paaribhaashik shabdaavali

paaribhaashik shabdaavali ya paribhaasha kosh, "glaasari" (glossary) ka pratishbd hai. "glaasari" moolat: "glaus" shabd se bana hai. "glaus" greek bhaasha ka glossa hai jiska praarambhik arth "vaani" tha. baad mein yeh "bhaasha" ya "boli" ka vaachak ho gaya. aage chalakar ismein aur bhi arthaparivrtan hue aur iska prayog kisi bhi prakaar ke shabd (paaribhaashik, saamaanya, kshetreeya, praacheen, aprachalit aadi) ke liye hone laga. aise shabdon ka sangrah hi "glausari" ya "paribhaasha kosh" hai.

gyaan ki kisi vishesh vidha (kaarya kshetr) mein prayog kiye jaane vaale shabdon ki unki paribhaasha sahit soochi paaribhaashik shabdaavali (glossary) ya paaribhaashik shabdakosh kahalaati hai. udaaharan ke liye ganit ke adhyayan mein aane vaale shabdon evam unki paribhaasha ko ganit ki paaribhaashik shabdaavali kehte hain. paaribhaashik shabdon ka prayog jatil vichaaron ki abhivyakti ko suchaaru banaata hai.

mahaaveeraachaarya ne ganitsaarasangrah: ke 'sanjnyaaadhikaar:' naamak pratham adhyaaya mein kaha hai-

na shakyateऽrthoboddhun yatsarvasmin sanjnyaaya vina.
aadaavatoऽsya shaastrasya paribhaashaabhidhyaasyate..
( vina sanjnyaa (naam ya shabdaavali) ke kisi bhi vishay ka arth
samajhaana sambhav nahi hai. (at:) is shaastr ke aarambh mein hi paribhaasha di ja rahi hai.
)

iske baad unhone lambaai, kshetrafal, aayatan, samay, sona, chaaaindi evam anya dhaatuon ke maapan ki ikaaiyon ke naam aur unki paribhaasha (parimaan) diya hai. iske baad ganiteeya sankriyaaon ke naam aur paribhaasha di hai tatha anya ganiteeya paribhaashaaeain di hai.

dvibhaashik shabdaavali mein ek bhaasha ke shabdon ka doosari bhaasha mein samaanaarthak shabd diya jaata hai va us shabd ki paribhaasha bhi ki jaati hai.

arth ki drushti se kisi bhaasha ki shabdaavali do prakaar ki hoti hai- saamaanya shabdaavali aur paaribhaashik shabdaavali. aise shabd jo kisi vishesh gyaan ke kshetr mein ek nishchit arth mein prayukt hote hain, vah paaribhaashik shabd hote hain aur jo shabd ek nishchit arth mein prayukt naheen hote vah saamaanya shabd hote hain.

prasiddh vidvaan aachaarya raghuveer bade hi saral shabdon mein paaribhaashik aur saadhaaran shabdon ka antar spasht karte hue kehte hain-

"paaribhaashik shabd ka arth hai jiski seemaaen baandh di gayi hon. .... aur jinki seema naheen baandhi jaati, ve saadhaaran shabd hote hain.

paaribhaashik shabdon ko spasht karne ke liye anek vidvaanon ne anek prakaar se paribhaashaaen nishchit karne ka prayatn kiya hai. dau॰ raghuveer Singh ke anusaar -

"paaribhaashik shabd vah hota hai jiska prayaag kisi vishesh arth mein sanket rup se hota hai.

dau॰ bholaanaath tivaari 'anuvaad' ke sampaadakeeya mein ise aur spasht karte hue kehte hain-

"paaribhaashik shabd aise shabdon ko kehte hain jo saamaanya vyavahaar ki bhaasha ke shabd na hokar bhautiki, rasaayan, praanivijnyaaan, darshan, ganit, injeeniyri, vidhi, vaanijya, arthashaastr, manovijnyaaan, bhoogol aadi gyaan-vigyaan ke vibhinn kshetron ke vishisht shabd hote hain aur jinki arth seema sunishchit aur paribhaashit hoti hai. kshetr vishesh mein in shabdon ka vishisht arth hota hai.

