paaramparik sangeet

inhein bhi dekhein: Indigenous music

saaaincha:Infobox Music genre

Grammy avaards ki shabdaavali mein ab paaramparik sangeet shabd ka prayog "lok sangeet " ke sthaan par kiya jaata hai. is badlaav ka poorn vivran vishv sangeet lekh ke shabdaavali anubhaag mein paaya ja sakta hai. anya sangathanon ne isi tarah ke parivartan kiye hain, haalaanki gair-shaikshanik halakon mein, tatha seedi bechne waali kai websiton par, "lok sangeet" vaakyaansh ka prayog bahut saare arthon mein kiya jaata hai.

anukram

visheshataaon ki vyaakhya

aitihaasik drushtikon se, paaramparik sangeet ki nimn visheshataaen theen:

  • ise maukhik parampara ke maadhyam se sanchaarit kiya jaata tha.
beesaveen sadi se pehle, khet mein kaam karne vaale aam majadoor aur kaarkhaane ke karmachaari anapadh the. ve gaanon ko yaad kar ke unhein apnaate the. jaahir hai, ismein kitaabon, record geeton (kaiset ya seedi) ya prasaaran media (Internet) ki koi bhoomika naheen thi. gaayak bade postaron, gaanon ki pustakon ya seedi ki sahaayata se apne pradarshanon ki soochi ka vistaar kar sakte hain, lekin ye maadhyamik sanvarddhan vahi ehsaas dilaate hain jo maulik geeton ko sun kar milta tha.
  • sangeet aksar raashtreeya sanskruti se sambandhit hota tha.
yeh vishesh roop se saanskrutik tha - arthaat kisi vishesh

kshetr ya sanskruti se sambandhit tha. ek aapravaasi samooh ke sandarbh mein, saamaajik saamanjasya ke liye lok sangeet ko ek atirikt aayaam praapt hai. aisa sanyukt raajya America mein vishesh roop se adhik spasht hai, jahaan polish mool ke ameriki, aayarish mool ke ameriki aur Asiaee ameriki mukhya dhaara se alag hone ka purajor prayaas kar rahe hain. ve moolat: un deshon se sambandhit geet aur nrutya seekheinge jahaan se unke bujurg aae hain.

  • ve (paaramparik sangeet) aitihaasik aur vyaktigat ghatnaaon ka smaran karaate hain.
istar, May diwas aur christmas ho (Christmas hoe) jaise saal ke kuchh khaas dinon mein vishesh geeton dvaara vaarshik chakr manaaya jaata hai. shaadiyon, janmadin tatha mrutyu samaarohon mein gaanon, nrutyon aur vishesh veshabhoosha ka melajol dekha ja sakta hai. dhaarmik utsavon mein lok sangeet ek ghatak ke roop mein aksar paaya jaata hai. bhajan sangeet ke in aayojanon mein bachchon aur gair-peshevar gaayakon ko saarvajanik manch par bhaag lene ka avsar milta hai, jisse ek aise bhaavanaatmak sambandh ki anubhooti hoti hai, jiska sangeet ke saundaryabodhak gunon ke saath koi sambandh naheen hai.

ek dushprabhaav ke roop mein, kabhi-kabhi nimnalikhit visheshataaen pai jaati hain:

  • geeton ka kaupeeraait na hona
unneesaveen sadi ke aise sainkadon geet hain jinke lekhak gyaat hain. haalaanki, sangeet prakaashan ke prayojanon ke liye, ve "paaramparik" kahe jaane ki seema tak maukhik parampara ke roop mein inhein jaari rakhe hue hain. 1970 ke baad se aisa lagaataar kam hota gaya hai. aaj, record kiye jaane vaale lagbhag har lok geet ke liye ek vyavastha ko shreya diya jaata hai, udaaharan ke roop mein " trade arr daayalaan" (Trad arr Dylan).
  • sanskrutiyon ka mishran
jis prakaar alag-alag mahaadveepon se sambandh rakhane vaale abhibhaavakon ke bachchon ki mishrit prushthabhoomi ho sakti hai, usi prakaar sangeet mein bhi prabhaavon ka mishran ho sakta hai. ek vishesh roop se taalabaddh paitarn, ya ek vishesh vaadya yantr, sangeet ko ek paaramparik ehsaas dene ke liye paryaapt hai, chaahe ise haal hi mein racha gaya ho. sangeet ki chhoti si dhun mein baigapaaip ya tabale ki pehchaan karna aasaan hai. is prakaar gaanon ko halka fulka banaane ya is tareeke se unhein sunane se aam taur par yuva kam asahaj mahasoos karte hain. isi tarah ek puraane gaane mein ek ilektrik gitaar ka prayog kiya ja sakta hai. yeh apni niji pasand par nirbhar karta hai ki isse sangeet ki sundarata badhti hai ya yeh ek ghatiya nautanki hai. praasangik kaarakon mein vaadya yantr, raag, svar, vaakya shaili, vishay aur nirmaan ke tareeke bhi shaamil ho sakte hain.
  • gair-vyavasaayik
saanskrutik pehchaan samaaroh ka pradarshan kabhi-kabhi bina kisi laabh ke maksad ke kiya jaata hai. ateet mein aayojak ke liye vitteeya inaam ka na hona atyant saamaanya tha.

paaramparik sangeet ke vishay

armeniyaai paramparaagat sangeetakaar

vaadyayantr sangeet ke atirikt, jo ki paaramparik sangeet, vishesh roop se nrutya sangeet paranparaaon ka ek hissa hai, adhikaansh paaramparik sangeet gaayan sangeet hai, kyonki aise sangeet ki rachana mein prayukt hone vaale vaadya yantr aam taur par aasaan hain. isliye adhikaansh paaramparik sangeet mein saarthak bol hain.

kai sanskrutiyon ke paaramparik sangeet mein kathaatmak chhand milte hain. yeh paaramparik mahaakaavya ka roop le lete hain, moolat iska adhikaansh hissa maukhik pradarshan se sambandhit tha, jisme kabhi-kabhi vaadya yantron ka bhi prayog kiya jaata tha. vibhinn sanskrutiyon ke kai mahaakaavya paaramparik kathaatmak chhandon ke chhote hisson ko jod kar banaae gaye the, jo unki praasangik sanrachana ka varnan karte hain aur aksar uname kathaanak ke vikaas ka samaavesh hota hai. paramparaagat kathaatmak chhandon ke anya roop yuddhon tatha anya traasadiyon ya praakrutik aapadaaon ke parinaamon se sambandhit hain. kabhi-kabhi, jaise ki baaibal ki book of jajes (Book of Judges) mein milne vaale vijayi geet song of debora mein, ye geet vijay ka jashn manaate hain. kai paranparaaon mein haari gayi ladaaiyon aur yuddhon, tatha unamein marne vaalon ke liye kiye jaane vaale geet roopi vilaap utane hi pramukh hain; ye vilaap us kaaran ki yaad dilaate hain jiske liye yuddh lada gaya tha. paaramparik geeton ki kathaatmak vyaakhyaaen John henari se le kar raubin hud jaise lok naayakon ko yaad karti hain. kuchh paaramparik geeton mein kahi gayi kathaaen alaukik ghatnaaon ya rahasyamaya mauton ki yaad dilaati hain.

bhajan aur dhaarmik sangeet ke anya prakaar aksar paaramparik aur agyaat mool ke hote hain. pashchimi sangeet chihnon ko mool roop se gregoriyn mantra ki laainon ko yaad rakhane ke liye sanrakshit rakhane ke liye banaaya gaya tha, jo apne avishkaar se pehle math samudaayon mein maukhik parampara ke roop mein padhaae jaate the. green gro the rashes, O (Green grow the rushes, O) jaise paaramparik gaane yaad rakhane vaale dhang se dhaarmik vidya pradaan karte hain. pashchimi duniya mein, christmas Carol tatha anya paaramparik gaane dhaarmik vidya ko geet ke roop mein sanrakshit rakhate hain.

