paali, praakrut aur apabhransh ka kosh vaaङamaya

madhyakaaleen bhaarateeya aaryabhaashaaon ka vaaङamaya bhi koshon se rahit naheen tha. paali bhaasha mein anek kosh milte hain. inhein 'bauddhakosh' bhi kaha gaya hai. unki mukhya upayogita paali bhaasha ke baudb-saahitya ke samajhaane mein thi. unki rachana padyabaddh sanskrutakoshon ki apeksha gadyamaya nighantuon ke adhik sameep hai. bahudha inka sambandh vishesh granthon se raha hai.

paali ka mahaavyutpati kosh 285 adhyaayon mein lagbhag nau hajaar shlokon ka parichay denevaala hai. bauddh sanpradaaya ke paaribhaashik shabdon ka arth dene ke saath-saath pashu pakshiyon, vanaspatiyon aur rogon aadi ke paryaayon ka ismein sangrah hai. ismein lagbhag 9000 shabd sankalit hai. doosari aur muhaavaron naamadhaatu ke roopon aur vaakyon ke bhi sankalan hai. paali ka doosra vishesh mahatva poorn kosh abhidhaan pradeepika (abhidhaanappadeepika) hai. yeh sanskrut ke amarakosh ki rachanaashaili ki paddhati par tatha uske anukaran par chhandobaddh roop mein nirmit hai. 'amarakosh' ke anek shlokon ka bhi ismein paaliroopaantaran hai. isi prakaar bhikshu saddharmakeerti ke ekaakshar kosh ka bhi naamollekh milta hai.

praakrut bhaasha mein upalabdh koshon ki sankhya kam hai. jain bhaandaagaaron se kuchh praakrut aur apabhransh ke koshon ki vidyamaanata ka pata chala hai. parantu jab tak unhein dekhne ka avsar naheen milta, tab tak unka vivran dena theek naheen hai.

dhanapaal (samay 972 i0 se 997 i0 ke beech) virchit 'paaialachheenaamamaala' kadaachit praakrut ka sarvapraacheen upalabdh kosh hai. inke gadyakaavya 'tilkamanjari' ke ullekhaanusaar 'munjaraaj' ne inhe 'sanrasvati' upaadhi di thi. gathaachhand mein rachit, adhyaayavirhit is kosh mein kram se shlok, shlokaardh aur pad (charan) evam shabd mein paryaayavaachi shabd nirdisht hai. 'hemachandr' ne apne 'desheenaamamaala' mein iski sahaayata ka teeka mein ullekh kiya hai.

hemachandr rachit 'desheenaamamaala' naam se prasiddh praakrut ka mahatvapoorn aur vikhyaat kosh kaha jaata hai. desh shabd vastut: praakrut ka paryaaya naheen hai, usaki seema mein praakrut aur apabhransh ka jo hemachandr ke samay tak ukt bhaashaaon ke grantho mein milte the unheenka sangrah hai. deshi se saamaanyat: aabhaas yeh hota hai ki jo shabd sankrut tatsam shabdon se vyutpann na hokar tattat desh ki laukik bhaashaaon ke avyutpann shabd the unheen ko deshi kaha gaya hai. deshaj bhi unheen ka parichaayak hai. panratu tathya yeh naheen hai. deshi, naamamaala ke bahut se shabd deshaj avashya hai. parantu jin tadbhav shabdon ki vyutpatti sanskrut tatsar shabdon se hemachandr sambaddh na kar sake unhein avyutpann deshaj shabd maan liya. praakrut ke vyaakaran niyamon ke anusaar jinki tadbhavasiddhi naheen dikhaai ja saki, unheen ko yahaaain deshi kehkar sankalit kiya gaya. parantu 'desheenaamamaala' mein aise shabdon ki sankhya bahut badi hai jo sanskrut ke tadbhav vyutpann shabd hai. chooainki praakrut vyaakaranaanusaar hemachandr unka sambandh, mool sanskrut shabdon se jodne mein asamarth rahe at: unhein deshi kah diya. falat: ham kah sakase hai ki deshi shabd ka yahaaain itna hi arth hai ki un shabdon ki vyutpatti ka sambandh jeedne mein hemachandr ka vyaakaranaajnyaaan asamarth raha.

inke atirikt do deshi koshon ka bhi ullekh milte hai - ek sootnaroop mein aur doosra gopaal krut chhandobaddh. dronakrut ek deshi kosh ka naam bhi milta hai. isi tarah Shillong ka bhi koi deshi kosh raha hoga. hemachandr ne desheenaamamaala mein apna matabhed aur virodh ukt keshakaar ke mat ke saath prakat kiya. hemachandr ke praakrut shabdasamooh mein upalabdh anek tatpoorvavarti deshi shabdakoshakaaron ka ullekh milta hai. hemachandr ne hi jin koshakaaron ko sarvaadhik mahatva diya hai unamein raahulak ki rachana aur paad- liptaachaarya ka 'desheekosh' kaha jaata hai. 'jinratnanakosh' mein bhi anek madhyakaaleen koshagrethon ke naam milte hain. abhidhaanachinmanimaala sanbhavat: vahi granth hai jise hemachandr virchit abhidhaanachintaamani kaha gaya aur yeh sanskrut kosh hai.

vijyaraajeindr soori (1913-1925 i0) dbaara sanpadit, sankalit aur nirmit abhidhaanaraajeindr bhi praakrut ka ek bruhad shabdakosh hai. par tatvat: yeh jainon ke mat, dharm aur saahitya ka aadhunik pranaali mein rachit saat jildon mein grathit mahaakosh hai. prushth sankhya bhi iski lagbhag das hajaar hai. yeh vastut: vishvakoshaatmak jnyaaanakosh ki mishrit shaili ka aadhunik kosh hai.

inhein bhi dekhein