paaristhitik tantr

is anuchhed ko vikipeediya lekh Ecosystem ke is sanskaran se anuvaadit kiya gaya hai.

paaritantr ya paaristhitik tantr ek praakrutik ikaai hai jismein ek kshetr vishesh ke sabhi jeevadhaari, arthaat paudhe, jaanavar aur anujeev shaamil hain jo ki apne ajaiv paryaavaran ke saath antarkriya karke ek sampoorn jaivik ikaai banaate hain. is prakaar paaritantr anyonyaashrit avayavon ki ek ikaai hai jo ek hi aavaas ko baantate hain. paaritantr aamtaur anek khaadya jaal banaate hain jo paaristhitiki tantr ke bheetar in jeevon ke anyonyaashraya aur oorja ke pravaah ko dikhaate hain. [1]

anukram

parichay

baja kaileeforniya registaan, kaataavinna jila, Mexico ke vanaspati.
bina vruksh ke ghaas ka maidaan gorongoro sanrakshan kshetr, taanajaaniya mein.

paaristhitiki tantr shabd ko 1930 mein roya klaafaam dvaara ek paryaavaran ke sanyukt shaareerik aur jaivik ghatakon ko niroopit karne ke liye banaaya gaya tha. british paristhitivijnyaaanashaasri aarthar taansale ne baad mein, is shabd ko parishkrut karte hue yeh varnan diya "yeh poori pranaali... na keval jeev-parisar hai, lekin vah sabhi bhautik kaarakon ka poora parisar bhi shaamil hain jise ham paryaavaran kehte hain".[2] tanasle paaritantron ko na keval praakrutik ikaaiyaaain ke roop mein, balki "maanasik aaisolets" ke roop mein bhi maanate the.[2] taansale ne baad mein[3][3][3][3] "ikotop" shabd ke prayog dvaara paaritantron ke sthaanik had ko paribhaashit kiya.

paaristhitiki tantr avadhaarana ka mukhya vichaar yeh hai ki jeevit jeev apne sthaaneeya parivesh mein har doosare tatv ko prabhaavit karatein hain. yoojeen odum, paaristhitiki ke ek sansthaapak ne kaha:" ek ikaai jismein sabhi jeev shaamil hon (arthaat: " samudaaya ") jo bhautik vaataavaran ko prabhaavit karein ki pranaali ke bheetar oorja ka ek pravaah spasht roop se paribhaashit poshan sanrachana, baayotik vibhinnata aur saamagri chakr (arthaat: jeevit aur nirjeev bhaagon ke beech saamagri ka aadaan pradaan) ek paaristhitiki tantr hai. "[4] maanav paaristhitiki tantr avadhaarana fir maanav / prakruti dvibhaajan ke vyaakhya par aadhaarit hai aur is aadhaar par hai ki sabhi prajaatiyaaain ek doosare ke saath aur unke baayotop ke aibaayotik angeebhoot ke saath paaristhitikta se ekeekrut hain.

paaritantr ke udaaharan

  • parvateeya paaritantr
  • jaleeya paaristhitiki tantr
  • jhaadeevan
  • pravaal bhitti
  • marusthali
  • maanav paaritantr
  • vishaal samudri paaristhitiki tantr
  • nadi tateeya paaritantr
  • samudri paaristhitiki tantr
  • varshaavan
  • bina vruksh ke ghaas ka maidaan
  • [[upasatah paaristhitik tantr anujeev jo sanyantr saadhaaran se apni hi khaane mein kaarbanik padaarth ke sanshleshan mein saksham]]
  • taiga
  • paarthiv paaristhitiki tantr
  • tundra
  • nagareeya paaristhitiki tantr
  • krushi paaritantr

baayoms

pruthvi sambandhi mausam aur bhaugolik drushti se samaan kshetr vanaspati dbaara vargeekrut maanachitr

baayom ek paaristhitiki tantr ke samaan hai jismein ek mausami aur bhaugolik drushti se paribhaashit kiya gaya paaristhitiki samaan jalavaayu paristhitiyon ke kshetr jaise ki paudhon, pashuon ke samudaayon aur mitti avayav ke roop mein aksar paaritantr ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai. baayoms sanyantr sanrachanaaon (jaise ki ped, jhuramut aur ghaas), patta prakaar (braudaleef aur needalaleef), sanyantr antaraalan (van, vudalaind, saavaanna) aur jalavaayu jaise kaarakon ke aadhaar par paribhaashit kiya jaata hai.ikojon ke asamaan, baayom, vargeekaran, aanuvanshik ya aitihaasik samaanataaen ke aadhaar par paribhaashit naheen kiya jaata. baayom ki pehchaan aksar paaristhitik anukram aur charamotkarsh vanaspati ke vishesh namoonon ke saath ki jaati hai.

