jab jaane ka yatn karti hai to virodhon mein ulajh jaati hai. paroksh ka gyaan, jaisa bhi yeh ho, vyaavahaarik buddhi ki den hai. manushya anivaarya roop se naitik praani hai. kartavyapaalan ke liye aavashyak hai ki katrta mein svaadheen karm ki kshamata ho. hamaara lakshya poorn siddhi hai. is anant lakshya ki siddhi ke liye anant kaal ki aavashyakta hai. shubh aur ashubh ka fal avashya milna chaahiye, yeh naitik bhaavana ki maaaing hai. iske liye paryaapt shakti ka shaasak hona chaahiye. vyaavahaarik buddhi svaadheenata, amaratv aur aastikvaad ko maanyata deti hai.

can't ne kaha tha ki buddhi ki khoj aabhaas ki duniya mein seemit hai, ise nirpeksh ke sabandh mein vyarthan chintan naheen karna chaahiye. uske peechhe aanevaalon ne usaka paraamarsh naheen maana aur nirpeksh ko hi apne vivechan ka vishay banaaya. hegel (1770-1831) ne kaha ki maulik satta "man" hai. vikaas mein jo kram baahya jagat mein hota hai, vahi chintan mein hota hai - tark aur tatvajnyaaan ek prakaar ke hi adhyayan hain. ja kuchh vivekaatmak hai vah satya hai, jo satya hai, vah vivekaatmak hai. vikaas ka maulik tathya "virodh" hai. jagat mein pratyek sthiti mein usaka virodh nihit hota hai. is virodh ke prakat hone ke baad, donon sthitiyon mein samanvaya hota hai. chooainki man is parivartan ka aadhaar hota hai, saamaanya roop mein gati pragati hoti hai. chintan mein pratyek dhaarana (thesis) pratidhaarana (antithesis) ko janm deti hai aur fir donon ka samanvaya (synthesis) ho jaata hai. is samanvaya mein ooainche star se dikhaai deta hai ki dhaarana aur pratidhaarana donon mein satya tha, yadyapi aanshik satya tha. daarshanik vivechan mein is kram ke kai udaaharan milte hain. vivekavaad ek dhaarana thi, isne anubhavavaad ke roop mein pratidhaarana ko janm diya. can't ne apne aalochanavaad mein donon ka samanvaya kiya aur bataaya ki donon pakshon mein aanshik satya hai. pratyek samanvaya nai dhaarana banta hai aur nai pratidhaarana ko janm deta hai. yeh kram lagaataar jaari rahata hai. raajaneeti ke sanbadh mein hegel is vyaapak niyam ko bhool gaya aur usane kaha ki prasha mein raashtra ne apne antim aakaar ko praapt kar liya hai. parantu yahaaain vakta daarshanik hegel naheen, apitu svadeshaabhimaani hegel tha.

shaapenahaavar (1797-1860) ne bhi maulik tatv ki khoj ko apna lakshya banaaya. hegel ki tarah usane bhi man ko aisa tatv maana, parantu vivek ya buddhi ke sthaan mein usane sankalp ko yeh gaurav ka pad diya- mere ya apne sankalp ko naheen, apitu vyaapak sankalp ko. jad jagat mein ye sankalp praakrut shakti ke vividh roopon mein vyakt hota hai, jaise aakarshan, garmi, prakaash, bijli aadi. vanaspati aur pashu-pakshiyon ke jeevan mein ye vyavasthaapika shakti ke roop mein vyakt hota hai aur manushya mein aatmachetana ka roop grahan karta hai. manushya svabhaav se sukh ka utpaadan karna chaahata hai, parantu jis sthiti mein vah pada hai, usamein usaka yatn vifal hota hai. jeevan ka sangharsh hi aparimit du:kh ko paida kar deta hai. manushya ke liye uchit naheen hai ki har prakaar ki ichha ya aakaanksha ko chhodkar tapasvi jeevan vyateet kare aur vastuon ki vyaapak asaarata par manan kare. hegel ne vivek ko moolatatv maana; use aashaavaadi hona hi tha. andhe sankalp ka moolatatv maananevaala shaapenahaavar aadhunik kaal ka sabse bada abhadravaadi tha.

vishesh vishyon par vichaar

19veen shati ke madhya kaal ke baad jo vivechan hua, vah praaya: vishesh vishyon ke sabandh mein hua. prastut vishay ki charcha yahaaain saanketik roop se ki ja rahi hai.

1. fredrik neetshe - naitik moolyon ka pratimoolyaankan (Revaluation of All Values)

2. harbart speinsar aur bargasaaain- vikaasavaad (evolution)

3. peears aur William James- vyavahaaravaad (pragmatism)

neetshe- shaapenahaavar ne kaha tha ki sansaar mein andhe sankalp ka shaasan vyaapak hai. neetshe (1844-1900) ne kaha ki manushya ke liye sarvochch aakaanksha 'shakti ki aakaanksha' (will to power) hai. yoddha yuddh mein vishvaas karta hai; har ek yuddh ko saahas se lada jaae, apne uddeshya ko achha bana deta hai. svaadheen purush ki neeti daason ki neeti se bahut bhinn hai. isaaiyat ne namrata, karuna, sahaanubhooti, baraabari ko sadaachaar ke ansh bataakar das neeti ka prachaar kiya hai. naitik moolyon ka fir se moolyaankan hona chaahiye. balavaan vyaktiyon aur jaatiyon ka kaam aage badhna hai; jo rukaavat maarg mein aae, use thokar lagaakar pare kar dena hai. nirbalon ka bhala bhi isi mein hai ki balavaanon ko adhik balavaan banane mein sahaayata dein. bakari ke liye isse adhik bhaagya ki vastu kya hai ki vah sher ke shareer ka ansh ban jaae?

harabart speinsar aur bargasaan - harbart speinsar (1820-1903) ne praakrutik vikaasavaad (natural evolution) ka prasaar kiya. prakruti aur gati ka pun: vitran nirantar hota rahata hai, ek manjil par jeevan vyakt ho jaata hai aur iske baad uchit samay par chetna prakat ho jaati hai. bargasaan (1859-1941) ne kaha ki gati to keval sthaanaparivrtan hai, ismein jeevan utpann karne ki kshamata naheen. prakruti ki gati mein aavrutti hoti hai, nootanata naheen hoti aur nootanata jeevan ka pramukh chinh hai. prakruti to jeevan ki raakh hai, jeevan-satta ka mool tatv hai. bargasaaain jeevan aur chetna ko sanyukt karta hai, kaheen-kaheen to inhein abhinn maanata prateet hota hai. bargasaan ne apni pramukh pustak ko "utpaadak vikaas" ka naam diya. is naam se hi pata lagta hai ki praakrutik vikaasavaad se usaka drushtikon kaise bhinn hai. jeevan nirantar pravaah hai. buddhi ka kaam vyavahaar ki suvidha ke liye vastuon ka todna fodna hai; yeh jeevan ko uske vaastavik roop mein dekh naheen sakti. antajryoti jeevanapravaah ko saakshaat dekhti hai. can't ne kaha tha ki buddhi aabhaas ki duniya se pare naheen ja sakti. bargasaaain ne is duniya ke sabandh mein bhi uske kshetr ko seemit kar diya.

William James - amareeka ke vichaarakon ne 'satya ke svaroop' ko vivechan ka pramukh vishay banaaya. Charles peears ne "vyavahaaravaad" (praigmaitijm) ki neevan rakheen; James (1842-1910) ne is neenv par bhavan khada kiya. "satya" ke do samaadhaan prasiddh the- anuroopataavaad aur avirodhavaad. James ke mataanusaar jo vishvaas jeevanavyavahaar mein sahaayak siddh ho, ve satya hai, jo baadhak hon, ve asatya hain. aacharan ki tarah gyaan mein bhi satya aur upayogita ek hi hain. anuroopataavaad ke anusaar satya gyaan mein jnyaaata ke vichaar aur vaastavik sthiti mein samaanata haati hai. avirodhavaad ke anusaar hamaara gyaan hamaare vichaaron se pare ja naheen sakta; jo vichaar shesh gyaan hamaare vichaaron se pare ja naheen sakta; jo vichaar shesh gyaan se sanyukt ho sakta hai, vah satya hai. vyavahaaravaad ke anusaar jo vichaar safal kriya mein parint ho sakta hai, vah satya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

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