paaras

paaras (samskrut: paarasya) Hindustan ke pashchim sindhu nadi aur Afghanistan ke aage padnevaala ek desh. yeh praacheen kaanboj aur vaahleek ke pashchim ka desh tha jiska prataap praacheen kaal mein bahut door-door tak vistrut tha aur jo apni sabhyata aur shishtaachaar ke liye prasiddh chala aata hai.

atyant praacheen kaal se paaras desh aaryon ki ek shaakha ka vaasasthaan tha jiska bhaarateeya aaryon se ghanisht sambandh tha. atyant praacheen vaidik yug mein to paaras se lekar ganga sarayoo ke kinaare tak ki kaali bhoomi aaryabhoomi thi, jo anek predashon mein vibhkt thi. in pradeshon mein bhi kuchh ke saath aarya shabd laga tha. jis prakaar yahaaain aaryaanvart ek pradesh tha usi prakaar praacheen paaras mein bhi aadhunik Afghanistan se laga hua poorveenya pradesh 'ariyaan' ya 'airyaan' (yoonaanee— eriyaana) kahalaata tha jisse Iran shabd bana hai. Iran shabd aaryaavaas ke arth mein saare desh ke liye prayukt hota tha. shaashaanavanshi samraaton ne bhi apne ko 'Iran ke shaahanshaah' kaha hai. padaadhikaariyon ke naamon ke saath bhi 'Iran' shabd milta hai.— jaise 'Iran-spaahapat' (Iran ke sipaahapati ya senaapati), 'Iran anbaarakapat' (Iran ke bhandaari) ityaadi. praacheen paarasi apne naamon ke saath aarya shabd bade gaurav ke saath lagaate the. praacheen samraat daarayavahu (daara) ne apne ko 'ariyputr' likha hai. saradoron ke naamon mein bhi aarya shabd milta hai, jaise, ariyshamn, ariyovarjanis, ityaadi.

praacheen paaras jin kai pradeshon mein bainta tha unamein paaras ki khaadi ke poorvi tat par padnevaala paars ya paarasya pradesh bhi tha jiske naam par aage chalakar saare desh ka naam pada. iski praacheen rajdhani paarasyapur (yoonaani-paarsipolis) thi, jahaaainpar aage chalakar 'ishtakh' basaaya gaya. vaidik kaal mein 'paaras' naam prasiddh naheen hua tha. yeh naam hakhaamaneeya vansh ke samraaton ke samay se, jo paarasya pradesh ke the, saare desh ke liye vyavahrut hone laga. yahi kaaran hai jisse ved aur raamaayan mein is shabd ka pata naheen lagta. par mahaabhaarat, raghuvansh, kathaasaritsaagar aadi mein 'paarasya' aur paaraseekon ka ullekh baraabar milta hai. atyant praacheen yug ke paarasiyon aur vaidik aaryon mein upaasana, karmakaand aadi mein bhed naheen tha. ve agni, soorya vaayu aadi ki upaasana aur agnihotr karte the. mith (mitr = soorya), vaayu (= vaayu), hom (= som), aramaiti (= amati), ahaman (= aryaman), nairyasanh (= naraarshas) aadi unke bhi devata the. be bhi bade bade yashn (yagya) karte, somapaan karte aur athravan (atharvan) naamak yaajak kaath se kaath ragadkar agni utpann karte the.