paaristhitiki tantr vishay

vargeekaran

daintri prachur-varsha van kveensalaind, Australia mein.

175 se adhik deshon dvaara maanyataapraapt jaiv vividhta sammelan (seebeedi), ke baad vishesh roop se raajaneetik taur par mahatvapoorn bana paaritantr "paaritantr, praakrutik nivaas ka sanrakshan tatha praakrutik vaataavaran mein vikaasaksham prajaatiyon ki aabaadiyon ka anurakshan" sanyukt raashtra paryaavaran kaaryakram[5][5][5][5] manjoor karne vaale deshon ki pratibaddhata ke roop meinisase sthaanik paaristhitiki pranaaliyon ki pehchaan karne ke liye aur unke bhed ke liye raajaneetik aavashyakta paida ho gayi hai.CBD "paaristhitiki tantr" ko is prakaar paribhaashit karta hai: "paudhe, jaanavar aur sookshm jeev samudaayon ka ek gatyaatmakai parisar aur unka nirjeev paryaavaran jo ek kaaryaatmak ikaai ke roop mein kaam karte hain."

paaristhitiki pranaaliyon ke sanrakshan ki aavashyakta ke saath, unka varnan karne ke liye aur kushalataapoorvak unhein pahachaanane ki raajaneetik jaroorat padi.vrayoogadenhil aur sab kehte hain ki ek fijiyognomik -paaristhitik vargeekaran pranaali ke istemaal se yeh sabse adhik prabhaavi dhang se praapt kiya ja sakta hai kyoonki paaritantr aasaani se is kshetr ke saath upagrah chhaviyon par bhi abhijnyaeya hain. unhonne kaha ki sambandhit vanaspati ke sanrachana aur mausam-tatv, paaristhitik deta se poorit (jaise ki unnayan, aardrata aur jalanikaasi) pratyek aaparivrtak nirdhaarak hain jo aanshik roop se alag set prajaatiyon ko alag karte hain. yeh na keval vanaspati prajaatiyon ke liye sach hai, balki pashuon ki prajaatiyon, kavak aur jeevaanu ke liye bhi sach hai. paritantr ke pehchaan ki maatra feesiognomik aaparivrtak ke adheen hai jise ek chhavi aur/ ya kshetr mein pahachaana ja sakta hai. jahaan aavashyak ho, vishesh pashuvarg tatvon ko joda ja sakta hai, jaise ki pashuon ki mausami saandrata aur pravaal ki chattaan ka vitran.

kai feesiognomik-paaristhitik vargeekaran pranaaliyaan upalabdh hain:

  • feesiognomik-paaristhitik vargeekaran pruthvi ki vanaspati utpatti : ek pranaali myooelar-domabois aur heinj ellenabarg[6] ke 1974 kaarya par aadhaarit hai aur UNESCO dvaara viksit kiya gaya hai. yeh oopari jameen ya antarjaleeya vanaspati sanrachanaaon aur jhaadi ke kshetr ke roop mein deekhata hai jo jeevan rupi paudhe ke roop mein ankit ka varnan karta hai. yeh vargeekaran moolaroop se ek prajaati-nirpeksh feesiognomik, padaanukramit vanaspati vargeekaran pranaali hai jo paaristhitiki kaarakon ke mahattv ko bhi maanata hai jaise jalavaayu, unnayan, maanav prabhaav jaise charaai, hyaadrik shaasanon aur astitv rananeeti jaise ki mausameepan.is pranaali ko ek buniyaadi vargeekaran ke saath khule jal sanrachanaaon ke liye vistaarit kiya gaya.[7]
  • bhoomi kavar vargeekaran pranaali (L si si S), khaadya aur krushi sangathan (efaeo) dvaara viksit.[8]

kai jaleeya vargeekaran pranaali, ek prayaas hai aur sanyukt raajya America bhoovaijnyaaanik sarvekshan (USGS) aur antar ameriki jaiv vividhta soochana network (IABIN) dvaara kiya ja raha hai ki donon terestriyl aur jaleeya paaristhitiki pranaaliyon ko kavar kiya jaaega ek sampoorn paaristhitiki tantr vargeekaran pranaali abhiklpana karne ke liye upalabdh hain.