kaam se sambandhit geet aksar pukaar aur javaab sambandhi sanrachanaaon ko pradarshit karte hain aur is dhang se design kiye gaye hain ki unhein gaane vaale shramik gaanon ki laya ke saath apne kaam ka samanvaya kar sakein. ve aksar, lekin hamesha naheen, sangeetabaddh kiye jaate hain. ameriki sashastr balon mein, sainikon ke March ke dauraan jaudi call ("Duckworth mantra") ki ek jeevant parampara gaai jaati hai. peshevar naavikon ne samudri lokageeton ke ek bade hisse ka prayog kiya hai. prem kavitaaen, jo aksar dukhad ya khedajanak prakruti ki hoti hain, kai lok paranparaaon ka ek aham hissa hain. nursery kavitaaen hai aur nirrthak kavitaaen bhi paaramparik geeton ke aksar chune jaane vaale vishay hain.

paaramparik sangeet mein bhinnata

inhein bhi dekhein: List of folk music traditions
Koreai paaramparik sangeetakaar
cheeni paaramparik sangeetakaar

ek samudaaya ke maadhyam se maukhik roop se sanchaarit hone vaale sangeet mein, aane vaale samay mein, kai bhinnataaon ka vikaas hoga, kyonki is prakaar ke sancharan ke liye sateek shabd aur vyaakhya banaana sambhav naheen hai. daraasal, kai paaramparik gaayak kaafi rachanaatmak hain aur ve jaan-boojhakar seekhi gayi jaankaari ko sanshodhit karte hain.

udaaharan ke liye, "I'm A main you dont meet evari de" (roud 975) ke shabd bodaleiyan laaibreri ke poster (kaagaj ki ek badi sheet) se liye gaye hain.[1] tithi lagbhag nishchit roop se 1900 se pehle ki hai aur yeh (geet) aayarish lagta hai. 1958 mein Canada mein ek geet record kiya gaya tha (maai name ij pait end I em praaud of dait). jaini robertasan ne 1961 mein record hone wala agala sanskaran banaaya. usane apne ek rishtedaar "jauk steevart" ke liye ise badal diya hai aur ismein koi aayarish sandarbh naheen hai. 1976 mein aarchi fishr ne jaanboojhkar goli se marne ja rahe kutte ka sandarbh hataane ke liye geet mein parivartan kiya. 1985 mein the pogs ne sabhi aayarish sandarbhon ko bahaal karke yeh chakr poorn kiya.

kyonki bhinnataaen svaabhaavikta ko badhaati hain, isliye aisa maanana moorkhata hai ki baarabara elan. jaise ek gaatha geet ka koi ekal praamaanik "sanskaran" maujood hai. paaramparik geeton ke anusandhaanakartaaon ko (neeche dekhein) angreji bhaashi duniya mein is gaatha geet ke anginat sanskaran mile hain aur aksar ye sanskaran ek doosare se kaafi alag hain. koi bhi majbooti se mool geet hone ka daava naheen kar sakta aur bahut sambhav hai ki jo kuchh bhi "mool" geet tha, vah sadiyon pehle gaaya jaata tha. koi bhi sanskaran praamaanikta ke liye tab tak samaan daava kar sakta hai, jab tak yeh poori tarah se ek paaramparik gaayan samudaaya se sambandhit hai aur is par kisi baahari sampaadak ne koi badlaav naheen kiya hai.

