paalaamaoo vyaaghr aarakshit van

betala/paalaamaoo raashtreeya udyaan
sthiti maanachitr
sthiti laatehar jila, Jharkhand, Bhaarat
niktatam shahar laatehar
kshetrafl 1,026 varg kilometer
sthaapit 1974
prashaasan Forest Department of Jharkhand

palaamoo vyaaghr aarakshit van Jharkhand ke chhota Nagpur pathaar ke laatehar jile mein sthit hai. yeh 1974 mein baagh pariyojana ke antargat gathit pratham 9 baagh aarakshon mein se ek hai. palaamoo vyaaghr aaraksh 1,026 varg kilometer kshetr mein faila hua hai, jismein palaamoo vanyajeev abhayaaranya ka kshetrafal 980 varg kilometer hai. abhayaaranya ke kor kshetr 226 varg kilometer ko betala raashtreeya udyaan ke roop mein adhisoochit kiya gaya hai. palaamoo aaraksh ke mukhya aakarshanon mein shaamil hain baagh, haathi, teinduaa, gaur, saanbhar aur cheetal.

palaamoo aitihaasik drushti se bhi mahatvapoorn hai. san 1857 ki kraanti mein palaamoo ne aham bhoomika nibhaai thi. chero raajaaon dvaara nirmit do kilon ke khandahar palaamoo vyaaghr aaraksh mein vidyamaan hain. palaamoo mein kai prakaar ke van paae jaate hain, jaise shushk mishrit van, saal ke van aur baans ke jhuramut, jinmein saikadon vanya jeev rahate hain. palaamoo ke van teen nadiyon ke jalagrahan kshetr ko suraksha pradaan karte hain. ye nadiyaan hain uttar koyal auranga aur boodha. 200 se adhik gaanv palaamoo vyaaghr aaraksh par aarthik drushti se nirbhar hain. in gaanvon ki mukhya aabaadi janajaateeya hai. in gaanvon mein lagbhag 1,00,000 log rahate hain. palaamoo ke khoobsoorat van, ghaatiyaan aur pahaadiyaan tatha vahaan ke shaanadaar jeev-jantu badi sankhya mein paryatakon ko aakarshit karte hain.

anukram

itihaas

chitr:Betla1.jpg
palaamoo ka kila

palaamoo mein vaigyaanik sanrakshan prayaason ka itihaas kaafi lamba hai. desh mein baaghon ki ganana pehli baar palaamoo mein hi san 1932 ko hui thi.

pratham prabandh yojana

palaamoo ki pratham prabandh yojana (1974-75 se 1978-79) bhaarateeya van seva ke shri bi. N. sinha ne taiyaar ki. aap us samay Ranchi kaaryaalaya mein dakshini anchal ke yojana adhikaari ke pad par kaarya kar rahe the. is yojana ke pramukh uddeshya the jal-sroton ka vikaas, avaidh shikaar ki rokathaam, jungle mein maveshiyon ki charaai niyantrit karna, agni suraksha prabandh aur aaraksh ke liye behtar sanrachanaatmak suvidhaaen praapt karna.

dviteeya prabandh yojana

yeh shri aar. si. sahaaya, tatkaaleen kshetr nideshak, palaamoo aaraksh, dvaara taiyaar ki gayi. iski kaalaavadhi 1987-88 se 1996-97 tak thi. is yojana ke uddeshyon mein shaamil the, vaigyaanik, aarthik, saanskrutik evam paaristhitikeeya santulan hetu baagh aur anya vanya jantuon aur aaraksh ke ped-paudhon ki upayukt sankhya banaae rakhana. is yojana ke dauraan aaraksh mein chaumukhi pragati dekhi gayi. paani ke maamale mein aaraksh lagbhag aatmanirbhar ho gaya. kor kshetr mein charaai aur maanav-janit aag ko safalataapoorvak niyantrit kiya gaya. jahaan bhi kharapatavaar hataae gaye, vahaan saal aur khair ka safal punarutpaadan hua. jangali jaanvaron ki sankhya bhi badhi. paalatoo pashuon ke teekaakaran par kaafi dhyaan diya gaya, visheshakar munh-khur rog ke viruddh. iske kaaran is bhayankar beemaari ke kaaran gauron ke marne ki ghatnaaen niyantrit huin. shaakaahaari praaniyon aur baagh ki ganana niyamit roop se hoti rahi.

vanyajeev ganana ke aankade

varsh baagh teinduaa haathi gaur cheetal
1992 55 60 115 727 15,688
1993 44 60 119 721 15,232
1994 49 60 140 740 15,318
1995 50 61 155 593 15,859
1996 40 60 158 517 13,014
1997 44 64 - - -
1999 37-46 53-55 201 361 13,134
2000 37 53-55 175 322 12,969
2002 38-40 59-60 181-199 246 14,375
2003 36-38 62 205-215 249 12,586
2004 38 62 260 260 13,147

vanyajeevan

chitr:Betlapic.jpg
betala ke baagh

palaamoo jaivik vividhta ki drushti se atyant samruddh hai. palaamoo mein hain :

  • paudhon ki lagbhag 970 jaatiyaan, jinmein shaamil hain :
    • 139 jadi-bootiyaan
    • ghaason ki 17 jaatiyaan
  • stanadhaariyon ki 47 jaatiyaan
  • pakshiyon ki 174 jaatiyaan
  • chhote jeevadhaariyon ki asankhya jaatiyaan

palaamoo ke is vividh jeev-samudaaya ko sahaara dene ke liye vahaan vaas-sthalon aur paaristhitik tantron ki paryaapt vividhta hai.

palaamoo ke stanadhaari

Bhaarat mein paae jaanevaale lagbhag sabhi bade stanadhaari praani, masalan baagh, haathi, gaur, teinduaa, son kutta, saanbhar aur teinduaa palaamoo mein vidyamaan hain. kul milaakar palaamoo mein stanadhaariyon ki 47 jaatiyaan hain. inmein se kuchh pramukh stanadhaariyon ke baare mein

palaamoo ke stanadhaariyon ki soochi
angreji naam vaigyaanik naam hindi naam
Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak kaakad
Chital Axis axis cheetal
Chowsingha Tetraceros quadricornis chausinga
Common Langur Presbytis entellus langoor
Common Mongoose Herpestes edwardsi nevala
Common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus musang
Elephant Elephas maximus haathi
Fruit Bat Rousettus leschenaulti gaadur
Gaur Bos gaurus gaur
Grey Musk Shrew Suncus murinus chhachhundar
Indian Bush Rat Golunda ellioti chooha
Indian Field Mouse Mus booduga moos
Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus bada chamagaadad
Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis lomadi
Indian Gerbille Tatera indica maru mooshak
Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica bhaarateeya vishaal gilhari
Indian Hare Lepus nigricollis kharagosh
Indian Pangolin Manis crassicaudata vajrashalk
Indian Porcupine Hystrix indica sehi
Indian Wild Dog Cuon alpinus sonakutta, dhol
Jackal Canis aureus geedad, siyaar
Jungle Cat Felis chaus jangali billi
Leopard Panthera pardus teinduaa
Long-tailed Tree Mouse Vendeleuria oleracea lambi poonchhavaala taru mooshak
Mouse Deer Tragulus meminna pisoora, mooshak mrug
Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus neelagaaya
Ratel Mellivora capensis bijjoo
Rhesus Macaque Macaca mulatta bandar
Sambhar Cervus unicolor saanbhar
Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus sphinx chapati naakavaala gaadur
Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus bhaaloo
Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica khataas
Small Indian Mongoose chhota nevala
Striped Hyena Hyaena hyaena lakadbaggha
Three-striped Palm Squirrel Funambulus palmarum gilhari
Tiger Panthera tigris baagh
Wild Pig Sus scrofa jangali sooar
Wolf Canis lupus bhediya

pakshi

palaamoo jaise kisi van ke sabse aakarshak evam rangabirange nivaasi pakshi hi hote hain. palaamoo mein 174 prakaar ke pakshi hain. inmein shaamil hain Dogra cheel, shikra aadi shikaari pakshi, mor, teetar, laal jangali murgi jaise jameen par rahanevaale pakshi, chhapaka, ulloo, chugad aadi raatrichr pakshi, jalamor, bagule aadi jalapakshi. kuchh anya sundar pakshiyon mein shaamil hain doodharaaj, dhanesh, kilkila aur koyal. koyal Jharkhand ka prateek pakshi hai. palaamoo ke pakshiyon ki poorn soochi

palaamoo ke pakshiyon ki soochi
angreji naam vaigyaanik naam hindi naam
Alexandrine Parakeet, Large Indian Parakeet Psittacula eupatria heeraaman tota
Ashy Swallow Shrike Artamus fuscus
Ashy Wren Warbler Prinia socialis saleti fudaki
Bank Myna Acridotheres ginginianus ganga maina
Barn Owl, Screech Owl Tyto alba karail
Barred Jungle Owlet Glaucidium radiatum
Baya, Weaver Bird Ploceus philippinus baya
Baybacked Shrike Lanius vittatus pachanak latora
Black Bird Turdus merula
Black Drongo, King Crow Dicrurus adsimilis kotavaal, bhujanga
Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa munda, kaala bujja
Black Partridge Francolinus francolinus kaala teetar
Blackbellied Finch Lark Eremopterix grisea diyora
Blackbreasted Quail, Rain Quail Coturnix coromandelica chanak, cheeni bater
Blackbreasted Weaver Bird Ploceus benghalensis sarabo baya
Blackheaded Cuckoo Shrike Coracina melanoptera kalasiri kasaaya
Blackheaded Munia Lonchura Malacca nakalanoor
Blackheaded Oriole Oriolus xanthornus topeedaar peelak
Blacknecked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus lohaarajang
Blackwinged Kite Elanus cairuleus kapaasi
Blackwinged Stilt Himantopus himantopus gajapaanv
Blossomheaded Parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala tuiyaan tota
Blue Jay, Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis chaash
Bluelegged Bustard Turnix suscitator gulu
Bluetailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus neelapoonchh pataringa
Bluethroated Barbet Megalaima asiatica kudaroo
Brahminy Kite Haliastur Indus braahmani cheel
Brahminy Myna, Blackheaded Myna Sturnus pagodarum pavai
Brown Fish Owl Bubo zeylonensis muaa
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis gaaya bagula
Chestnut Bittern Ixobrychus cinnamomeus laal baguli
Chestnutbellied Nuthatch Sitta castanea siri
Chestnutheaded Bee-eater Merops leschenaulti
Collared Scopes Owl Otus bakkamoena tharakaavi chugad
Common Babbler Turdoides caudatus chilchil
Common Green Pigeon Treron phoenicoptera hiriyl
Common Grey Hornbill Tockus birostris laamadaar dhanesh
Common Hawk Cuckoo, Brain Fever Bird Cuculus varius papeeha
Common Indian Nightjar Caprimulgus asiaticus jangali chhapaka
Common Pariah Kite Milvus migrans cheel
Common Peafowl Pavo cristatus mor
Common Quail Couturnix coturnix bater
Common Sandgrouse Pterocles exustus kuhaar bhatateetar
Common Sandpiper Tringa hypoleucos paneva
Common Swallow Hirundo rustica abaabeel
Common Teal Anas crecca chaiti, chhoti murgaabi
Common Wood Shrike Tephrodornis pondicerianus kharakata latora
Crested Hawk Eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus shaahabaaj
Crested Lark Galerida cristata chandool
Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela Dogra cheel
Crested Tree Swift Hemiprocne longipennis taajadaar abaabeel
Crimsonbreasted Barbet, Coppersmith Megalaima haemacephala thathera
Crow Pheasant, Coucal Centropus siensis mahokh
Curlew Numenius arquata gulinda
Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus peelak
Goldenbacked Woodpecker Dinopium bengalense sonapitha kathafod
Goldfronted Chloropsis Chloropsis aurifrons hareva
Goldmantled Chloropsis Chloropsis cochinchinensis
Green Munia Estrilda Formosa hari muniya
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea anjan
Grey Partridge Francolinus pondicerianus teetar
Grey Tit Parus major raamagangara
Grey Wagtail Motacilla caspica bhoora khanjan
Greyheaded Flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis pilpeti machhamarani
Greyheaded Myna Sturnus malabaricus galaar
Hoopoe Upupa epops hudahud
House Crow Corvus splendens kauaa
House Sparrow Passer domesticus gauraiya
House Swift Apus affinis bataasi
Indian Great Horned Owl ghugghoo
Indian Myna Acridotheres tristis maina
Indian Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae roogel
Indian Pitta Pitta brachyuran sataranga
Indian Quail Turnix tanki lavva
Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicata kalachidi
Indian Small Skylark Alauda guagula bharuhi
Indian Whiskered Tern Chilidonias hybrida kurari
Indian Wren Warbler Prinia subflava fudaki
Iora Aegithina tiphia subhaagi
Jungle Babbler Turdoides stiatus satabhaiya
Jungle Bush Quail Perdicula asiatica girja batai
Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos jangali kauaa
Jungle Myna Acridotheres fuscus jangali maina
King Vulture Torgos calvus raajagiddh
Koel Eudynamys scolopacea koyal
Large Cuckoo Shrike Coracina novaehollandiae kasaaya
Large Grey Babbler Turdoides malcolmi gaugaai
Large Pied Wagtail Motacilla maderaspatensis mamola, khanjan
Little Brown Dove Streptopelia senegalensis tutaroo faakhta
Little Egret Egretta garzetta karachhiya bagula
Little Green Bittern Butorides striatus hari baguli
Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius kanthiya tittibh
Little Stint Calidris minutus panalava
Lorikeet Loriculus vernalis
Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis dahiyl
Mahratta Woodpecker Picoides mahrattensis maraatha kathafoda
Malabar Pied Hornbill Authracoceros coronatus malabaar abalakh dhanesh
Night Heron Nycticorax nicticorax vaak
Painted Sandgrouse Pterocles indicus bhataban
Palm Swift Cypsiurus parvus taadi abaabeel
Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradise doodharaaj
Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata kaala pidda
Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis kaudilla
Pied Myna Sturnus contra abalakh maina
Pigmy Woodpecker Picoides nanus chhota kathafod
Pintail Duck Anas acuta seenkhapar
Pond Heron, Paddy Bird Ardeola grayii andha bagula
Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica shakkarakhora
Purplerumped Sunbird Nectarinia zeylonica jugajugi
Quaker Babbler Alcippe poioicephala
Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus paradiseus bheemaraaj
Red Jungle Fowl Gallus gallus laal jangali murgi
Red Munia, Waxbill Estrilda amandava laal muniya
Red Spurfowl Galloperdix spadicea
Redrumped Swallow, Striated Swallow Hirundo masajid abaabeel
Redshank Tringa totanus soorama
Redvented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer bulabul
Redwattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus titihri
Redwhiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus sipaahi bulabul
Redwinged Bush Lark Mirafra erythroptera agiya
Ring Dove Streptopelia Decaocto dhavar faakhta
River Tern Sterna aurantia badi kurari
Roseringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri tota
Rufous Woodpecker Micropternus brachyurus laalapitha kathafod
Rufousbacked Shrike Lanius schach kajala latora
Rufousbellied Babbler Dumetia hyperythra
Rufoustailed Finch Lark Ammomanes phoenicurus bharadool, retal
Scarlet Minivet Pericrocotus flammeus saheli
Shama Copsychus malabaricus shaama
Shikra Accipiter badius shikra
Short-toed Eagle Circaetus gallicus saanpamaar
Sirkeer Cuckoo Taccocua reschenaultii sarakeer
Slatyheaded Scimitar Babbler Pomatorhinus schisticeps van kachapachiya
Small Blue Kingfisher Alcedo atthis kaudilli
Small Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis patena
Small Minivet Pericrocotus cinmamomeus bulaalachashm
Spotted Babbler Pellorneum ruficeps
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis chitta faakhta
Spotted Munia Lonchura punctulata teliya muniya
Stone Curlew Burhinus oedicnemus barasiri
Streaked Fantail Warbler Cisticola juncidis ghaas fudaki
Streaked Weaver Bird Ploceus manyar teliya baya
Tailor Bird Orthotomus sutorius darji
Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax ukaab
Thickbilled Flowerpecker Dicaeum agile fulasoonghi
Tickell's Blue Flycatcher Muscicapa thalassina adharang
Tickell's Flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrorhynchos
Tree Pie Dendrocitta vagabunda mahaalat
Verditer Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradise neelakatakatiya
White Eye Zosterops palpebrosa baboona
White Ibis Threskiormis aethiopica safed bujja
White Scavenger Vulture Nephron percnopterus gobar giddh
White Stork Ciconia ciconia gaibar
White Wagtail Motacilla alba dhoban
Whitebacked Munia Lonchura malabarica shaakaari muniya
Whitebacked Vulture Gyps bengalensis chamar giddh
Whitebellied Drongo Dicrurus caerulescens kesharaaj, pahaadi bhujanga
Whitebreasted Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis kilkila
Whitebreasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus daauk
White-eyed Buzzard Butastur teesa teesa
Whitenecked Stork Ciconia episcopus lagalag
Whitespotted Fantail Flycatcher Rhipidura albicollis chhataraduma
Wiretailed Swallow Hirundo smithii leeshara
Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola van jalarank
Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava
pan peelak Yelloweyed Babbler Chrysomma sinense
gulabaachashm Yellowheaded Wagtail Motacilla citreola
shvetasir pan peelak Yellowthroated Sparrow Petronia xanthocollis
raaji Yellow-wattled Lapwing Vanellus malabaricus

sareesrup

mahaasaagaron mein jeevan ka udbhav hone ke baad pruthvi ke sthal bhaagon ko aabaad karanevaale pratham jeevon mein sareesrup hain. ismein unhein madad mili unki shushk shalkadaar chamadi, kade kholavaale ande jinhein jaleeya parivesh mein rakhana aavashyak na tha aur majaboot pairon se, jinki sahaayata se ve jameen par chal sakte the. pakshiyon aur stanadhaariyon ke vikaas ke pashchaat sareesrupon ka paraabhav shuroo ho gaya. aaj daayanosor jaise vishaalakaaya sareesrup vilupt ho chuke hain. fir bhi pruthvi mein 4,000 se adhik prakaar ke sareesrup paae jaate hain. sareesrupon ke paanch mukhya prakaar hote hain – chhipkali, saanp, magar, kachhue aur tuaataara. palaamoo ke pramukh sareesrupon mein shaamil hai ajagar, jo palaamoo ke vanon ka sabse bada sareesrup hai. vah lanbaai mein 10 meter se bhi adhik ho sakta hai. vah ek vishheen sarp hai jo apne shikaaron ko kundaliyon mein bheenchakar unka dam ghontakar maarta hai. ajagar saamaanyat: choohe aadi chhote praaniyon ka shikaar karta hai, parantu vah cheetalon ke chhaune, sooaron ke bachche aadi bade praaniyon ko maarane mein bhi saksham hai. palaamoo ke vishaile sarpon mein shaamil hain karait, naag aur daboiya. palaamoo mein kai prakaar ki chhipkaliyaan bhi pai jaati hain, jinmein se sabse badi goh hai jo mare hue jaanvaron ka avashesh bhi khaati hai aur khud bhi chhote jeevon ka shikaar karti hai. palaamoo ke sareesrupon ki soochi

angreji naam vaigyaanik naam hindi naam
Red Sand Boa Eryx johnii dumunha
Indian Cobra Naja naja naja naag
King Cobra Ophiophagus hannah naagaraaj
Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus dhaareedaar karait
Common Krait Bungarus caeruleus karait
Indian Python Python molurus ajagar
Rat Snake Ptyas mucosus dhaaman
Russel's Viper daboiya
Chameleon Chameleon calcarata bahuroopiya, girgit
Indian House Gecko Hemidactylus flaviviridus chhipkali
Rock Lizard Agama buberculatus chattaani chhipkali
Monitor Lizard Varanus monitor goh

ped paudhe

ped-paudhon ki drushti se palaamoo atyant samruddh hai. yahaan lagbhag 970 prakaar ke ped-paudhe hain, jinmein shaamil hain 139 jadi-bootiyaan. palaamoo ke pramukh vanaspatiyon mein shaamil hain saal, palaash, mahuaa, aam, aanvala aur baans. baans haathi aur gaur samet anek trunabhakshiyon ka mukhya aahaar hai.

Jharkhand ke prateek

saal Jharkhand raajya ka prateek vruksh hai. Jharkhand raajya ka prateek pushp palaash hai. palaash garmiyon mein foolata hai aur tab uske bade aakaar ke laal foolon se saara jungle laal ho uthata hai, maano jungle mein aag lag gayi ho. iseeliye palaash ko jungle ki jvaala ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. uske anya naam hain tesoo aur dhaak.

palaamoo ke van

palaamoo mein nimnalikhit prakaar ke van paae jaate hain:

shushk mishrit van

pahaadiyon ki khuli chotiyon mein aur pahaadon ke dakshin aur pashchim bhaagon mein jahaan kam baarish hoti hai, aise ped-paudhe paae jaate hain jo shushk jalavaayu ko bardaasht kar sakte hain. maidaanon mein bail vruksh ke van hain. in vanon mein anya prakaar ke vruksh kam hi hote hain. yeh jhoom kheti ke kaaran hai. in mishrit vanon mein saal ke ped lagbhag naheen hote. choonki pedon ki daalein baar-baar kaati jaati hain aur ati charaai aur aag ka khatra baraabar bana rahata hai, isliye ped baune aur mude-tude hote hain aur unki oonchaai 6-7 meter se adhik naheen hoti.

saal van

teen prakaar ke saal van palaamoo mein maujood hain.

  • shushk saal van

maidaanon, neechi pahaadiyon aur pahaadon ke poorvi aur uttari bhaagon mein milte hain. yadyapi in vanon mein saal vruksh ka aadhiptya hai, fir bhi vruksh 25 meter se adhik oonchaai naheen praapt karte.

  • nam saal van

pahaadon ki nichli dhalaanon, visheshakar koyal nadi ke dakshin mein sthit baresaand vanakhand ki ghaatiyon mein milte hain. in vanon mein saal achhi tarah badhta hai aur 35 meter se adhik ooncha hota hai. in vanon ke beech mein jagah-jagah khaali sthaan najar aate hain. yahaan pehle khet hua karte the.

  • pathaari ilaakon ka saal van

netrahaat pathaar mein 1,000 meter ki oonchaai par milta hai. yahaan keval saal vrukshon ke vistrut van hain. yeh van mool van ke kaate jaane ke baad ug aaya van hai.

nam mishrit van

is prakaar ke van ghaatiyon ke nichle bhaagon aur badi nadiyon ke modon ke paasavaale samatal ilaakon mein milte hain. yahaan sab mitti mein atirikt nami rahati hai jo garmiyon ke dinon bhi bani rahati hai. yahaan vrukshon ki ghata poorn hoti hai isliye jameen tak adhik roshani naheen pahunchati, jisse jameen par ghaas kam hoti hai.