vigyaan ke pariprekshya se, paaritantr asatat ikaayaaain naheen hain jo keval ek "sahi" vargeekaran drushtikon ka adhikaar par pahchaane ja sakatein hain. tensale dvaara is paribhaasha ke saath samjhaute mein ("maanasik pruthakata") paaritantr ka varnan ya vargeekaran karne ka prayatn praamaanik tark sahit vargeekaran mein paryavekshak / vishleshak nivesh ke baare mein spasht hona chaahiye.

greeshmakaaleen kshetr Belgium (hamoi) mein. neela fool santoreeya syanoos hai aur laal waali paapaaver roiaas hai.

paaristhitiki tantr sevaaen

"maulik jeevan-aadhaar sevaaeain jinpar maanav sabhyata nirbhar karta hai," aur yeh pratyaksh ya apratyaksh ho unhein paaristhitiki tantr sevaaen kehte hain . pratyaksh paaristhitiki tantr sevaaeain ke udaaharan: paraagan, lakdi aur kataav ki rokathaam hain. jalavaayu anatikram, poshak tatv chakr aur praakrutik padaarth vishharan apratyaksh sevaaeain ke udahaaran vichaar kiye ja sakte hain.

paaristhitiki tantr kaanooni adhikaar

tamakva nagar, peinsilveniya ne paaritantron ko kaanooni adhikaar dene ke liye ek kaanoon paarit kiya. is adhyaadesh ki nagarapaalika sarkaar ya kisi bhi Tamaqua nivaasi ne sthaaneeya paaristhitiki tantr ki or se ek mukadama darj kar sakte hain sthaapit karta hai.[9] rash jaise anya nagar-kshetr, ne bhi vaahi kiya aur apne swayam ka kaanoon paarit kiya.[10]

kaanooni rai ka ek badhti nikaaya ka hissa 'jangali kaanoon'ka prastaav hai. jangali kaanoon, yeh shabd koramaik kallinnadvaara (dakshin Africa mein aadhaarit ek vakeel), pakshi aur jaanavar, nadiyon aur registaan ka vyaakhit kiya jaaega.[11] par

prakaarya aur jaiv vividhta

ek maanavashaastreeya drushtikon se, kai log paaristhitik tantr ko utpaadan ikaaiyon jaise maal aur sevaaon ikaaiyon ke utpaadan saamaan roop mein dekhte hain. paaritantr dvaara utpaadit kuchh aam vastuon mein se jungle paaristhitik tantr se lakadiyaaain aur pashu ke liye ghaas praakrutik ghaas ke maidaanon se. jangali jaanvaron ke maans, aksar bush maans ke naam se Africa mein ullikhit hai, aur dakshin Africa aur kenya mein niyntrit prabandh yojanaaon ke kaaran atyadhik safal hai. bahut kam safal khoj aur dava prayojanon ke liye vanya jeev ke padaarthon ka vyaavasaayeekaran kar diya gaya hai. sevaaeain paaritantr se praapt karne ke liye paaristhitik tantr sevaaon ke roop mein bheja jaata hai. ve (1) prakruti ka hai jo paryatan ke kshetr mein aay aur rojagaar ke kai roopon utpann May ko aanand, suvidha, aksar karne ke liye paryaavaran ke roop mein sandarbhit-paryatan, (2) paani pratidhaaran, is prakaar paani ki ek aur adhik samaan vitran jaari suvidha, shaamil ho sakte hain (3) bhoo-sanrakshan, vaigyaanik anusandhaan, aadi ke liye khuli hava mein prayogashaala

kyonki vahaaain ek sthaan par aur adhik prajaatiyaan maujood hai aur is tarah 'parivartan ko avashoshit karne ke liye "ya iske prabhaav ko kam pratikriya karne ke liye kar rahe hain prajaati ya jaivik vividhta ka ek bada degree - lokapriya karne ke liye jaiv vividhta ke roop mein bheja - ek paaristhitiki tantr ki ek paaristhitiki tantr ke adhik se adhik lacheelaapan ko yogadaan kar sakte hain. yeh paaristhitiki tantr ki sanrachana moolaroop se pehle ek alag raajya ke liye badal diya hai prabhaav ko kam kar deta hai. yeh saarvabhaumik maamala naheen hai aur vahaaain ek paaristhitiki tantr ki prajaati vividhta hai aur iski kshamata ek tikaaoo star par vastuon aur sevaaon ko pradaan karne ke liye: nam ushnakatibandheeya jangalon aur atyant badalne ke liye jokhim rahata hai, bahut kuchh maal aur sevaaon ke utpaadan ke beech koi seedha sambandh saabit hota hai, jabki kai sheetoshn vanon tatkaal vikaas ke apne pichhle raajya karne ke liye ek jeevan bhar ke bheetar ya ek jungle aag ki kataai ke baad vaapas ho jaana. ekaadh ghaasabhoomi kai hajaar varshon se (mangoliya, Africa, Europe paaains aur mooralaind samudaaya) ka shoshan chirsthaayi roop se ho raha hai.

paaristhitiki tantr ka adhyayan

1972 mein Apollo 17 ke karmeedal dvaara liya gaya, neeli goli. yeh pratibimb apne kism ki ekamaatr aksi tasaveer hai jismein, poornat: soorya ki jyoti se prakaashit pruthvi ki ek golaarddh prardashit hai.

paaristhitiki tantr gatisheelata

kaaaintedaar jungle ifati mein, medaagaaskar, abhilaakshaanik vividh adaansoniya (gorakh imali) prajaati, allodiya prosera (medaagaaskar okotillo) aur anya vanaspati.

ek paaristhitiki tantr mein nae tatv ka parichay, chaahe jaivik ya ajaiv, ek vightanakaari asar hota hain. kuchh maamalon mein, yeh ek paaristhitik vifalta ya "saupaanik poshan shrrunkhala" ke taraf le ja sakta hai aur paaristhitik tantr ke bheetar kai prajaatiyon ki maut ho sakta hai. is niytaatmak drushtikon ke antargat, paaristhitik svaasthya prayaas ek paaristhitik tantr ki majabooti aur vasooli kshamata ko maapane ke liye ke amoort vichaar, arthaat kaise door paaristhitik tantr door apni sthir raajya se hai.

aksar, haalaanki, paaristhitiki pranaaliyon ki kshamata ek vightanakaari agent se ulat aana padta hai. patan ya ek saumya uchhalan ke beech ka antar do kaarakon dvaara shuroo tatv ki - ki vishaaktata aur mool paaristhitiki tantr ke lacheelaata nirdhaarit kiya jaata hai.

paaritantron mukhyat: stochastic (sanyog se), in ghatnaaon gair par pratikriyaaon bhadkaane-saamagri rahate hain aur sharton unhein aaspaas ke avayavon dvaara pratikriyaaon ghatnaaon sanchaalit kar rahe hain. is prakaar, is maahaul mein tatvon se uttejana karne ke liye jeev ke vyaktigat pratikriyaaon ka yog se ek paaristhitiki tantr parinaam hai. upasthiti ya aabaadi ka abhaav keval prajanan aur prasaar safalta par nirbhar karta hai aur janasankhya ke star stochastic ghatnaaon ki pratikriya mein utaar chadhaav ho. ek paaristhitiki tantr mein prajaatiyon ki sankhya ke roop mein, uttejana ki sankhya bhi adhik hai. jeevan jeev ki shuruaat ke baad se safal khila, prajanan aur prasaar ke praakrutik chayan ke maadhyam se vyavahaar lagaataar parivartan bach gaye hain. is grah ki prajaatiyaan praakrutik chayan ke maadhyam se lagaataar parivartan dvaara apni jaivik sanrachana aur vitran mein badalne ke liye anukoolit hai. ganiteeya hai ki alag alag baatcheet kaarakon ka adhik se adhik sankhya mein pratyek vyakti kaarakon mein utaar-chadhaav nisrtsaah karna chaahate hain ka pradarshan kiya ja sakta hai. jabki anya sthaaneeya, up aabaadi lagaataar jaate hain, baad mein anya up ke prasaar ke maadhyam se pratisthaapit kiya ja karne ke liye janasankhya vilupt andar kadam hoga kyonki kuchh prajaatiyaan gaayab ho jaaega pruthvi par jeev ke beech mahaan vividhta ko dekhte hue sabse paaritantron keval bahut dheere dheere, badal gaya. Stochastists kuchh aantarik viniyman tantr prakruti mein jo ghatit pehchaan hai. is prajaati ke star par aapke sujhaav aur pratikriya tantr, sabse vishesh roop se kshetreeya vyavahaar ke maadhyam se janta ke star ko viniymit. Andrewatha aur santi[12][12] ki hai ki kshetreeya vyavahaar ke star par, jahaan khaadya aapoorti ek seemit kaarak naheen hai aabaadiyon rakhane ke liye jaata hai ka sujhaav dete hain. isliye, stochastists mein paaristhitiki tantr star par is prajaati ke star par ek niyaamak tantr ke roop mein naheen balki kshetreeya vyavahaar dekho. is prakaar, unki drushti mein, paaritantron rai aur pratikriya tantr dvaara (paaristhitiki se) pranaali hi aur viniymit naheen kar rahe hain vahaaain prakruti ka ek santulan jaisi koi cheej naheen hai.

uttari dhruvi ke oonchi pradesh mein kam ped vaale parvat raanagal dweep mein, roos

yadi paaritantron vaastav mukhyat: stochastic prakriyaaon se sanchaalit kar rahe hain, ve aur adhik pratyek prajaatiyon ki tulana mein achaanak parivartan karne ke liye vyaktigat roop lacheela ho sakta hai. prakruti ka ek santulan ke abhaav mein, paaristhitiki pranaaliyon ki prajaatiyon sanrachana hai, lekin yeh hai ki badlaav ki prakruti par nirbhar karega ki parivartan se gujarana hoga poore paaristhitik patan shaayad Birla ghatnaaon hoga.

yeh saiddhaantik paristhitivijnyaaanashaasri Robert ulanovichks paaritantron ki sanrachana ka varnan karne ke liye, paraspar soochanaaon ka adhyayan pranaaliyon mein (sahasambandh) par bal soochana siddhaant upakaranon ka istemaal kiya hai. is paddhati aur jatil paaritantron ke poorv tippaniyon par chitrakaari, ulaanovichks paaritantron par tanaav ke star ko nirdhaarit karne aur bhavishyavaani pranaali pratikriyaaon unki seting mein parivartan ke prakaar paribhaashit karne ke liye (jaise badh ya oorja ka pravaah kam hai aur eutrophication ke drushtikon darshaaya gaya hai.[13], jeevan sangathan ki buniyaadi baaton ke roop mein karne ke liye bhi sanbandhaparak aadesh siddhaanton dekhein.

van saan juaan dweep mein

paaristhitiki tantr paristhiti-vigyaan

paaristhitiki tantr paristhiti-vigyaan paaristhitiki tantr ki jaivik aur ajaivghatakon ka ekeekrut adhyayan hai aur ek paaristhitiki tantr chaukhate mein unke sampark ka adhyayan hai. yeh vigyaan paaristhitiki tantr ke kaarya ka nirkshan karta hai aur isse unke aanshik jaise rasaayan, aadhaar-shail, mitti, paudhein aur jaanvaron se sambandhit hai. paaristhitiki tantr shaareerik aur jaivik banaavat ka nireekshan karta hai aur in paaristhitiki tantr visheshataaeain ka prabhaav ka vishleshan karatein hain.

paristhithi-vigyaan tantr

maanushik paaristhithik tantr ki ek havaai drushya: Chicago, ilinois.

paristhithi-vigyaan tantr paaristhitiki ke ek antarvishyak kshetr hain, jismein paaristhitiki tantr ka adhyayan ek samagr drushtikon se li gayi hai, khaaskar paaristhitiki tantr. paristhithi-vigyaan tantr saamaanya siddhaant tantr ko paaristhitiki par prayukti ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai. paristhithi-vigyaan tantr drushtikon ka yeh kendreeya vichaar hai ki paaristhitik tantr ek pecheeda tantr hai jismein aakasmik gunadharm prardashit hote hain. paristhithi-vigyaan ki kendra bindu jaivik aur paaristhitik tantr ke ant:kriya aur len-den ke bheetar aur beech hai aur vishesh roop se paaristhitik tantr se sanbandhit kaarya kaise maanav hastakshep se prabhaavit hai. yeh ooshma-gatiki ke sankalpana ke upayog aur vistaar se pechadaar tantr ke vyaapak varnan viksit karta hai.

paristhithi-vigyaan tantr aur paaristhitiki tantr paristhiti-vigyaan ke beech ka rishta badi hi pecheeda hai. paristhithi-vigyaan tantr jyaadaatar paaristhitiki tantr paristhiti-vigyaan ke upasamuchchaya maane ja sakte hain. paaristhitik tantr paristhiti-vigyaan kai padyatiyaan prayog me laatein hain jiska paristhithi-vigyaan tantr ke sampoorn drushtikon se kam lena dena hai. paristhithi-vigyaan tantr sakriya roop se baahari prabhaav jaise artshaastr ko maanatein hain jo paaristhitiki tantr paristhiti-vigyaan ke dayire ke baahar girtein hain. jabki paaristhitik tantr paristhiti-vigyaan ki paribhaasha paaristhitiki tantr ka vaigyaanik adhyayan kaha ja sakta hai, paaristhitik tantr ka vishesh prayaas paaristhitikeeya tantr aur pratibhaas ke tantr par prabhaav ka adhyayan hai.

sahasraabdi paaristhitiki tantr aaainkalan

2005 mein,[14] ke sabse bade moolyaankan http://www.maweb.org 1000 se jyaada vaigyaaniko ke ek anusandhaan dal dvaara aayojit kiya gaya. is moolyaankan ke nishkarsh bahu maatra sahastraabdi paaristhitiki tantr aaainkalan mein prakaashit kiya gaya, jiske vishkarsh parinaam ke anusaar pichhle 50 varshon mein manushya dbaara pruthvi ke paaristhitiki tantr ka parivartan ab tak ke hamaare itihaas ke kisi aur samay mein naheen paaya gaya tha.

yeh bhi dekhein

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sandarbh

  1. kristofarasan, aaradablyoo (1996)
  2. a aa tanasle, eji (1935) vanaspati shabdon aur avadhaaranaaon ka upayog aur durupayog.
  3. a aa i E tanasle, eji (1939) british dweep aur unki vanaspatiyaaain. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Tansley1939" defined multiple times with different content sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Tansley1939" defined multiple times with different content
  4. odum, EP(1971) paaristhitiki ke mool tatv, teesara sanskaran, saunders New York
  5. a aa i E jaiv vividhta sammelan sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "UN92" defined multiple times with different content sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "UN92" defined multiple times with different content sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "UN92" defined multiple times with different content
  6. myooelar-domabois aur ellenabarg
  7. madhya amareeka ke paaritantron ka maanachitr
  8. entoniyo di gregoriyo aur looisa jeem janasan (2000).
  9. taamaakuaa kaanoon prakruti ka adhikaar pahachaanata hai
  10. rash taaunaship strips pank nigam "adhikaar"
  11. patali barf saansaarik adhikaaron
  12. a aa Andrewatha, HG aur LC santi (1954) ke vitran aur pashuon ki bahutaayat. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Andrewatha" defined multiple times with different content
  13. Robert ulaanovichks (1997).
  14. pruthvi ki paaristhitiki tantr

iske atirikt pathan

  • boar, PJ den aur J.redinguvis. 1996.janasankhya paaristhitiki mein viniyman aur sthireekaran pratimaan. janasankhya aur saamudaayik jeevavijnyaaan shrrunkhala 16. vyaapaari aur hall, New York. 397 PG.
  • Amreeki paaristhitik samaaj, paaristhitik tantr sevaaeain, 25 May 2007
  • eyhirlik, paul; vaakar, Brian "aakrusht aur atiriktata".jeevavijnyaaan.vol.48.no.5. May 1998. pp. 387. Amreeki jaivik vigyaan sansthaan.
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