sesil sharp ke paas lok sangeet mein badlaav ke baare mein ek prabhaavashaali vichaar tha: unhonne mahasoos kiya ki ek paaramparik geet ke sanskaran taiyaar karne ki hod ek jaivik praakrutik chayan ke sadrush thi: keval ve nae sanskaran jo saadhaaran gaayakon ko sarvaadhik aakarshit karte the, ko doosaron dvaara chuna jaata tha aur samay ke saath badlaav ke saath sanchaarit kiya jaata tha. is prakaar, samay beetane ke saath ham ek paaramparik geet mein saundaryabodh ke aur adhik aakarshak hone ki ummeed kareinge - kyonki yeh saamoohik roop se samudaaya dvaara apne sarvottam svaroop mein bana hoga.

doosari or, is drushtikon ke samarthan ke liye bhi saboot maujood hain ki paaramparik geeton mein badlaav ghatiya ho sakta hai. kabhi-kabhi, sangruhit paaramparik geet ke sanskaranon mein alag-alag geeton se li gayi jaankaari ya chhand is prakaar ke hote hain jinka iske sandarbh ke saath bahut kam sambandh hota hai. saaraah kleevalaind (bi 1905) ek sammaanit paaramparik aayarish-ameriki gaayika hain. unke geet "let no main steel yor thaaim" ke sanskaran mein ek anya geet - "seeds of love" ka mishran hai. (saaraah ka sanskaran). donon geeton mein foolon ka ullekh hai, lekin vishay kaafi alag hai. isi tarah, kai paaramparik geeton ko keval tukade ke roop mein hi jaana jaata hai. shaayad ek aadh maamale mein keval ek ya do panktiyaan record ki gayi hain.

kshetreeya bhinnataaen

yadyapi duniya bhar mein lokapriya sangeet ko badhaava milne ke kaaran paaramparik sangeet ka hraas ho raha hai, kintu aisa duniya bhar mein ek samaan dar se naheen ho raha hai. jabki kai aadivaasi sanskrutiyaan paaramparik sangeet aur lok sangeet ko kho rahi hain, yeh prakriya un kshetron mein sarvaadhik teevr gati se ho rahi hai "jahaaain sanskruti ka audyogeekaran evam vyaavasaayeekaran sabse unnatahain".[2] fir bhi un deshon ya kshetron mein, jahaan paramparaagat sangeet saanskrutik ya raashtreeya pehchaan ko darshaata hai, paaramparik sangeet ke nuksaan ko dheema kiya ja sakta hai; aisa sach mein ho sakta hai, udaaharan ke liye jaise Bangladesh, Hungary, Bhaarat, Ireland, laataviya, Turkey, Portugal, britteni tatha gailisiya, yoonaan tatha kareet ke maamale mein, jo kuchh had tak apne paaramparik sangeet ko bachaae hue hain, kuchh kshetron mein paaramparik sangeet ke star mein giraavat aur sanskruti mein hraas ko roka gaya hai. yeh vahaan sabse adhik spasht hai jahaan paryatak agencyon dvaara kuchh kshetron ko "keltik" naam diya gaya hai. Ireland, Scotland, kaurnavaal, britteni tatha nova skotiya ki maargadarshak pustakon tatha ishtehaaron mein sangeet pradarshanon ke seedhe prasaaran/shravan ka ullekh hai. sthaaneeya sarkaar aksar paryatan satron ke dauraan aise aayojanon ko praayojit karke tatha badhaava de kar khoi hui parampara ko purnajeevit karti hai.

paaramparik sangeet mein shodh aur chhaatravrutti

19 veen sadi ka Europe

19veen sadi ki shuruaat mein, ismein roochi rakhane vaale logon - shikshaavidon aur shaukiya vidvaanon - ne is baat par dhyaan dena shuroo kiya ki ve kya kho rahe the aur unhonein logon ke sangeet ko bachaane ke liye kai prayaas kiye. aisa hi ek prayaas 19veen sadi ke ant mein Francis James child ka sangrah tha, jo angreji tatha Scott paranparaaon ke teen sau se adhik gaathaageeton ka granth tha (jise child baalaad kehte hain). 1960 ke dauraan aur 1970 ke dashak ke madhya ki shuruaat mein, ameriki vidvaan bartreind hairis braunsan ne us samay ke lekhon tatha dhunon mein badlaavon ka chaar-bhaagon ka ek vistrut sangrah prakaashit kiya, jise child kainan ke roop mein jaana gaya. kehne sunane ki parampara ke kaamkaaj ke siddhaanton ke sambandh mein bhi usane mahatvapoorn pragati ki.