anukram

itihaas

shabdaavali ki parampara "enasaaiklopeediya britainika" mein tatha anyatr bhi filetas (Philetas) se maani jaati hai. inka kaal teesari sadi E. poo. hai. inhonne "atakta" (Atakta) sheershak shabdaavali sangruheet ki thi. kintu vastut: shabdaavali ka itihaas ab bahut peechhe chala gaya hai aur ab tak praapt praacheenatam shabdaavali hittaait (hitti) bhaasha ki hai, jiska samay isa se praaya: 1000 varsh poorv se bhi aage hain.

Bhaarat mein praacheenatam shabdaavali nighantu roop mein milti hai. sanskrut bhaasha mein vikaas ke kaaran jab vaidik sanskrut logon ke liye durooh siddh hone lagi to vaidik shabdon ke sangrah kiye gaye, jinhein "nighantu" (nighntati shobhate iti) ki sanjnyaa di gayi. aaj jo nighantu upalabdh hai vah yaaskaachaarya ka hai, kintu aise vishvaas ke paryaant pramaan hain ki yaask ke samay mein aise 4-5 aur bhi nighantu the. yaask ka samay 8veen sadi E. poo. maana gaya hai. iska aashay yeh hua ki pashchimi vidvaan filtas ki jis shabdaavali (glossary) ko praacheenatam maanate hain vah bhaarateeya nighantuon se kam se kam 4-5 sau varsh baad ki hai.

Europe mein jo shabdaavaliyaaain praarambh mein sangruheet ki gain, ekabhaashik theen kintu baad mein bahubhaashik shabdaavaliyon ki parampara chali. Europe ki praacheenatam gyaat dvibhaashik shabdaavali laitingreek ki hai, jiske sangrahakarta filauksenas maane jaate rahe hain yadyapi yeh siddh ho chuka hai ki moolat: yeh rachana unki naheen thi. iska kaal mote roop se chhathi sadi E. hai. yeh ullekh hai ki enasaaiklopeediya britainika aadi mein ise praacheenatam bahubhaashik shabdaavali maana gaya hai, kintu vastut: peechhe jis hittaait shabdaavali ka ullekh kiya ja chuka hai, vah dvibhaashik hi naheen tribhaashik (hitti-sumeri-akkaadi) hai. is prakaar praacheenatam bahubhaashik shabdaavali ka kaal laitin-greek se lagbhag dedh hajaar varsh peechhe hai. 1000 E. ke aaspaas greek-laitin laitin-greek ki kai shabdaavaliyaaain bani.

Bhaarat mein bahubhaashik shabdaavali ki parampara bahut puraani naheen hai. amarakosh ke poorv - jaise kaatya ka "naamamaala", bhaaguri ka "trikaand", amaradatt ka "amaramaala" ya vaachaspati ka "shabdaarnav" aadi-evam baad ke - purushottam Dave ke "haaraavali" tatha "trikaandakosh", halaayudh ka "abhidhaan ratnamaala", yaadavaprakaash ka "vaijanti" aadi-kosh ekabhaashik hi hain. praakrut apabhransh - jaise dhanapaalakrut "paaia lachheenaamamaala", hemachandr ki "desheenaamamaala" tatha gopaal, dron aadi ke deshi "kosh" evam hindi ke puraane kosh - jaise nandadaas, banaaraseedaas, badreedaas, harichranadaas, chetanavijya, vinyasaagar aadi ki "naamamaala", prayaagadaas ki "shabdaratnaavali" ya harichranadaas ka "karnaabharan" aadi-usi parampara mein, arthaat ekabhaashik shabdaavaliyaaain hain. is parampara mein kadaachit antim granth suvansh shukl ka "umaraavakosh" (19veen sadi) hai.

