paanini

paanini (500 E poo) sanskrut bhaasha ke sabse bade vaiyaakaran hue hain. inka janm tatkaaleen uttar pashchim Bhaarat ke gaandhaar mein hua tha. inke vyaakaran ka naam ashtaadhyaayi hai jismein aath adhyaaya aur lagbhag chaar sahasr sootr hain. sanskrut bhaasha ko vyaakaran sammat roop dene mein paanini ka yogadaan atulaneeya maana jaata hai. ashtaadhyaayi maatr vyaakaran granth naheen hai. ismein prakaaraantar se tatkaaleen bhaarateeya samaaj ka poora chitr milta hai. us samay ke bhoogol, saamaajik, aarthik, shiksha aur raajaneetik jeevan, daarshanik chintan, Khan-paan, rahan-sahan aadi ke prasang sthaan-sthaan par ankit hain.

anukram

jeevani evam kaarya

paanini ka janm shalaatur naamak gram mein hua tha. jahaaain Kabul nadi sindhu mein mili hai us sangam se kuchh meal door yeh gaaainv tha. use ab lahur kehte hain. apne janmasthaan ke anusaar paanini shaalaatureeya bhi kahe gaye hain. aur ashtaadhyaayi mein swayam unhonne is naam ka ullekh kiya hai. cheeni yaatri yuvaanchvaaङ (7veen shati) uttar-pashchim se aate samay shaalaatur gaaainv mein gaye the. paanini ke guru ka naam upavarsh pita ka naam panin aur maata ka naam daakshi tha. paanini jab bade hue to unhonne vyaakaranashaastr ka gahra adhyayan kiya. paanini se pehle shabdavidya ke anek aachaarya ho chuke the. unke granthon ko padhkar aur unke paraspar bhedon ko dekhkar paanini ke man mein vah vichaar aaya ki unhein vyaakaranashaastr ko vyavasthit karna chaahiye. pehle to paanini se poorv vaidik sanhitaaon, shaakhaaon, braahman, aaranyak, upanishd aadi ka jo vistaar ho chuka tha us vaaङamaya se unhonne apne liye shabdasaamagri li jiska unhonne ashtaadhyaayi mein upayog kiya hai. doosare nirukt aur vyaakaran ki jo saamagri pehle se thi usaka unhonne sangrah aur sookshm adhyayan kiya. iska pramaan bhi ashtaadhyaayi mein hai, jaisa shaakataayan, shaakalya, Bhardwaj, gaargya, senak, aapishli, gaalab aur sfotaayan aadi aachaaryon ke maton ke ullekh se gyaat hota hai. shaakataayan nishchit roop se paanini se poorv ke vaiyaakaran the, jaisa niruktakaar yaask ne likha hai. shaakataayan ka mat tha ki sab sanjnyaa shabd dhaatuon se bante hain. paanini ne is mat ko sveekaar kiya kintu is vishay mein koi aagrah naheen rakha aur yeh bhi kaha ki bahut se shabd aise bhi hain jo lok ki bolachaal mein aa gaye hain aur unase dhaatu pratyaya ki pakad naheen ki ja sakti. teesari sabse mahatvapoorn baat paanini ne yeh ki ki unhonne swayam lok ko apni aaainkhon se dekha aur ghoomkar logon ke bahumukhi jeevan ka parichay praapt karke shabdon ko chhaana. is prakaar se kitne hi sahasr shabdon ko unhonne ikattha kiya. shabdon ka sankalan karke unhonne unako vargeekrut kiya aur unki kai soochiyaaain banaai. ek soochi "dhaatu paath" ki thi jise paanini ne ashtaadhyaayi se alag rakha hai. usamein 1943 dhaatueain hain. dhaatupaath mein do prakaar ki dhaatueain hain- 1. jo paanini se pehle saahitya mein prayukt ho chuki theen aur doosari ve jo logon ki bolachaal mein unhein mili. unki doosari soochi mein vedon ke anek aachaarya the. kis aachaarya ke naam se kaun sa charan prasiddh hua aur usamein padhnevaale chhaatr kis naam se prasiddh the aur un chhand ya shaakhaaon ke kya naam the, un sab ki nishpatti bhinn bhinn pratyaya lagaakar paanini ne di hai; jaise ek aachaarya tittiri the. unka charan taittareeya kaha jaata tha aur us vidyaalaya ke chhaatr evam vahaaain ki shaakha ya sanhita bhi taittireeya kahalaati thi. paanini ki teesari soochi "gotron" ke sambandh mein thi. mool saat gotr vaidik yug se hi chale aate the. paanini ke kaal tak aate aate unka bahut vistaar ho gaya tha. gotron ki kai soochiyaaain shraut sootron mein hain. jaise bodhaayan shraut sootr mein jise mahaapravar kaand kehte hain. kintu paanini ne vaidik aur laukik donon bhaashaaon ke parivaar ya kutunb ke naamon ki ek bahut badi soochi banaai jismein aarsh gotr aur laukik gotr donon the. chhote mote paarivaarik naam ya allon ko unhonne gotraavayav kaha hain. ek gotr ya parivaar mein honevaala daada, boodhe evam chaacha (sapind sthavir pita, putr, pautr) aadi vyaktiyon ke naam kaise rakhe jaate the, iska byorevaar ullekh paanini ne kiya hai. beesiyon sootron ke saath lage hue ganon mein gotron ke anek naam paanini ke "ganapaath" naamak parishisht granth mein hain. paanini ki chauthi soochi bhaugolik thi. paanini ka janmasthaan uttar pashchim mein tha, jis pradesh ko ham gaandhaar kehte hain. yoonaani bhoogol lekhakon ne likha hai ki uttar pashchim arthaat gaandhaar aur Punjab mein lagbhag 500 aise gram the jinmein se pratyek ki janasankhya das sahasr ke lagbhag thi. paanini ne un 500 graamon ke vaastavik naam bhi de diye hain jinse unke bhoogol sambandhi ganon ki soochiyaaain bani hain. graamon aur nagaron ke un naamon ki pehchaan tedha prashn hai, kintu yadi bahut parishram kiya jaaya to yeh sambhav hai jaise sunet aur sirsa Punjab ke do chhote gaaainv hain jinhein paanini ne sunetr aur shaireeshak kaha hai. Punjab ki anek jaatiyon ke naam un gaaainvon ke anusaar the jahaaain vah jaati nivaas karti thi ya jahaaain se uske poorvaj aae the. is prakaar nivaas aur abhijn (poorvajon ka sthaan) in donon se jo upanaam bante the ve purush naam mein jud jaate the kyonki aise naam bhi bhaasha ke ang the.