unki bhaasha bhi usi ek mool aaryabhaasha se utpann thi jisse vaidik aur laukik sanskrut nikli hain. praacheen paarasi aur vaidik sanskrut mein koi vishesh bhed naheen jaan padata. avesta mein bhaarateeya pradeshon aur nadiyon ke naam bhi hain. jaise, haptahindu (saptasindhu = Punjab), harakhveti (sarasvati), harayoo (sarayoo) ityaadi. vedon se pata lagta hai ki kuchh devataaon ko asur sanjnyaa bhi di jaati thi. varun ke liye is sanjnyaa ka prayog kai baar hua hai. saayanaachaarya ne bhaashya mein asur shabd ka arth likha hai— 'amur sarveshaan praanad'. Indra ke liye bhi is sanjnyaa ka prayog do ek jagah milta hai, par yeh bhi likha paaya jaata hai ki 'yeh pad pradaan kiya hua hai'. isse jaan padta hai ki yeh ek vishisht sanjnyaa ho gayi thi. vedon mein kramash: varun peechhe padte gaye hain aur Indra ko pradhaanata praapt hoti gayi hai. saath hi saath asur shabd bhi kam hota gaya hai. peechhe to asur shabd raaksham, daitya ke arth mein hi milta hai. isse jaan padta hai ki devopaasak aur asuropaasak ye do paksh aaryon ke beech ho gaye the. paaras ki or jarathustr (aadhu0 faarasi : jaratusht) naamak ek rishi ya ritvik (jota / sanskrut : hota) hue jo asuropaasakon ke paksh ke the. inhonne apni shaakha hi alag kar li aur 'jand avasta' ke naam se use chalaaya. yahi 'jand avasta' paarasiyon ka dharmagranth hua.

'jand avasta' mein Dave shabd daitya ke arth mein aaya hai. Indra ya vrutrahan (jand, vereyaghn) daityon ka raaja kaha gaya hai. shashrorv (sharv) aur naahanitya (naasatya) bhi daitya kahe gaye hain. anghr (angirs?) naamak agniyaajakon ki prashansa ki gayi hai aur somapaan ki ninda. upaasya ahuramajd (sarvajnya asur) hai, jo dharm aur satyasvaroop hai. ahraman (aryaman) adharm aur paap ka adhishthaata hai. is prakaar jarayustr ne dharm aur adharm do dvandv shaktiyon ki sookshm kalpana ki aur shuddhaachaar ka upadesh diya. jarathustr ke prabhaav se paaras mein kuchh kaal ke liye ek ahurmajd ki upaasana sthaapit hui aur bahut se devataaon ki upaasana aur karmakaand kam hua. par janta ka satosh is sookshm vichaaravaale dharm se poora poora naheen hua. shaashaanon ke samay mein mag yaajakon aur purohiton sa prabhaav badha tab bahut se sthool devataaon ki upaasana fir jyon ki tyon jaari ho gayi aur karmakaand ki jatilta fir vahi ho gayi. ye pichhli paddhatiyaaain bhi 'jand apasta' mein bi mil gayi.

'jand avasta' mein bhi ved ke samaan gaatha (gaath) aur manthr (manth) hain. iske kai vibhaag hain jinmein 'gaath' sabse praacheen aur jarathustr ke muainh se nikla hua maana jaata hai. ek bhaag ka naam 'yashn' hai jo vaidik 'yagya' shabd ka roopaantar maatr hai. vispard, yast (vaidik ishti), bandidaad aadi iske aur vibhaag hain. badidaad mein jarayustr aur ahuramajd ka dharm sambandh mein samvaad hai. 'avasta' ki bhaasha, visheshat: gaatha ki, padhne mein ek prakaar ki apabhransh vaidik sanskrut si prateet hoti hai. kuchh mantra to vedamantron se bilkul milte julate hain. daaktar haag ne yeh samaanata udaaharanon se bataai hai aur dau॰ mils ne kai gaathaaon ka vaidik sanskrut mein jyon ka tyon roopaantar kiya hai. jarathustr rishi kab hue the iska nishchaya naheen ho saka hai. par ismein sandeh naheen ki ye atyant praacheen kaal mein hue the. shaashaanon ke samay mein jo 'avasta' par bhaashya svaroop anek granth bane unamein se ek mein vyaas hindi ka paaras mein jaana likha hai. sambhav hai vedavyaas aur jarathustr samakaaleen hon.