Bhaarat mein ekaadhik bhaashaaon ki shabdaavaliyon ki parampara musalmaanon se aarambh hoti hai. iska sabse prasiddh granth "khaalikbaari" hai, jismein hindi, fraarasi, Turkey ke shabd hain. khaalikbaari parampara mein is prakaar ke kai granth likhe gaye, jinmein sabse prasiddh rachana ameer khusaron ki kahi jaati hai, yadyapi is sambandh mein paryaapt vivaad hai. anek vidvaanon ke anusaar khaalikbaari kisi "khusaroshaah" ki rachana hai, jo prasiddh kavi khusaro ke bahut baad mein hue the. shivaaji ne bhi raajaneeti ki faarasi-sanskrut shabdaavali banaai thi, jismein lagbhag 1500 shabd the. uske baad khaalikbaari parampara mein hindi-faarasi ke kai kosh likhe gaye. kintu vaigyaanik dhang se yeh kaarya angrejon ke sampark ke baad praarambh hua. Europe mein is disha mein kaarya ko vaigyaanik star par laane ka shreya J. skailisr (1540-1609) ko hai. 1573 mein prakaashit henari stefenas ki dvibhaashik shabdaavali is kshetr ki pratham mahatvapoorn rachana maani jaati hai. Bhaarat mein angrej paadariyon ne dharm evam raajaprachaar ki drushti se yahaaain ki kai bhaashaaon ke angreji kosh prakaashit kiye. hindi ki drushti se is shrunkhala ke pratham kosh J. faragusan ki "A dikshanari ov hindostaan laingvij" hai jo 1773 E. mein London se chhapi thi. yeh ullekhya hai ki is parampara mein hote hue bhi ye kosh shabdaavali ki seema ke baahar hain.

ab bahubhaashik shabdaavaliyon ki parampara bahut viksit ho gayi hai tatha idhar 3-4 se lekar 10-12 bhaashaaon ki vibhinn vishyon ki shabdaavaliyaaain prakaashit hui hain. is disha mein England, amareeka, Germany, France tatha roos ne paryaapt shram kiya hai. sanyukt raashtra sangh ne bhi is disha mein yog diya hai.

ismein tanik bhi sandeh naheen ki shabdaavaliyon ka hi vikaas koshon ke roop mein hua hai, kintu donon ek naheen hain. donon mein antar yeh hai ki shabdaavali mein ek ya adhik bhaashaaon ke shabdon ka sangrah rahata hai, kintu kosh mein shabdon ka arth ya unki vyaakhya aadi bhi rahati hai. kala, vaanijya, vigyaan aadi ke vigyaan aadi ke vibhinn vishyon ke dvibhaashik ya bahubhaashik koshon ke atirikt, paryaaya evam vilomakosh (Thesaras) bhi shabdaavaliyon ki hi parampara mein aate hain. madhyayugeen hindi saahitya ka "naamamaala" saahitya is drushti se ullekhya hai. ab paryaaya koshon ki parampara badi vaigyaanik ho gayi hai aur lekhakon aadi ke liye ye bade upayogi siddh hue hain.

shabdaavali sankalan ka praarambh tatha vikaas

madhyakaal ki naamamaalaaon ki parampara ke baad pehla shabdaavali sankalan ka kaarya aadam ne 1829 mein 'hindavi bhaasha ka kosh' sheershak se taiyaar kiya jismein 20,000 shabd the. tadbhav tatha deshaj shabdon ko pradhaanata di gayi. aadam saahab pehle vyakti the jinhonne lok se bolachaal ke shabd sangruheet kiye. aadam se poorv gilkraaist, karkapaitrik, William hantar, sheksapiyr, raubak ke kosh aur baad mein failan, yet, dankar forbs, thaumasan tatha John plaats ke kaarya ullekhaneeya hain. inmein se failan, thaumasan tatha John plaats ke kaarya mahattvapoorn hain. thaumasan ke sankalan mein shabdasankhya 30,000 hai, failan ke kosh mein 1216 prushth (raayal ktev) hain. plaats ke kosh ka poora naam hai - "'A dikshanari aaf urdoo, klaasikl hindi aind english" (1874) jiski pramukh visheshataaeain hain:

  • (1) shabdon ki vyutpatti par prakaash tatha
  • (2) samaan vartani ke alag-alag sroton se aaye shabdon ki alag-alag pravishtiyaaain,
  • (3) akarmak tatha sakarmak kriyaaon ka ullekh,
  • (4) saahityetar shabdon ka sankalan.

bhaarateeyon dvaara banaaye gaye koshon mein jin do koshon ka sarvaadhik prachaar-prasaar hua, ve hain - "shreedhar bhaasha kosh' (san 1894), shreedhar tripaathi, Lucknow, prushth san. 744 tatha 'hindi shabdaarth paarijaat' (san 1914), dvaaraka prasaad chaturvedi, Allahabad. pehle kosh mein lagbhag 25,000 shabd sankhya hai jabki doosare mein brajabhaasha-avadhi aadi vibhaashaaon ke shabdon ki paryaapt sankhya rahane ke kaaran shabd sankhya adhik hai. anumaan kiya ja sakta hai ki 20vi shataabdi ke praarambh tak shabd sankalan 50,000 tak pahuainch gaya.

aadhunik kaal mein babu shyaam sundar das, raamachandr shukl, raamachandr varma ke satprayaason se naagari prachaarini sabha, Varanasi se 'hindi shabdasaagar' (1922-29) prakaashit hua jiski yojana 23-8-1907 ki sabha ke param hitaishi aur utsaahi sadasya shreeyut revareind E. greebj ke us prastaav ke anusaar bani jismein praarthana ki gayi thi ki "hindi ke ek bruhat aur sarvaangapoorn kosh ka bhaar sabha apne oopar le."

san 1910 ke aarambh mein shabd sangrah ka kaarya samaapt hua. 10 lakh slip banaai gayi jinmein se lagbhag ek lakh shabdon ka aankalan kiya gaya. yeh kosh vastut: saagar tha jo shabdon, arthon, muhaavaron, lokoktiyon, udaaharanon tatha uddharanaon se bharpoor arthachhataaeain dene mein sarvottam maana jaaega. iske baad kosh kala mein deerghakaaleen anubhav praapt aachaarya raamachandr varma ke prayaason se Varanasi se 'praamaanik hindi kosh' (pru.san. 3966;1962-1966) prakaashit hua. 'vruhad hindi kosh' ke teesare sanskaran mein ek lakh adtaalees hajaar shabd hain. is beech 'hindi shabdasaagar' ka naveen sanshodhit aur parivrdhit sanskaran (1965-75) mein prakaashit hua jismein kul prushth san. 5570 hai, sanyojak shri karoonaapati tripaathi ke dinaank 18-2-65 ke vaktavya ke anusaar "mool shabd saagar se iski shabd sankhya mein duguni vruddhi hui hai." is prakaar koshon ke aadhaar par shabdaavali ki sankhya do lakh hai.

paaribhaashik shabdaavali ka vikaas

praacheen Bhaarat mein hi darshan, jyotish, aayurved aadi kuchh vishyon mein prachur bhaarateeya shabdaavali upalabdh thi. unneesaveen shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein hi vaigyaanik upalabdhiyon se sambandhit shabdaavali hindi bhaasha mein aane lagi thi. kaashi naagari prachaarini sabha, Varanasi ne vaigyaanik shabdaavaliyon ke roop mein sarvapratham pustakaakaar prakaashan kiye. is disha mein dau॰ satyaprakaash (vigyaan parishad, Allahabad) tatha dau॰ raghuveer ke kaarya vishesh ullekhaneeya hain.