paanini ne Punjab ke madhyabhaag mein khade hokar apni drushti poorv aur pashchim ki or daudaai. unhein do pahaadi ilaake dikhaai pade. poorv ki or kulloo kaaaingadaaain jise us samay trigrt kehte the, pashchimi or ka pahaadi pradesh vah tha jo gaandhaar ki poorvi rajdhani takshashila se pashchimi rajdhani pushkalaavati tak faila tha. isi mein vah pradesh tha jise ab kabaayali ilaaka kehte hain aur jo sindhu nad ke uttar se dakshin tak vyaapt tha aur jiske uttari chhor par darad (vartamaan gilgit) aur dakshini chhor par saubeer (vartamaan sindh) tha. paanini ne is pradesh mein rahanevaale kabeelon ki vistrut soochi banaai aur sanvidhaanon ka adhyayan kiya. is pradesh ko us samay graamaneeya ilaaka kehte the kyonki in kabeelon mein, jaisa aaj bhi hai aur us samay bhi tha, graamani shaasan ki pratha thi aur graamani shabd unke neta ya shaasak ki padavi thi. in jaatiyon ki shaasanasabha ko is samay jirga kehte hain aur paanini ke yug mein use "braatapoog", "sangh" ya "gan" kehte the. vastut: sab kabeelon ke shaasan ka ek prakaar na tha kintu ve sangh shaasan ke vikaas ki bhinn bhinn avasthaaon mein the. paanini ne vraat aur poog in sanjnyaaaon se bataaya hai ki inmein se bahut se kabeele utsedhajeevi ya lootpaat karke jeevan bitaate the jo aaj bhi vahaaain ke jeevan ki sachchaai hai. us samay ye sab kabeele ya jaatiyaaain hindu theen aur unke adhiptiyon ke naam sanskrut bhaasha ke the jaise devadattak, kabeele ka poorvapurush ya sansthaapak koi devadatt tha. ab naam badal gaye hain, kintu baat vahi hai jaise isaakhel kabeele ka poorvaj isa naamak koi vyakti tha. in kabeelon ke bahut se naam paanini ke ganapaath mein milte hain, jaise Afridi aur mohamad jinhein paanini ne aapreet aur madhumant kaha hai. paanini ki bhaugolik soochiyon mein ek soochi janapadon ki hai. praacheen kaal mein apna desh janapad bhoomiyon mein baitha hua tha. madhya Asia ki vankshu nadi ke uparibhaag mein sthit kanboj janapad, pashchim mein Saurashtra ka kachh janapad, poorab mein asam pradesh ka sooramas janapad (vartamaan soorama ghaati) aur dakshin mein godaavari ke kinaare ashmak janapad (vartamaan pethan) in chaar khooainton ke beech mein saara bhoobhaag janapadon mein bainta hua tha aur logon ke raajaneetik aur saamaajik jeevan evam bhaashaaon ka janapadeeya vikaas sahasron varshon se chala aata tha.

paanini ne sahasron shabdon ki vyutpatti bataai jo ashtaadhyaagi ke chauthe paaainchavein adhyaayon mein hai. braahman, kshatriya, sainik, vyaapaari kisaan, raingarej, badhi, rasoie, mochi, gvaale, charavaahe, gadriye, bunakar, kumhaar aadi saikadon peshevar logon se miljulakar paanini ne unke vishesh peshe ke shabdon ka sangrah kiya.

paanini ne yeh bataaya ki kis shabd mein kaun sa pratyaya lagta hai. varnamaala ke svar aur vyanjan roop jo akshar hai unheen se pratyaya banaae gaye. jaise- varsha se vaarshik, yahaaain mool shabd varsha hai usase ik pratyaya jud gaya aur vaarshik arthaat varsha sambandhi yeh shabd ban gaya.

ashtaadhyaayi mein tadviton ka prakaran rochak hai. kaheen to paanini ki sookshm chhaanabeen par aashcharya hota hain, jaise vyaas nadi ke uttari kinaare ki baaaingar bhoomi mein jo pakke baaraamaasi kueain banaae jaate the unke naamon ka uchchaaran kisi doosare svar mein kiya jaata tha aur usi ke dakkhini kinaare par khaadar bhoomi mein har saal jo kachche kueain khod liye jaate the unke naamon ka svar kuchh bhinn tha. yeh baat paanini ne "udak ch Bipasha" sootr mein kahi hai. gaayon aur bailon ki to jeevanakatha hi paanini ne sootron mein bhar di hai.

aarthik jeevan ka adhyayan karte hue paanini ne un sikkon ko bhi jaaaincha jo baajaaron mein chalte the. jaise "shatamaan", "kaarshaapan", "suvarn", "andh", "paad", "maashak" "trinshatk" (tees maase ya saath ratti taul ka sikka), "vinshatik" (bees maase ki tol ka sikka). kuchh log abala badli se bhi maal bechate the. use "nimaan" kaha jaata tha.

paanini ke kaal mein shiksha aur vaaङamaya ka bahut vistaar tha. sanskrut bhaasha ka unhonne bahut hi gahra adhyayan kiya tha. vaidik aur laukik donon bhaashaaon se ve poornataya parichit the. unheen ki saamagri se paanini ne apne vyaakaran ki rachana ki par usamein pradhaanata laukik sanskrut ki hi rakhi. bolachaal ki laukik sanskrut ko unhonne bhaasha kaha hai. unhonne na keval grantharachana ko kintu adhyaapan kaarya bhi kiya. (vyaakaran ke udaaharanon mein unke vishay ka naam kots kaha hai). paanini ka shiksha vishyak sambandh, sambhav hai, takshashila ke vishvavidyaalaya se raha ho. kaha jaata hai, jab ve apni saamagri ka sangrah kar chuke to unhonne kuchh samay tak ekaantavaas kiya aur ashtaadhyaayi ki rachana ki.

paanini ka samay kya tha, is vishay mein kai mat hain. koi unhein 7veen shati E. poo., koi 5veen shati ya chauthi shati E. poo. ka kehte hain. patanjali ne likha hai ki paanini ki ashtaadhyaayi ka sambandh kisi ek ved se naheen balki sabhi vedon ki parishdon se tha (sarv ved parishad). paanini ke granthon ki sarvasammat pratishtha ka yeh bhi kaaran hua.

paanini ko kisi matavishesh mein pakshapaat na tha. shabd ka arth ek vyakti hai ya jaati, is vishay mein unhonne donon pakshon ko maana hai. gaoo shabd ek gaaya ka bhi vaachak hai aur gaoo jaati ka bhi. vaajapyaayan aur vyaadi naamak do aachaaryon mein bhinn maton ka aagrah ya, par paanini ne saralata se donon ko sveekaar kar liya.

paanini se poorv ek prasiddh vyaakaran Indra ka tha. usamein shabdon ka praatikanthik ya praatipdik vichaar kiya gaya tha. usi ki parampara paanini se poorv Bhardwaj aachaarya ke vyaakaran mein li gayi thi. paanini ne usapar vichaar kiya. bahut si paaribhaashik sanjnyaaaeain unhonne usase le leen, jaise sarvanaam, avyaya aadi aur bahut si nai banaai, jaise ti, ghu, bh aadi.

paanini ko maangalik aachaarya kaha gaya hai. unke hrudaya ki udaar vrutti mangalaatmak karm aur fal ki ichhuk thi. iski saakshi yeh hai ki unhonne apne shabdaanushaasan ka aarambh "vruddh" shabd se kiya. kuchh vidvaan kehte hain ki paanini ke granth mein na keval aadimangal balki madhyamangal aur antamangal bhi hai. unka antim sootr a aa hai. hrasvakaar varnasamanvaya ka mool hai. paanini ko suhrudbhoot aachaarya arthaat sabke mitr evam pramaanabhoot aachaarya bhi kaha hai.

pantajali ka kehna hai ki paanini ne jo sootr ek baar likha use kaata naheen. vyaakaran mein unke pratyek akshar ka pramaan maana jaata hai. shishya, guru, lok aur ved dhaatuli shabd aur deshi shabd jis or aachaarya ne drushti daali use hi ras se seench diya. aaj bhi paanini "shabd:loke prakaashate", arthaat unka naam sarvatr prakaashit hai. ur

samayakaal

inka samayakaal anishchit tatha vivaadit hai. itna tay hai ki chhathi sadi isa poorv ke baad aur chauthi sadi isaapoorv se pehle ki avadhi mein inka astitv raha hoga. aisa maana jaata hai ki inka janm Punjab (Pakistan) ke shaalaatula mein hua tha jo aadhunik peshaavar (Pakistan) ke kareeb hai. inka jeevanakaal 520-460 isa poorv maana jaata hai.

paanini ke jeevanakaal ko maapane ke liye yavanaani shabd ke uddharan ka sahaara liya jaata hai. iska arth yoonaan ki stri ya yoonaan ki lipi se lagaaya jaata hai. gaandhaar mein yavano (Greeks) ke baare mein pratyaksh jaankaari sikandar ke aakraman ke pehle naheen thi. sikandar Bhaarat mein isa poorv 330 ke aaspaas aaya tha. par aisa ho sakta hai ki paanini ko faarasi yaun ke jariye yavanon ki jaankaari hogi aur paanini daara pratham (shaasanakaal - 521-485 isa poorv) ke kaal mein bhi ho sakte hain. plootaark ke anusaar sikandar jab Bhaarat aaya tha to yahaan pehle se kuchh yoonaani bastiyaan theen.

lekhan

aisa maana jaata hai ki paanini ne likhne ke liye kisi na kisi maadhyam ka prayog kiya hoga kyonki unke dvaara prayukt shabd ati klisht the tatha bina likhe unka vishleshan sambhav naheen lagta hai. kai log kehte hai ki unhonne apne shishyon ki smaran shakti ka prayog apni lekhan pustika ke roop mein kiya tha. Bhaarat mein lipi ka pun: prayog (sindhu ghaati sabhyata ke baad) 6thi sadi isa poorv mein hua aur braahmi lipi ka pratham prayog dakshin Bhaarat ke Tamil Nadu mein hua jo uttar pashchim Bhaarat ke gaandhaar se door tha. gaandhaar mein 6thi sadi isa poorv mein faarasi shaasan tha aur aisa sambhav hai ki unhone aarmaaik varnon ka prayog kiya hoga.

krutiyaan

paanini ka sanskrut vyaakaran chaar bhaagon mein hai -

patanyajali ne paanini ke ashtaadhyaayi par apni tippani likhi jise mahaabhaashya ka naam diya (maha+bhaashya (sameeksha, tippani, vivechana, aalochna)).

paanini ka mahattv

ek shataabdi se bhi pehle prasiddh jarman bhaaratavid maiks moolar (1823-1900) ne apne science of thaat mein kaha -

"main nirbheekataapoorvak kah sakta hooain ki angreji ya laitin ya greek mein aisi sankalpanaaeain naganya hain jinhein sanskrut dhaatuon se vyutpann shabdon se abhivyakt na kiya ja sake. iske vipreet mera vishvaas hai ki 2,50,000 shabd sammilit maane jaane vaale angreji shabdakosh ki sampoorn sampada ke spashteekaran hetu vaanchhit dhaatuon ki sankhya, uchit seemaaon mein nyooneekrut paanineeya dhaatuon se bhi kam hai. .... angreji mein aisa koi vaakya naheen jiske pratyek shabd ka 800 dhaatuon se evam pratyek vichaar ka paanini dvaara pradatt saamagri ke saavadhaaneepoorvak veshleshan ke baad avishsht 121 maulik sankalpanaaon se sambandh nikaala na ja sake."

paanini ki sootr shaili

paanini ke sootron ki shaili atyant sankshipt hai. ve sootrayug mein hi hue the. shraut sootr, dharm sootr, gruhasthasootr, praatishaakhya sootr bhi isi shaili mein hai kintu paanini ke sootron mein jo nikhaar hai vah anyatr naheen hai. iseeliye paanini ke sootron ko pratishnaat sootr kaha gaya hai. paanini ne varn ya varnamaala ko 14 pratyaahaar sootron mein baaainta aur unhein vishesh kram dekar 42 pratyaahaar sootr banaae. paanini ki sabse badi visheshata yahi hai jisse ve thode sthaan mein adhik saamagri bhar sake. yadi ashtaadhyaayi ke aksharon ko gina jaaya to uske 3995 sootr ek sahasr shlok ke baraabar hote hain. paanini ne sankshipt grantharachana ki aur bhi kai yuktiyaaain nikaaleen jaise adhikaar aur anuvrutti arthaat sootr ke ek ya kai shabdon ko aage ke sootron mein le jaana jisse unhein doharaana na pade. arth karne ki kuchh paribhaashaaeain bhi unhonne banaai. ek badi vichitr yukti unhonne asiddh sootron ki nikaali. arthaat baad ka sootr apne se pehle ke sootr ke kaarya ko ojhal kar de. paanini ka yeh asiddh niyam unki aisi tantr yukti thi jo sansaar ke anya kisi granth mein nahi pai jaati.

vaarttiksoochi

1. riऌvarnayo: mith: saavarnyan vaachyam.

2. akachsvarau tu kartavyau pratyaङagam muktasanshayau.

3. apuri iti vaktavyam.

4. vibhaashaaprakarane teeyasya ङaitsoopasankhyaanam.

5. antyaat poorvo masjeranushaङagasanyogaaऽdilopaartham.

6. lapar iti vaktavyam.

7. svaradeerghayalopeshu lopaajaadesh: na sthaanivt.

8. kvilugupadhaatvachaङaparanirhraasakutveshu upasaङakhyaanam.

9. poorvatraasiddhe na sthaanivt.

10. tasya dosh: sanyogaadilopalatvanatveshu.

11. varnaashraye naasti pratyayalakshanam.

12. uttarapadatve chaapadaadividhau.

13. naanarthakeऽlontyavidhirnabhyaasavikaare.

14. arthavadgrahane naanarthakasya grahanam.

15. yasminvidhi: tadaadau algrahane.

16. samaasapratyayavidhau pratishedh:.

17. ugidvarnagrahanavarjam.

18. susarvaardhadikshabdebhyo janapadasya.

19. riatorvruddhimdvidhaavavayavaanaam.

20. padaaङagaadhikaare tasya ch taduttarasya.

21. tanmadhyapatitstadgrahanen gruhyate.

22. aninsmingrahanaanyarthavata chaanarthaken ch tadantavidhin prayojayanti.

23. pratyayagrahane chaapanyachamyaa:.

paanini aur aadhunik bhaashaashaastr

paanini ka kaarya 19veen sadi mein Europe mein jaana jaane laga, jisse iska aadhunik bhaashaashaastr par khoob prabhaav pada. aarambh mein frenj bop ne paanini ka adhyayan kiya. baad mein bahut si rachanaaon se yorapeeya sanskrut ke vidvaan jaise Fernandes di sausar, liyonaard bloomafeeld aur roman jaikabsan aadi prabhaavit hue. frits staal ne yorap mein bhaasha par bhaarateeya vichaaron ke prabhaav ki vivechana ki.

di sausar

paanini aur baad ke bhaarateeya bhaashaashaastri bhartruhari ka frdeenaand di sausar ke kai buniyaadi vichaaron par kaafi prabhaav pada. frdeenaand di sausar sanskrut ke praadhyaapak the, jo ki aadhunik sanrachanaatmak bhaashaashaastr ke janak kahe jaate hain. sausar ne swayam apne kuchh vichaaron par bhaarateeya vyaakaran ke prabhaav ka zikr kiya hai. apne 1881 mein prakaashit "di lempaloi du jenitif ऍbsaulyu en sainskrit" (sanskrut mein jenetiv nirpeksh ka prayog) mein, unhonne paanini ko vishesharoop se zikr karke apni rachana ko prabhaavit karne wala bataaya hai.

liyonaard bloomfeeld

ameriki sanrachanaavaad ke sansthaapak liyonaurd bloomfeeld ne 1927 mein ek shodhapatr likha jiska sheershak tha "on sam rools of paanini" (yaani, paanini ke kuchh niyamon par).

aaj ke aupachaarik tantron ke saath tulana

paanini ka vyaakaran sansaar ka pehla aupachaarik tantr (faurmal sistam) hai. iska vikaas 19veen sadi ke gotlaub frej ke anveshanon aur uske baad ke ganit ke vikaason se bahut pehle hi ho gaya tha. apne vyaakaran ka svaroop banaane mein paanini ne "sahaayak prateekon" ka prayog kiya, jismein naye shabdaanshon ko sintaiktik shreniyon ka vibhaajan rakhane ke liye prayog kiya, taaki vyaakaran ki vyutpattiyon ko yathesht niyntrit kiya ja sake. theek yahi takaneek jab emil post ne dobaara "khoji", to yeh computer prograaming bhaashaaon ki abhiklpana ke liye maanadand bana.[2] aaj sanskrutavid sveekaar karte hain ki paanini ka bhaasheeya aujaar anuprayukt post-sistam ke roop mein bhali-bhaaainti varnit hai. paryaaptamaatra mein pramaan maujood hain ki in praacheen logon ko sahapaath-samvedi-vyaakaran (kantekst-sensitiv graamar) mein mahaarat thi aur kai jatil samasyaaon ko sulajhaane mein vyaapak kshamata thi.

anya rachanaaeain

paanini ko do saahityik rachanaaon ke liye bhi jaana jaata hai, yadyapi ve ab praapya naheen hain.

  • jaambavati vijay aaj ek apraapya rachana hai jiska ullekh raajashekhar naamak vyakti ne jahlan ki sookti muktaavali mein kiya hai. iska ek bhaag raamayukt ki naamalingaanushaasan ki teeka mein bhi milta hai.

raajashekhar ne jahlan ki sooktimuktaavali mein likha hai:

nam: paaninye tasmai yasmaadaavir bhoodih.
aadau vyaakaranan kaavyamanu jaambavateejayam .
  • paataalavijya, jo aaj apraapya rachana hai, jiska ullekh naamisaadhu ne rudratakrut kaavyaalankaar ki teeka mein kiya hai.

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. "ashtadhyaayeesootrapaath:". https://ia801700.us.archive.org/30/items/AshtaadhyaayiSootrapaathahYatibodhasahitah.p65/Ashtaadhyaayisootrapaathah%20%28Yatibodhasahitah%29.p65.pdf. abhigman tithi: 11/09/2014.
  2. kaidveni, John (2007), "pojeeshnal velyoo end lingvistik rikrshan", jarnal of indiyn filausfi 35: 587-520.