paara


paara / Mercury
raasaayanik tatv
Hg,80.jpg
namoona
raasaayanik chinh: Hg
parmaanu sankhya: 80
raasaayanik shrunkhala: sankraman dhaatu
Hg-TableImage.png

aavart saarani mein sthiti
Electron shell 080 Mercury.svg
electronic dhaancha
anya bhaashaaon mein naam: Mercury (angreji)
saadhaaran taap par paara drav roop mein hota hai.
paare ka ayask

paara ya paarad (sanket: Hg) aavart saarini ke di-block ka antim tatv hai. iska parmaanu kramaank 80 hai. iske saat sthir samasthaanik gyaat hain, jinki dravyamaan sankhyaaeain 196, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202 aur 204 hain. inke atirikt teen asthir samasthaanik, jinki dravyamaan sankhyaaeain 195, 197 tatha 205 hain, krutrim saadhanon se nirmit kiye gaye hain. raasaayanik jagat mein keval yahi dhaatu saadhaaran taap aur daab par drav roop hoti hai.

anukram

parichay

drav roop aur chaaaindi ke samaan chamakadaar hone ke kaaran puraatan yug se paarad kautoohal ka vishay raha hai. lagbhag 1,500 isavi poorv mein bane misr ke makabaron mein paarad praapt hua hai. Bhaarat mein is tatv ka praacheen kaal se varnan hua hai. charak sanhita mein do sthaanon par ise 'ras' aur 'rasottam' naam se sambodhit kiya gaya hai. vaagbhat ne aushadh banaane mein paarad ka varnan kiya hai. vrund ne siddhayog mein keetamaarak aushadhiyon mein paarad ka upayog bataaya hai. taantrik kaal (700 E. se lekar 1300 E.) mein paarad ka bahut ullekh milta hai. is kaal mein paarad ko bahut mahatta di gayi. paarad ki oshadhiyaaain shareer ki vyaadhiyaaain door karne ke liye sanstut ki gayi hain. taantrik kaal ke granthon mein paarad ke liye 'ras' shabd ka upayog hua hai. is kaal ki pustakon ke anusaar paarad se na keval anya dhaatuon ke gun sudhar sakte hain varan usamein manushya ke shareer ko ajar banaane ki shakti hai. naagaarjun dvaara likhit rasaratnasamuchchaya naamak granth mein paarad ki anya dhaatuon se shuddh karne tatha usase bani anek oshadhiyon ka vistrut varnan milta hai. tatpashchaat anya granthon mein paarad ki bhasmon tatha anya yaugikon ka prachur varnan raha hai.

paare ka varnan cheen ke praacheen granthon mein bhi hua hai. yoonaan ke daarshanik thiofrestas ne isa se 300 varsh poorv 'drav chaaaindi' (quicksilver) ka ullekh kiya tha, jise sinebaar (HgS) ko sirke se milaane se praapt kiya gaya tha. budh (Mercury) grah ke aadhaar par is tatv ka naam 'marakari' rakha gaya. iska raasaayanik sanket (Hg) laitin shabd haaidraarajirm (hydrargyrum) par aadhaarit hai.

paarad mukt avastha mein yadaakada milta hai, parantu iska mukhya ayask sinebaar (HgS) hai, jo visheshakar Spain, amareeka, Mexico, Japan, cheen aur madhya Europe mein milta hai. sinebaar ko vaayu mein okseekrut karne par paarad mukt ho jaata hai.

gunadharm

paarad shvet rang ki chamakadaar drav dhaatu hai, jiske mukhya bhautik gunadharm nimnaankit hain :

  • sanket : Hg
  • paramaanusankhya : 80
  • paramaanubhaar : 200.59
  • galanaank : - 38.89 degree seinlsiys
  • kvathanaank : 356.58 degree celcius
  • ghanatv : 13.546 gram prati ghan seinmi. (20 degree celcius par)
  • kraantik taap : 1,460 degri celcius
  • sangalan ki gupt ushma : 2.7 kailari
  • paramaanuvyaas : 3.1 engsatraam
  • aayaneekaran vibhv : 10.434 eV
  • vidyut pratirodhakata : 94.1 maaikroom-seinmi. (0 degree sein. par)

paarad anek dhaatuon se milkar mishradhaatu banaata hai, jinhein amalagam (amalgam) kehte hain. sodiym tatha anya kshaareeya dhaatuon ke amalagam apachaayak (reducing agent) hone ke kaaran anek raasaayanik kriyaaon mein upayogi siddh hue hain.

paarad vaayu mein aprabhaavit rahata hai, parantu garam karne par yeh oksaaid ya (HgO) banta hai, jo adhik uchch taap par fir vightit ho jaata hai. yeh tanu naaitrik aml aur garam saandr salfyoorik aml mein ghul jaata hai. paarad ke do sanyojakata (1 aur 2) ke yaugik praapt hain. iske lavanon ka aayaneekaran nyoon maatra mein hota hai. iske do kloraaid yaugik praapt hain. inmein se ek marakyooras kloraaid athva kailomel, (Hg2Cl2) hai, jiska bhaarateeya granthon mein 'karpooraras' aur 'shvetabhasm' ke naam se varnan hai. doosra marakyoorik kloraaid, athva kerosiv sablimet, (HgCl2), hain, jo vishaila padaarth hai. paarad ke yaugik adhiktar vishaile hote hain, parantu nyoon maatra mein aushadh roop mein diye jaate hain.

paarad ke marakyooras (1 sanyojakataavaale) aur marakyoorik (2 sanyojakata vaale), donon lavan, jatil yaugik (complex compunds) banaate hain. nesalar ka abhikrmak (Nessler's reagent) bhi ek jatil yaugik hai, jo marakyoorik kloraaid, (HgCl2) par potaishiym aayodaaid, (KI), ki prakriya se banta hai. yeh amoniya ki sookshm maatra ke vishleshan mein kaam aata hai.

upayog

bairomeetar ka paarad stambh

drav avastha, uchch ghanatv aur nyoon vaashpadabaav ke kaaran paarad ka upayog tharmaameetar, bairomeetar, mainomeetar tatha anya maapak upakaranon mein hota hai. paarad ka upayog anek lapon tatha visrjan nalikaaon mein bhi hota hai. aisi aasha hai ki parmaanu oorja dvaara chaalit yantron mein paarad ka upayog badhega, kyonki iske vaashp dvaara ooshma sthaanaantaran sugamata se ho sakta hai. paarad ke spectrum ki hari rekha ko tarangadairdhya maapan mein maanak maana gaya hai.

paarad ke anek yaugik aushadh roop mein upayogi hain. marakyoorik kloraaid, beinjoet, saayanaaid, sailisilet, aayodaaid aadi keetaanunaashak gunavaale yaugik hain. marakyoorokrom chot aadi mein bahudha lagaaya jaata hai. iske kuchh yaugik charmarogon mein laabhakaari siddh hue hain. paaradavaashp shvaas dvaara shareer mein pravesh kar haani karta hai. is kaaran paarad ke saath kaarya karne mein saavadhaani baratani chaahiye. paarad ke yaugik bahudha vishaile hote hain, jinke dvaara mrutyu ho sakti hai. yadi akasmaat koi inhein kha le, to turant daaktar ko bulaana chaahiye. doodh ya kachcha anda khilaakar, gaistrik nalika (gastric tube) dvaara pet ki sheegra safaai karne se vish ka prabhaav kam ho jaata hai.

chitradeergha