dau॰ raghuveer ke kosh kaarya ki ek or atyadhik prashansa hui, doosari or atyadhik aalochna. vastut: yeh prashansaneeya kaarya tha, jisko atyadhik shram se vaigyaanik aadhaar par prastut kiya gaya. sanpoornat: sanskrut par aadhaarit hone ke kaaran iski vyaavahaarikta par sandeh kiya jaane laga. unhonne sarvapratham bhaasha-nirmaan mein yaantrikta tatha vaijnyaaanikta ko sthaan diya. upasarg tatha pratyayon ke dhaatuoain ke yog se laakhon shabd sahaj hi banaaye ja sakte hain:

upasargen dhaatvartho balaadanyatr neeyate. prahaar-aahaar-sanhaar-vihaar-parihaar vat..

is prakriya ko kosh ki bhoomika mein samajhaaya. yadi maatr do sambhaavit yog lein, moolaansh 400 aur teen pratyaya lein to 8000 roop ban sakte hain, jabki abhi tak maatr 340 yogon ka upayog kiya gaya hai. yahaaain shabd-nirmaan ki adbhut kshamata udghaatit hoti hai. unhonne vistaar se udaaharan dekar samajhaaya ki kis prakaar gam dhaatu maatr se 180 shabd sahaj hi ban jaate hain. pragati, paraagati, parigti, pratigti, anugati, adhigti, apagati, atigti, aagati, avagati, upagati, udgati, sugati, sangati, nigti, nirgati, vigti, durgati, avagati, abhigti, gati, gantavya, gamya, gamaneeya, gamak, jangam, gamyamaan, gatvar, gamanika aadi kuchh udaaharan hain. maatr 'i' dhaatu ke saath vibhinn ek athva do upasarg jodkar 107 shabdon ka nirmaan sambhav hai. unhonne spasht kiya ki 520 dhaatuon ke saath 20 upasargon tatha 80 pratyayon ke yog se laakhon shabdon ka nirmaan kiya ja sakta hai. agar dhaatuon ki sankhya badha li jaae to 1700 dhaatuon se 23800 maulik tatha 84,96,24000 shabdon ko vyutpann kiya ja sakta hai.

is prakaar sanskrut mein shabd nirmaan ki adbhut kshamata hai, jiska abhi naamamaatr ka hi upayog kiya ja saka hai. ativaadi drushti se bachakar bhi laakhon aise saral shabdon ko prayog mein laaya ja sakta hai, jo hindi ki pravrutti ke anukool hain.

antarraashtreeya star par prayog mein aane vaale tatha poorv sveekrut vaigyaanik shabdon ko sveekaar kar lena chaahiye. prayog ke aadhaar par kuchh shabd poorn paaribhaashik (dhvanigraam, sansvan, prakari, dashamlav), kuchh ardhapaaribhaashik, jaise akshar, sangati, aapatti. aitihaasik aadhaar par tatsam, tadbhav ke saath videshi shabdaavali ka vishesh mahattv hai.

vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali aayog

mukhya lekh vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali aayog

svatantrata ke baad vaigyaanik-takaneeki shabdaavali ke liye shiksha mantraalaya ne san 1950 mein board ki sthaapana ki. san 1952 mein board ke tattvaavadhaan mein shabdaavali nirmaan ka kaarya praarambh hua. antat: 1960 mein kendreeya hindi nideshaalaya ki sthaapana hui. is prakaar vibhinn avsaron par taiyaar shabdaavali ko 'paaribhaashik shabd sangrah' sheershak se prakaashit kiya gaya, jiska uddeshya ek or vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali aayog ke samanvaya kaarya ke liye aadhaar pradaan karna tha aur doosari or antarim avadhi mein lekhakon ko nai sankalpanaaon ke liye sarvasammat paaribhaashik shabd pradaan karna tha.