child ke samakaaleen shraddheya sabeen bering-guld tatha iske baad evam vishesh roop se sesil sharp aae jinhonein 20veen sadi ki shuruaat mein angreji ke graameen paaramparik geet, sangeet va nrutya ki mahaan viraasat ke sanrakshan ke liye english folk dance end song society (angreji lok nrutya tatha geet sanstha) (iऍfdeeesaes/EFDSS) ke tattvaadhaan mein kaam kiya. sharp ne America mein bhi kaam karte hue maud kaarpels evam oliv dem Campbell ke saath mil kar 1916-1918 mein eppalaachiyn parvaton ke paaramparik geeton ki rikaurding ki. aadhunik film "saungakaichar" mein abhinetaaon dvaara Campbell aur sharp ka pratinidhitv doosare naamon se kiya gaya hai.

anya deshon mein bhi isi prakaar ki gatividhi chal rahi thi. reega mein sabse vyaapak kaam shaayad krisjanis barons dvaara 1894 evam 1915 ke beech chhah sanskaranon ko prakaashit kar ke kiya gaya jisme 217 996 laataviyaai lok geeton, laatvjoo denaas (Latvju dainas) ke lekh the.

is samay ke aaspaas, shaastreeya sangeet ke sangeetakaaron ne paaramparik geeton ke sangrah mein atyadhik roochi dikhaai aur kai jaane maane sangeetakaaron ne khud paaramparik geeton par gahan kaarya kiya. inmein England ke parsi greinjar evam raulf vaun Williams tatha Hungary ke bela bartok shaamil the. in sangeetakaaron ne, apne kai poorvavartiyon ki tarah, apni shaastreeya rachanaaon mein paaramparik jaankaari ko shaamil kiya. laatvijoo denaas (Latviju dainas) ka prayog vyaapak roop se endrej juraans, jenis simj tatha emilis melngailis ke shaastreeya bhajanon mein kiya jaata hai.

uttari America

uttari America mein 1930 va 1940 ke dashak ke dauraan, laaibreri of kaaaingres ne paaramparik sangeet sangrahakartaaon Robert vinslo Gordon, elan lomeks tatha anyon ke kaaryaalayon ke maadhyam se uttari America ke kshetr se sambandhit yatha sambhav jaankaari praapt ki.

paaramparik geet ka adhyayan karne vaale logon ne kabhi aasha vyakt ki thi ki unke kaam ke dvaara logon mein paaramparik sangeet bahaal hoga. udaaharan ke liye, sesil sharp ne schooli bachchon ko angreji paaramparik geet (uske apne atyadhik sanpaadit tatha sudhaare gaye sanskaranon dvaara) sikhaane ke liye chalaae gaye abhiyaan dvaara kuchh safalta praapt ki.

ek vishay, jo vidvaanon ke paaramparik geet sangrah ki mahaan avadhi ke dauraan chalta raha hai, "lok" sangeet ke kuchh sadasyon ki pravrutti par aadhaarit hai, jinse aasha ki jaati thi ki ve adhyayan ka uddeshya baneinge, taaki ve swayam hi vidvaan ban sakein aur apne paksh ko badhaava de sakein. udaaharan ke liye jeen richi vaaipar, keintuki ke bade parivaar ki sabse chhoti bachchi thi jisne eppaalaachiyn kshetr ke kai puraane paaramparik geeton ka sanrakshan kiya. richi us samay hui thi jab eppaalaachiyn baahari duniya ke sampark mein aae hi the, usane university se padhaai ki thi aur antat: New York shahar mein sthaanaantarit ho gayi, jahaan usane parivaar ke pradarshanon ki kai classic rikaarding banaain tatha in geeton ka ek mahatvapoorn sankalan prakaashit kiya. (hedi vest bhi dekhein)

