paaristhitiki

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paaristhitiki ka vaigyaanik saamraajya vaishvik prakriyaaon (oopar), se saagareeya evam paarthiv satahi pravaasiyon (madhya) se lekar antarvish:isht intaraikshans jaise prideshan evam paraagan (neeche) tak hota hai.

paaristhitiki (angreji:ikolauji) jeevavijnyaaan ki ek shaakha hai jismein jeev samudaayon ka uske vaataavaran ke saath paarasparik sambandhon ka adhyayan karatein hain. pratyek jantu ya vanaspati ek nishicht vaataavaran mein rahata hai. paaristhitijnya is tathya ka pata lagaate hain ki jeev aapas mein aur paryaavaran ke saath kis tarah kriya karte hain aur vah pruthvi par jeevan ki jatil sanrachana ka pata lagaate hain.[1]

paaristhitiki ko envaayaranameintal baayolauji bhi kaha jaata hai. is vishay mein vyakti, janasankhya, samudaayon aur ikosistam ka adhyayan hota hai. ikolauji arthaat paaristhitiki (jarman: Oekologie) shabd ka pratham prayog 1866 mein jarman jeevavaijnyaaanik arnest haikal ne apni pustak "janarel morpolauji der orgainijmen" mein kiya tha.

beesaveen sadi ke aarambh mein manushya aur uske paryaavaran ke beech sambandhon par adhyayan praarambh hua aur ek saath kai vishyon mein is or dhyaan diya gaya. parinaamasvaroop maanav paaristhitiki ki sankalapana aayi. praakrutik vaataavaran behad jatil hai isliye shodhakarta adhikaanshat: kisi ek kism ke praaniyon ki nasl ya paudhon par shodh karte hain. udaaharan ke liye maanavajaati dharati par nirmaan karti hai aur vanaspati par bhi asar daalati hai. manushya vanaspati ka kuchh bhaag sevan karte hain aur kuchh bhaag bilkul hi anopayogi chhod dete hain. ve paudhe lagaataar apna failaav karte rahate hain.

beesaveen shataabdi sadi mein ye gyaat hua ki manushyon ki gatividhiyon ka prabhaav pruthvi aur prakruti par sarvada sakaaraatmak hi naheen padta raha hai. tab manushya paryaavaran par padne vaale gambhir prabhaav ke prati jaagruk hue. nadiyon mein vishaakt audyogik kachare ka nikaas unhein pradooshit kar raha hai, usi tarah jungle kaatne se jaanvaron ke rahane ka sthaan khatm ho raha hai.[1] pruthvi ke pratyek ikosistam mein anek tarah ke paudhe aur jaanvaron ki prajaatiyaan pai jaati hain, jinke adhyayan se paaristhitijnya kisi sthaan vishesh ke ikosistam ke itihaas aur gathan ka pata lagaate hain.

iske atirikt paaristhitiki ka adhyayan shahari parivesh mein bhi ho sakta hai. vaise ikolauji ka adhyayan pruthvi ki satah tak hi seemit naheen, samudri janajeevan aur jalasroton aadi par bhi yeh adhyayan kiya jaata hai. samudri janajeevan par abhi tak adhyayan bahut kam ho paaya hai, kyonki beesaveen shataabdi mein samudri tah ke baare mein nai jaankaariyon ke saath kai puraane mithk toote aur gaharaai mein adhik dabaav aur kam okseejan par rahane vaale jeevon ka pata chala tha.

anukram

paaritantr ke ghatak

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arnest haikel (baayein) evam yoojeeniys vaurming (daaen), paaristhitiki ke do aaranbhik sansthaapak

paaristhitik tantr ke mukhyat: do prakaar ke sanghatak hotein hai -

  • jaivik kaarak
  • ajaivik kaarak

jaivik kaarak

ajaivik kaarak

paaristhitikeeya adhyayan ke star

paaristhitiki sajeevon aur unke nirjeev paryaavaran ke madhya sambandhon ka adhyayan alag-alag staron ya paimaanon par karti hai. ek jeevit koshika se lekar ang, jeevadhaari, janasankhya, samudaaya, paaritantr, baayom aur jaivamandal tak jeevon aur unke paryaavaran ke beech antarkriyaaon ke alag-alag roop aur vikaas dekhne ko milte hain. at: paaristhitikeeya adhyayan ke staron mein pramukh hain:

  • jeev aur usaka paryaavaran
  • janasankhya paaristhitiki - prajaati aur uske paryaavaran ka adhyayan
  • samudaaya paaristhitiki
  • paaritantr paaristhitiki
  • bhoodrushya paaristhitiki
  • baayom ya jeevom paaristhitiki

hindu darshan mein paaristhitik chintan

anya praacheen dharmo ki tarah vaidik darshan ki bhi yahi maanyata rahi hai ki prakruti praanadhaara se spandit hoti hai. sampoorn charaachar jagat arthaat pruthvi, aakaash, svarg, aag, vaayu, jal, vanaspati aur jeev-jantu sab mein daivatv ki dhaara pravaahit hai. is drushtikon ka gyaan is baat se hota hai ki jab prakruti ki god mein sthit ek aashram mein pali-posi kaaleedaas ki shakuntala apne pati dushyant se milne ke liye shahar jaane lagi to uske vichhoh se uske dvaara sinchit paudhe va fool, poshit mrug atyadhik dukhi hue. yahaan tak ki lataaon ne bhi apne peele patte jhaadkar roodan karna shuroo kar diya. us yug mein maanav va prakruti ke beech poorn taadaatmya aur seedha sampark tha. manushya ki aavashyakataaen seemit theen aur santosh itan tha ki prakruti ke shoshan ki baat to vah sapane mein bhi naheen soch sakta tha. prakruti ke saath ghanishth sambandh hi sabhi dharmo ka marm tha.

samay ke saath shahareekaran aur audyogeekaran ke chalte manushya ka prakruti se sampark tootata gaya aur tathaakathit vikaas ki andhi daud mein usaki yeh anubhooti samaapt ho gayi ki prakruti bhi ek jeevant shakti hai. vaidik lokaachaar aise samagr jeevan ka ullekh karta hai, jismein shareer, buddhi, man aur aatma sabhi ki aavashyakataaon ka dhyaan rakha jaata ho. shareer ki moolabhoot aavashyakta hai khaana, kapda, makaan aur iske baad chikitsa va anya sabhi bhautik sukh-suvidhaaen. man ichhaaon ka kendra hai, jo chaahata hai ki ichhaaen poori hon. lekin buddhi aavashyakataaon ko seemit karne tatha ichhaaon ko niyantrit karne ke liye is tarah maargadarshan karti hai ki prakruti ke punarchakreekaran ki prakriya va sabhya samaaj ke maheen tantu ast-vyast naheen hon.

shri gulaab kothaari dvaara Melbourne mein prastut ek shodhapatr[2] ke anusaar tathaakathit shikshit log hi paaristhitiki aur paryaavaran samarasata ke vinaash ke liye uttaradaayi hote hain. ve prakruti ko jad vastu maanate hain jo maano maanav ke upayog aur "shoshan ke liye hi bani ho. Oxford vishvavidyaalaya dvaara varsh 1995 mein prakaashit janasankhya va jeevan star par svatantr aayog indipeindeint commission on paapuleshan end kvaaliti of life ki report ke anusaar[3] manushya ke astitv ke liye praakrutik paryaavaran bahut mahattvapoorn hai. bhaavi peedhiyon ke liye paryaavaran ka poshan aur dekhbhaal aavashyak hai, jiski upeksha ki ja rahi hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. a aa ikolauji . Hindustan live. 2 May 2010.
  2. kothaari, gulaab (03-09 December 2009). "vibhinn dharm sampradaayon ki drushti mein gahan paaristhitiki". vishv dharm sansad. 14728 abhigman tithi:
  3. paaristhitiki aur purooshaarth chatushtaya

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