sankshipt roopon dvaara nai shabdaavali

aaj is bhaagadaud ke yug mein har aadmi ki yeh aadat banti ja rahi hai ki kam se kam samay mein kam se kam shabdon mein apne man ke bhaavon ko abhivyakt kare. is svaabhaavik pravrutti ke falasvaroop hi sansthaaon tatha sangathanon ke lambe-lambe naam sankshipt hote ja rahe hain. nai prakaar ki yeh shabdaavali angreji mein 'ekronim' se abhihit ki jaati hai. pratyek kaal mein aise shabd bante rahe hain. kaalaantar mein jab ye shabd bahuprayukt hokar kosh ke antargat apna samuchit sthaan bana lete hain, to praaya: bhool jaate hain ki inka nirmaan is vidhi se hua hoga, jaise angreji 'news'. hindi mein prachalit 'badi' tatha 'sudi' shabd bhi isi prakriya ke falasvaroop hain, 's' sudi: [shu.(shuklapaksh) tatha 'b' bahul (krushnapaksh)] hindi mein ankataad, saim, meedo, seeto, intak, naato, yoonesko aadi paryaapt shabd isi koti ke hain. pichhli baar cheen ke aakraman ke samay nefa, mig tatha radaar teen shabd kaafi prachalit ho gaye. yuddh mein 'lesar', 'mig' prachalit hain, prabandhashaastr mein 'prins' 'part' isi prakaar ke shabd hain. hindi patrakaarita mein prachalit anniaa, urvasi, upoosi, inka, lod isi prakaar ke shabd hain.

hindi ki vibhaasha tatha boliyon ka mahattv

kisi boli ka lokajeevan se abhinn sambandh hai. boliyon ka hi parishkrut, saamaanyeekrut tatha sanskrut roop bhaasha hai. bhaasha ko hi boliyon se hi sahaj shakti praapt hoti hai. ganga ka aadisrot himkhandon se nirmit gomukh hai, usi prakaar hindi ki ganga ko usaki boliyon se saarabhoot tattv tatha praanashakti milti hai. vyaavahaarik lokabhaasha se shabd sangrah karna saral kaarya naheen. lokaboli ke sthaayi tattv lokageet tatha lokakahaaniyon mein samaahit rahate hain. shabd roopon ke srot tatha unke vikaas ki parampara aur saath hi arth vikaas ki shrunkhala nirdhaarit karne mein lokajeevan ka vishesh mahattv hai. boliyon mein jab koi boli shikshit logon ke mukhya nagar ya anya shisht saamaajik varg ki bhaasha ke pad par pratishthit ho jaati hai tab vah maanak bhaasha kahalaati hai.

hindi ka shabd-saamarthya

kis bhaasha ko viksit-vikaasasheel maana jaae aur kisko naheen, iske liye pro॰ fargusan ne badi gaharaai se vichaar kiya hai. likhit roop mein praapt jis bhaasha mein nimnlalikhit visheshataaeain hon vah bhaasha viksit maani jaaegi -

  • (k) aapasi patra-vyavahaar hota ho,
  • (kh) patra-patrikaaen prakaashit hoti hon,
  • (g) maulik pustakon ka lekhan kaarya hota ho,

is kasauti par hindi bilkul khari utarati hai. haaain, unhonne jo aage ki avasthaaeain sveekaar ki hain ki

  • (1) usamein vaigyaanik saahitya nirntar prakaashit hota rahe tatha
  • (2) anya bhaashaaon mein hue vaigyaanik kaarya ka anuvaad tatha saar sankshep prakaashit hota rahe

us drushti se abhi hindi vikaasasheel bhaasha hai aur bhavishya mein usamein anant sanbhaavanaaeain nihit hain.

haugan ne viksit bhaasha ke jo chaar tattv sveekaar kiye hain unamein se 'aadhunikta' par vishesh bal diya hai. 'bhaasha ki aadhunikta' se taatparya hai: shabdaavali mein vruddhi tatha nai shaili tatha abhivyaktiyon ka vikaas. is kasauti par bhi hindi khari utarati hai.

hindi ke suprasiddh kavi tatha vichaarak sachchidaanand heeraanand vaatsyaayan ki maanyata hai ki "bhaasha kalpavruksh hai. jo usase aasthaapoorvak maaainga jaata hai, bhaasha vah deti hai. usase kuchh maaainga hi na jaae kyonki vah ped se lataka hua naheen deekh raha hai, to kalpavruksh bhi kuchh naheen deta."