beesaveen sadi ke adhikaansh samay uttari ameriki lokageet aur paaramparik geeton ke baare mein ek aur mahatvapoorn mudda yeh tha ki kya maukhik roop se sanchaarit ki jaane waali jaankaari rupaankanon ki shrrunkhala mein (nyoonakaari drushtikon) ke roop mein pradaan ki jaae ya fir poore geet ke roop mein (samagr drushtikon) pradaan ki jaae, jisme pehle wala drushtikon baad vaale se pehle ghatit ho gaya aur apne udbhav ke samay donon drushtikonon ne seekhane ke prachalit manovaigyaanik siddhaanton ko parilkshit kiya. sangeet vidvaanon ke beech nyoonakaari drushtikon ka ek pramukh vakta George pulen Jackson tha, jisne 1930 aur 1940 ke dashak mein, "taanayukt aavaran" ya vilkshan sangeetamaya dhunon ke chihnon ki avadhaarana sthaapit ki aur iska bachaav kiya, jo aksar prayog mein laae jaane ke kaaran sangrah ki vastu ban gaye aur nai dhunon ko taiyaar karne tatha maujooda dhunon ko sanshodhit karne ki prakriya mein kadi ban gaye. 1950 mein, saimyual prestan beyard ne apne dam par kathan aur bhaavon dvaara sangeet vigyaan ki duniya sthaapit karte hue spasht roop se yeh kehte hue samagr drushtikon ka bachaav kiya ki sangeet ko yaad karne aur doharaane ki prakriyaaen us tarah se kaam naheen karateen jaise ki Jackson tatha anya kalpana karte hain. beyard ne gestaalt sangeet vigyaan, jo sadi ke madhya mein lokapriya ban gaya tha, ke havaale se tark diya ki vaakyaansh jaisi badi sanrachanaatmak ikaaiyaan tatha yahaan tak ki poori dhun bhi mote taur par roop-rekha ke roopaatmak niyamon ka paalan karti hain tatha yeh ki poorn sangeetamaya dhun ki vakreeya rekhaaen, na ki laya ke chhote namoone, hi paaramparik sangeetakaar ke mastishk mein smruti chihnon ke roop mein shaamil ho paati hain. in vichaaron ko apnaaya gaya, vibhinn tareekon se sanshodhit kiya gaya aur sirvaart polaadiyn tatha anyon dvaara pun: prastut kiya gaya.

nyoonakaari aur samagr drushtikonon ka sanyojan

1960 aur 70 ke dashak mein bartreind baraunsan aur anyon ne is dhaarana par kaam shuroo kiya ki yeh prakriya na to poori tarah se nyoonakaari ho sakti thi aur na hi samagr, apitu yeh in donon ka jatil mishran thi, jabki inhein aakaar dene mein musical skel ka bhi yogadaan tha. is vichaar tatha isse milte julate vichaaron ka prayog karke ek nishkarsh par pahunchate hue, kintu saath hi puraane drushtikonon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue tatha apni khud ke vistrut vishleshan ko ismein jodte hue, 1980 ke dashak mein sangeetavijnyaaani J. maarshal bevil ne sangeetamaya peedhi, prasaaran, aatmasaat karne tatha fir se smaran karne ka siddhaant viksit kiya evam ise prastut kiya, jisme samagr drushtikon ke mahattv ko pahachaana gaya kintu saath hi smruti sahaayak tatha sandarbh binduon ke roop mein faarmoolaabaddh khand ke praarambh tatha samaapan (jise usane praathamik sales kaha) ke mahattv par bhi jor diya, jisme bade khandon mein aur adhik parivrtanasheel praarambh tatha samaapan vaakyaansh the (maadhyamik sales) jo kam mahattv ke the lekin fir bhi poori tarah se nakaarane yogya chhoti ikaai ke roop mein naheen the. unhonein aage kaha ki dhunon ki shrrunkhala (arthaat, skel) ke beech pratikriya dvaara shaasit kehne-sunane ki prakriya paaramparik geet ke svaroop tatha vishesh dhun, khand tatha paaramparik sangeetamaya prakaar ki vaakyaansh ruparekha se judi thi. in drushtikonon tatha sangeet ki visheshataaon, jinki vah jaanch kar rahe the, jo ki mukhyat: ameriki dakshini pahaadon (dakshini eppalaachiya, smoki parvat ityaadi) ke gaathaageet tatha paaramparik bhajanon ki dhunein theen, ke aadhaar par bevil ne tulanaatmak sangeetamaya vishleshan ki ek pranaali ka vikaas kiya jisne kai bhaashaavidon, vishesh roop se kriyaatmak vyaakaran ko sthaapit karne vaale noam chomski tatha anyon ko aakarshit kiya. vistrut vishleshan prakriya mein shaamil aankadon ko teevrata tatha sateekata se sambhaalne ke liye unhonne ek deskataup computer software ka dhaancha bhi taiyaar kiya tatha dhunon ke beech prakruti ki jhalak tatha samaanata ki had utpann karne ke liye kramaadeshit maanakon ka ek set laagoo kiya. unhonein apne nishkarshon ko peeech.di. shodhapatr (uttar Texas vishvavidyaalaya, 1984) dvaara 1986 ke ek lekh mein, jo vishesh roop se paaramparik sangeet skel ke mudde ko samarpit tha tatha 1987 ke ek adhyayan mein prakaashit kiya, jisme usi kshetr ke aapravaasiyon ke dhunon mein badlaav ka sangrah tha jiski yaatra sesil sharp ne sattar saal pehle ki thi. tab se hi bevil ne is lokapriya kshetr se vartamaan aur puraane sangeet ke apne siddhaanton ka vistaar kiya hai aur yeh jaanch ki hai ki yeh kaise anubhav kiya jaata hai, pahachaana jaata hai tatha yaad kiya jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

diskograafi

  • Harry smith ki ameriki lok sangeet
  • logon ki aavaaj (UK paaramparik lok sangeet)
  • Fieldrecorder.com ameriki paramparaagat shaili

sandarbh

nots

  1. Bodley24 OX.ac.uk
  2. elisn vardi, eight al. paaramparik sangeet ke pej ke baare mein, keltik veena sheet sangeet site. 16 fravari 2007 se ekses.

aage padhein

  • english fauk songs fraum the southern appailaashins . sesil J sharp dvaara ekatrit. Ed. maud karpeles. 1932. London. Oxford university press.
  • karpeles, maud. ain introduction too english fok song . 1973. oksaford. Oxford university press.
  • tej, sesil. folk song: sam kanklusans . 1907. Charles nadi ki pustakein
  • bronsan, bartreind hairis. the bailaad S song (Berkeley: California vishvavidyaalaya press, 1969).
  • bronsan, bartreind hairis. the tredishnal tyoons of the child bailaads, vith diyr teksts, akording too the ekstant rikaurds of great Britain aind North America, 4 sanskaran (prinsatan aur Berkeley: prinsatan vishvavidyaalaya aur California ke vishvavidyaalaya, 1959, ऍfऍf.)
  • bronsan, bartreind hairis. the singing tredishn of child's popular bailaads (prinsatan: prinsatan vishvavidyaalaya press, 1976).
  • polaadiyn, sirvaart. "melodik kontur in tredishnal myujik." journal of the intaranaishanal fauk myujik kaaunsil III (1951), 30-34.
  • polaadiyaan, sirvaart. "the praublamaof melodik veriyeshan in faukasaung," journal paf American faukalor (1942), 204-211.
  • rookasbaai, rikki, Dr vik gaiman eight al. the fauk haindabuk . (2007). baikabeet

baahari links

saaaincha:Folk music saaaincha:Traditional beliefs