beesaveen shataabdi ke labdhapratishth bhaashaavid, bloomafeeld ke anusaar

"bhaasha ki shakti athva sampatti roopimon aur vyaakaranimon mein hai (vaakya pratiroopon, sanrachanaaon aur sthaanaapattiyon mein) hai. roopimon aur vyaakaranimon ki sankhya bhaashaavishesh mein hajaaron mein pahuainchati hai. yeh saadhaaranataya maana jaata hai ki bhaasha sampatti vibhinn prayukt shabdon par nirbhar hai kintu yeh sankhya anishchit hai kyonki roopeeya sanrachanaaon ke saadrushya par shabd manachaahe dhang se bante rahate hain." (bhaasha, pru. 332)

vastut: bhaasha moolat: abhivyakti ki sanrachana tatha shabdaavali ka sanyukt roop hai jo paraspar sangumfit hai. shabdaavali aati-jaati, nai banti rahati hai, puraane shabdon mein naveen arth bharate jaate hain, jaise aaj adhikram, adhivakta, abhilekh, abhyarthi, aakhyaapan se sarvatha naveen arthon ki abhivyanjana hoti hai. hindi ki aaksharik sanrachana bhi badi sampann hai. aaksharik saaainchon mein paryaapt rikt sthaan hone ke kaaran vikaas ki abhootapoorv kshamata spasht hoti hai. 'vyanjan svar-vyanjan deergh svar' saaainche mein yadi maatr 'k' tatha 'l' vyanjan kramash: liye jaaeain to 21 sambhav shabd ban sakte hain, jinmein se 19 sthaan rikt pade hue the. in rikt sthaanon mein se chaar sthaanon par kila, kile, kuli, kilo shabd badi aasaani se khap gaye.

ab tak ke pramukh bhaashaavid upayukt sabhi drushtiyon se hindi ki abhootapoorv kshamata tatha saamarthya mein vishvaas karte hain.

  • "hindi isi mitti ki boli hai aur arabi ya faarasi se adhik janamaanas ke nikat hai." - failan
  • "bhaarateeya bhaasha mein koi bhi maanaveeya bhaavana vyakt karne ki poorn saamarthya hai aur vah uchchatam vaigyaanik shiksha ke liye upayukt hai." - krast
  • "hindi ke paas aisa shabd kosh aur abhivyakti ki aisi saamarthya hai, jo angreji se kisi prakaar kam naheen." - 1901 ki janaganana report
  • "yahi (hindi) ek bhaasha hai jismein do vibhinn praanton ke log aapas mein baatcheet kar sakte hain. yeh Bhaarat mein sarvatr samajhi jaati hai, kyonki iska vyaakaran Bhaarat ki adhikaansh bhaashaaon ke samaan hai aur iska shabdakosh sabki sammilit sampatti hai." - griyrsan

bhaarateeya samvidhaan mein (351) hindi ke 'shabd bhandaar ke liye mukhyat: sanskrut se tatha gaunat: anya bhaashaaon se shabdagrahan kar samruddh' karne ki vyavastha hai.

Bhaarat ke liye sanskrut aadhaarit paaribhaashik shabdaavali ka mahatva

  • adhikaansh shabd sabhi bhaarateeyon ke liye parichit hain,
  • shabdon se naye shabd banaane aasaan aur tarkasangat honge, jaise 'koshika' se koshikeeya, koshikaadravya, bahukosheeya, ekakosheeya, koshikaakshaya aadi.
  • jis prakaar svabhaasha mein pathan-paathan se chhaatron mein maulikta aati hai, ratane ki pravrutti par ankush lagta hai; usi prakaar svabhaasha ki shabdaavali se bhi vishay ki gaharaai se samajh paida karne mein sahaayata milti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

lekh

computer program: