paachan

paachan vah kriya hai jismein bhojan ko yaantri‍akeeya aur raasaayanik roop se chhote chhote ghatakon mein vibhaajit kar diya jaata hai taaki unhein, udaaharan ke liye, raktadhaara mein avashoshit kiya ja sake. paachan ek prakaar ki apachaya kriya hai: jismein aahaar ke bade anuon ko chhote-chhote anuon mein badal diya jaata hai.

stanapaayi praaniyon dvaara bhojan ko munh mein lekar use daanton se chabaane ke dauraan laar granthiyon se nikalne vaale laar mein maujood rasaayanon ke saath raasaayanik prakriya hone lagti hai. yeh bhojan fir graasanali se hota hua udar mein jaata hai, jahaan haaidroklorik aml sarvaadhik dooshit karne vaale sookshmaanuon ko maarkar bhojan ke kuchh hisse ka yaantri‍ak vibhaajan (jaise, proteen ka vikrutikran) aur kuchh hisse ka raasaayanik parivartan aarambh karta hai. haaidroklorik aml ka peeech (pH) maan kam hota hai, jo ki kinvakon ke liye uttam hota hai. kuchh samay (aam taur par manushyon mein ek ya do ghante, kutton mein 5-6 ghante aur billiyon mein isse kuchh kam avadhi) ke baad bhojan ke avashesh chhoti aant aur badi aant se gujrate hain aur malatyaag ke dauraan baahar nikaal diye jaate hain.[1]

anya jeevon mein bhojan ke paachan ki alag-alag prakriyaaen hoti hain.

anukram

paachan tantr

paachan tantr kai prakaar ke hote hain. aantarik aur baahya paachan mein ek buniyaadi antar hota hai. baahya paachan ka kram vikaas sabse pehle hua aur adhikaansh kavak ab bhi us par nirbhar hain.[2] is prakriya mein enjaaimon ko jeev ke aaspaas ke vaataavaran mein sraavit kiya jaata hai, jahaan ve kisi kaarbanik padaarth ko vibhaajit kar dete hain aur uske shesh padaarthon mein se kuchh hissa us jeev mein visrit ho jaata hai. baad mein jaanvaron ka kram vikaas hua aur unamein aantarik paachan viksit hua, jo ki adhik kaaragar hai kyonki vibhaajit padaarthon ka adhik hissa khaaya ja sakta hai aur raasaayanik vaataavaran ko adhik prabhaavi roop se niyantri‍at kiya ja sakta hai.[3]

lagbhag sabhi prakaar ki makadiyon sahit kuchh jeev keval jaiv-vish aur paachak rasaayanon (udaaharan ke liye, enjaaim) ko bahirkoshikeeya vaataavaran mein sraavit kar dete hain aur fir us prakriya se utpann "shorabe" ko gatak lete hain. kuchh anya jeevon mein, sambhaavit poshak tatvon ya bhojan ke jeev ke bheetar jaane ke baad ek putika ya ek thaileenuma sanrachana mein, ek nali, ya poshak tatvon ke avashoshan ko adhik kaaragar banaane vaale vishisht avayavon ke dvaara paachan kriya chalti rahati hai.

sraavan pranaaliyaan

jeevaanu paryaavaran mein maujood anya jeevon se poshak tatv praapt karne ke liye kai pranaaliyon ka upayog karte hain.

channel parivhan pranaali

channel parivhan pranaali mein kai proteen jeevaanu ki aantarik aur baahya jhilliyon mein se gujarane waali ek sansparshi vaahika bana lete hain. yeh ek saral pranaali hai, jismein keval teen proteen upaikaaiyaan hoti hai: ABC (ABC) proteen, membren fyoojn proteen emaefapi (MFP) aur outer membren proteen oemapi (OMP). yeh sraavan pranaali aayanon, aushadhiyon se lekar vibhinn aakaaron ke proteens (20 - 900 kDa) tak, vibhinn anuon ki vaahak hoti hai. sraavit kiye gaye anuon ka aakaar alag-alag hota hai aur inka aakaar chhote escherichiya kolaai peptaaid kolisin vi, (10 kedeee/10 kDa) se lekar 900 kedeee (kDa) ki laipae (LapA) aasanjan proteen koshika syudomonaus fyuroseins (Pseudomonas fluorescens) tak ka ho sakta hai.[4]

aanavik seerinj

ek aanavik seerinj ka upayog kiya jaata hai jisse hokar jeevaanu (udaaharan ke liye, kuchh prakaar ke sailmonela (salmonella), shigela (Shigella), yersiniya (Yersinia)) yookeriyautik koshikaaon mein proteen pravisht kar sakta hai. aisa hi ek tantr sabse pehle vaaya. pestis (Y. pestis) mein khoja gaya tha aur usane darshaaya ki jeevavish ya tauksins ko bas bahirkoshikeeya maadhyam mein sraavit karne ke bajaae seedhe jeevaanu ke koshikaadravya se uske paraposhi ki koshikaaon ke koshikaadravya mein pravisht kiya ja sakta hai.[5]

sanyugman tantr

baikteeriyl vikaar ki yojanaabaddh draaing.vikaar chitrakalaa1- daanakartta sel baal paida karta hai. 2- paailas jo praaptakarta sel ke saath juda hai, vah do koshikaaon ko ek saath laata hai. 3- mobile plaajmid nichked hai aur DNA ke ek ekal bhoograst to praaptakarta sel karne ke liye sthaanaantarit kar raha hai. 4- donon kakshon unke plaasmids reesarkularaaij karta hai, doosari sansh‍aaleshan aur pun: pesh pili, donon kakshon ab vyavahaarya daataaen hain.

kuchh jeevaanuon (aur aarchiyl flaijela (archaeal flagella)) ke sanyugman tantr DNA (DNA) aur proteen donon ke vaahak hone ki kshamata rakhate hain. iski khoj egrobaikteeriym tyoomeefeshiyns (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) mein ki gayi thi, jo is pranaali ka upayog karke paraposhi mein Ti plaasmid aur proteenon ka samaavesh karta hai jisse kraaun gaul (gathaan) panap jaata hai.[6]. egrobaikteeriym tyoomeefeshiyns (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) ka VirB complex iski aadiroopi pranaali hai.[7]

naaitrojan ka yaugikeekaran karne vaale rijobiya (Rhizobia) ka maamala dilchasp hai, jahaan sanyugmi tatv praakrutik roop se intar-kingdam sanyugman karte hain. in tatvon, jaise ' egrobaikteeriym (Agrobacterium)0} teeaai (Ti) ya aaraaai (Ri) plaasmid, mein ve tatv hote hain jo paudhe ki koshikaaon mein sthaanaantarit ho sakte hain. sthaanaantarit jeens paudhe ki koshthika ke kendrak mein pravesh karte hain aur paudhe ki koshthikaaon ko prabhaavi roop se opaain ke utpaadan ke kaarkhaanon mein roopaantarit kar dete hain aur jeevaanu unka upayog kaarban aur oorja ke sroton ke roop mein karte hain. paudhe ki sankramit koshthikaaen kraaun gaul ya vruksh vran ka nirmaan karti hain. is tarah teeaai (Ti) aur aaraaai (Ri) plaasmid ke endosimbauent hote hain aur fir ve sankramit paudhe ke endosimbauent (ya parajeevi) hote hain.

teeaai (Ti) aur aaraaai (Ri) plaasmid swayam sanyugmi hote hain. jeevaanuon ke beech teeaai (Ti) aur aaraaai (Ri) hastaantaran mein intar-kingdam hastaantaran ki pranaali (vir, ya viruleins (virulence), oparaan) se svatantr ek pranaali (tra, ya traansafr (transfer), oparaan) ka upayog kiya jaata hai. aise hastaantaran se pehle se avishaakt egrobaikteeriya (Agrobacteria) se vishaakt prabhedon ka nirmaan karte hain.

baahya jhilli putikaaon ka sraavan

oopar soocheebaddh malteeproteen complex ke upayog ke alaava gram-nakaaraatmak jeevaanuon dvaara ek aur vidhi se padaarth ka sraavan kiya jaata hai: baahya jhilli putikaaon ka nirmaan.[8] baahya jhilli ke kuchh hisse alag ho jaate hain aur periplaasmik padaarthon ko aavarit karte hue vasa ki dohari parat se nirmit gol sanrachanaaen bana lete hain. yeh paaya gaya hai ki jeevaanuon ki kai prajaatiyon ki putikaaon mein vishaaktata ke tatv hote hain, kuchh ka imyoonomaudyooletari asar hota hai aur kuchh paraposhi koshthikaaon se jud kar unhein vishnn bana deti hain. jahaan putikaaon ke sraavan ko tanaav ki sthiti ke prati saamaanya pratikriya ke taur par darshaaya gaya hai, vaheen kaargo proteen bhaarit karne ki prakriya chayanaatmak prateet hoti hai.[9]

faigosom

faigosom jeevaanubhakshan dvaara avashoshit kisi kan ke ird gird nirmit riktika ko kehte hain. yeh riktika us kan ke ird gird maujood koshthika jhilli ke pighlaav se banti hai. faigosom ek koshthikeeya kaksh hota hai jismein rogajanak sookshmajeevon ko maar kar unka paachan kiya ja sakta hai. faigosom apni paripkvata ki prakriya mein laaisosom ke saath mil kar faigolaaisosoms ka nirmaan karte hain. manushyon mein, entaameeba histolitika (Entamoeba histolytica) laal rakt koshikaaon ka jeevaanubhakshan kar sakte hain.[10]

injested ereethrosaaits ke saath entaamoeba ke trofojoits histolitika

jatharavaahikeeya guha

jatharavaahikeeya guha paachan aur shareer ke sabhi bhaagon mein poshak tatvon ke vitran donon prakriyaaon mein udar ki tarah kaarya karti hai. barhikoshikeeya paachan isi keindreeya guha mein hota hai jismein gaistrodarmis ki parat lagi hoti hai, jo epitheeliym ki aantarik parat hoti hai. is guha mein baahar ki or keval ek chhidr hota hai jo mukh aur guda donon ka kaarya karta hai: apashisht aur apaachit padaarth is mukh/guda se utsarjit kar diya jaata hai. ise apoorn aant ke roop mein varnit kiya ja sakta hai.

Venus flaaitraip jaisa ek paudha prakaash sanshleshan ke dvaara apna bhojan swayam bana sakta hai. yeh paudha oorja aur kaarban praapt karne ke paaramparik uddeshya se apne shikaar ko khaata aur pachaata naheen hai, lekin apne shikaar mein praathamik roop se un aavashyak poshak tatvon (visheshakar naaitrojan aur faasforas) ki talaash karta hai jinki uske daladali, amleeya aavaas mein atyadhik kami hoti hai.[11]

Venus flaaitraip (daayoniya maskipula) ki pattiyaan

vishesheekrut avayav va vyavahaar

kaitaleena ek prakaar ka tota hai jiske chonch kartan darshaati hai.
aakaar tulana ke liye vidroop chonch aur shaasak.
ek kaaracharodon megaalodon ke daant
ek jugaali karanevaala paachan pranaali ke kisi na kisi chitran.

apne aahaar ke paachan mein sahaayata ke liye praaniyon mein tarah-tarah ke avayavon ka kram vikaas hua, jaise chonch, jeebh, daant, pota, peshani aur anya.

chonch

makaaoo tote mukhyat: beej, gireedaar fal aur fal khaate hain aur apni shaanadaar chonch ka upayog karke kade se kade beej ko kholte hain. sabse pehle ve apni chonch ke nukeele sire se khurach kar ek patali rekha banaate hain aur fir chonch ke bagal ke bhaag se ve beej ko faad dete hain.

skvid ya kaalikaakshepi machhali ke munh mein ek nukeeli seeng jaisi chonch hoti hai jo mukhyat: kitin[12] aur kraus linkd proteen se bani hoti hai. iska upayog shikaar ko maar kar use khaane yogya tukadon mein faadne ke liye kiya jaata hai. chonch behat majboot hoti hai, lekin usamein samudri prajaatiyon sahit anya kai jeevon ke daanton aur jabadon ke samaan koi khanij padaarth naheen hote.[13] chonch skvid ka ekamaatr hissa hai jise pachaaya naheen ja sakta.

jihva

jihva mukh ke tal par sthit dhaanchaagat maansapeshi hoti hai jo aahaar ko chabaane aur niglane mein sahaayak hoti hai. yeh samvedansheel hoti hai aur ise laar ke dvaara nam rakha jaata hai. jeebh ka nichla hissa chikni shlaishmik jhilli se dhanka hota hai. jihva ka upayog bhojan ke kanon ko ghuma kar ek graas banaane mein kiya jaata hai jiske baad vah graas kramaankuchan ki madad se graasanali mein utaar diya jaata hai. jeebh ke agrabhaag ke nichle hisse mein sthit avajihvi kshetr vah sthaan hota hai jahaan mukh shlaishmik jhilli bahut patali hoti hai aur jiske neeche shiraaon ka ek tantujaal hota hai. avajihvi maarg yeh sthaan shareer mein kuchh aushadhiyaan pravisht karaane ke liye ek aadarsh sthaan hota hai. avajihvi maarg mukheeya guha ke vaahikeeya gunon ka laabh uthaata hai aur iski madad se jatharaantraparak nali ko baaipaas karte hue aushadhi ko teji se hrudavaahika tantr mein bheja ja sakta hai.

daant

daant kai prushthavanshiyon ke jabadon (ya mukh) mein pai jaane waali chhoti safed sanrachana hoti hai jinka upayog aahaar ko cheerane, chheelane, doodh nikaalne aur chabaane ke liye kiya jaata hai. daant haddiyon ke naheen bane hote, balki alag-alag ghanatv aur kathorata ke ootakon ke bane hote hain. kisi jaanavar ke daant ka aakaar uske aahaar se juda hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, vanaspati padaarthon ka paachan behat kathin hota hai, isliye shaakabhakshiyon ke munh mein chabaane ke liye kai daadhein hoti hain.

maansabhakshiyon ke daanton ka aakaar praaniyon ko maarane aur maans ko cheerane ke liye upayukt hota hai, iske liye ve khaas aakaar vaale bhedak daanton ka upayog karte hain. shaakabhakshiyon ke daant bhojan, yaani vanasvati padaarthon ko chabaakar peesane ke liye bane hote hain.

pota

pota paachan nali ka ek patali deevaar wala vistaarit bhaag hota hai jiska upayog paachan se pehle aahaar ke sanchayan ke liye kiya jaata hai. kuchh pakshiyon mein yeh ann nali ya gale ke paas ubhari hui ek maansal thaili hoti hai. vayask kabootaron mein yeh pota doodh bana sakta hai jisse navajaat pakshiyon ko doodh pilaaya jaata hai.[14]

kuchh keeton mein ek pota ya badhi hui graas nali ho sakti hai.

chaturth aamaashaya

shaakabhakshiyon mein andhaantr (ya jugaali karne vaale chatushpadi pashuon mein jatharaant) viksit hue hain. jugaali karne vaale pashuon mein agrodar hota hai jismein chaar kaksh hote hain. ye kaksh hain pratham aamaashaya, dviteeya aamaashaya, truteeya aamaashaya evam jatharaant. pehle do kakshon, arthaat pratham va dviteeya aamaashaya mein bhojan laar mein mishrit hokar thos aur drav padaarth ki paraton mein vibhaajit ho jaata hai. thos padaarth ekatr hokar paagur (ya graas) bana lete hain. is paagur ko fir vaapas munh mein laaya jaata hai aur jugaali karke yaani use dheere-dheere chaba kar poori tarah laar ke saath mila diya jaata hai aahaar kanon ko chhota kar diya jaata hai.

reshon, vishesh roop se selyooloj aur hemi-selyooloj, ko maaikrob yaani sookshmaanuon (jeevaanu, protojoaa aur fngas) dvaara in kakshon (reticulo-rumen) mein pehle vaashpasheel vaseeya amlon, esitik aml, praupiyaunik aml aur byootaayarik aml vibhaajit kiya jaata hai. truteeya aamaashaya mein paani aur kai akaarbanik khanij tatv rakt dhaara manb avashoshit ho jaate hain.

jatharaant jugaali karne vaale pashuon mein udar ka chautha aur antim kaksh hota hai. yeh ekal aamaashaya udar (jaisa manushyon ya shookaron mein hota hai) ka ek kareebi samatulya hai aur ismein paachya aahaar ko lagbhag samaan vidhi se sansaadhit kiya jaata hai. praathamik roop se yeh maaikrobaayal aur aahaareeya proteen ke esid haaidrolaaisis ke sthaan ke roop mein kaarya karta hai aur in proteen sroton ko chhoti aant mein aur adhik paachan aur avashoshan ke liye taiyaar karta hai. antat: paachya padaarthon ko chhoti aant mein le jaaya jaata hai jahaan poshak tatvon ka paachan aur avashoshan hota hai. pratham va dviteeya aamaashaya mein utpann hue sookshmaanuon ka bhi chhoti aant mein paachan hota hai.

vishesheekrut vyavahaar

ek maans ka tukada "ek udta hua bulabula".is vyavahaar ka ek kaaran yeh hai ki atirikt jal ko vaashpit karke apne bhojan ki saandrata badhaane ke liye makkhi jugaali karke apne bhojan ko ek bulabule mein badal deti hai

oopar jatharaant aur pote ke antargat jugaali ki prakriya ka ullekh kiya gaya hai aur saath hi pote ke doodh ka ullekh hai, jo kabootaron ke pote ki deevaar se nikalne wala straav hota hai jise vayask jugaali karke apne navajaat pakshiyon ko doodh pilaate hain.[15].

kai shaarkon mein apne udar ko ulta karke udar ko apne munh se baahar nikaalne ki kshamata hoti hai jisse ve anachaahe padaarthon se chhutakaara pa sakte hain. (iska vikaas shaayad jaivavishon se sampark ko ghataane ke liye hua hoga).

anya praani, jaise kharagosh aur kruntak, malabhakshan karte hain, ve apne bhojan, visheshakar mota chaara khaane par, vishesheekrut mal khaate hain. kaipeebaara, kharagosh haimsatar choohe aur anya sambandhit prajaatiyon ki ek jatil paachan pranaali naheen hoti jaise ki, udaaharan ke liye, jugaali karne vaale praaniyon ki hoti hai. iske bajaay ve apne bhojan ko dobaara apni aanton mein se gujaar kar ghaas se aur adhik poshak tatv praapt kar lete hain. aanshik roop se hajm ho chuke bhojan ki mulaayam goliyon ka mal ke roop mein tyaag kiya jaata hai aur ye praani unhein aam taur par turant kha lete hain. ve saamaanya mal tyaag bhi karte hain, jise ve naheen khaate hain.

chhote haathi, panda, koaala aur gainde apni maan ka mal khaate hain. aisa ve shaayad khaae gaye vanaspati ko pachaane mein aavashyak jeevaanu praapt karne ke liye karte hain. jab ve janm lete hain, to unki aanton me ye jeevaanu naheen hote (ve poori tarah jeevaanuheen hote hain). in jeevaanuon ke bina ve kai vanaspati tatvon se koi poshak moolya praapt naheen kar sakeinge.

keinchuon mein

ek keinchue ke paachan tantr mein munh, galakosh, aahaar nali, pota, peshani aur aant hote hain. mun‍aah majboot honthon se ghira hota hai jo mrut ghaas, pattiyon aur kharapatavaar ke tukadon aur chabaane mein madad ke liye mitti ke kanon ko lapakane ke liye ek haath ki tarah kaarya karta hai. honth aahaar ko chhote chhote tukadon mein vibhaajit kar dete hain. aahaar ko aage badhne mein aasaani ke liye galakosh mein aahaar ko shleshma ke sraavan se chikna bana diya jaata hai. bhojan padaarthon ki sadn se paida hue amlon ko nishprabhaavi karne ke liye aahaar nali usamein kailshiym kaarbonet mila deti hai. pote mein asthaayi sanchaya hota h jahaan bhojan aur kailshiym kaarbonet ko milaaya jaata hai. peshani ki shaktishaali maansapeshiyaan bhojan aur dhool ko math kar mishrit kar deti hain. jab mathana poorn ho jaata hai, to peshani ki deevaaron ki granthiyaan is gaadhe lasadaar mishran mein enjaaim milaati hai jo kaarbanik padaarthon ke vibhaajan mein sahaayak hote hain. kramaakunchan ke dvaara is mishran ko aant mein bheja jaata hai jahaan upayogi baikteeriya raasaayanik vibhaajan ki prakriya ko jaari rakhate hain. is prakriya se carbohydrate, proteen, vasa aur vibhinn vitaamin aur khanij nikalte hain jo shareer mein avashoshit kar liye jaate hain.

prushthavanshiyon ke paachan tantr ka avlokan

adhiktar prushthavanshiyon mein, paachan ki kriya paachan pranaali mein kai charanon ki prakriya hoti hai. yeh prakriya kachche padaarthon, aksar anya jeevon, ke antargrahan se aarambh hoti hai. antargrahan mein saamaanyat: kuchh prakaar ke yaantri‍akeeya aur raasaayanik sansaadhan shaamil hote hain. paachan kriya ko chaar charanon mein baanta gaya hai:

  1. antargrahan: bhojan ko mukh mein daalna (paachan tantr mein aahaar ka pravesh),
  2. yaantri‍akeeya va raasaayanik vibhaajan: parinaami graas ko chabaana aur udar va aanton mein usaka paani, amlon, pitt aur enjaaimon ke saath mishran banaana taaki jatil anuon ko aasaan sanrachanaaon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sake.
  3. avashoshan: paraasaran, sakriya parivhan aur visran ke dvaara paachan pranaali se poshak tatvon ka parisanchaari aur laseeka keshikaaon mein avashoshan aur
  4. ijesshan (malatyaag): malatyaag ke dvaara paachan nali se apaachit padaarthon ka nikaala jaana.

is prakriya mein niglane aur kramaakunchan ke dvaara saari pranaali mein maansapeshiyon ki halachal antarnihit hoti hai. paachan ke pratyek charan ke liye oorja ki aavashyakta hoti hai aur yeh oorja avashoshit padaarthon se upalabdh karaai gayi oorja se "overhead shulk" ke roop mein vasool ki jaati hai. is overhead laagat mein maujood antaron ke jeevanashaili, vyavahaar aur yahaan tak ki shaareerik dhaanchon par mahatvapoorn prabhaav hote hain. iske udaaharan manushyon mein dekhe ja sakte hain, jo anya hominid maanavon (baalon ka abhaav, chhote jabade aur pesheevinyaas, bhinn deintishn ya dantodbhedan, aanton ki lanbaai, bhojan pakaana aadi) se kaafi bhinnata rakhate hain.

paachan prakriya ka pramukh bhaag chhoti aant mein sampann hota hai. badi aant praathamik roop se aanton ke baikteeriya dvaara apaachya padaarthon ke kinvan (frameinteshan) ke liye aur malatyaag se pehle paachan kiye ja rahe padaarth se paani ke pun:shoshan ke liye ek sthaan ke roop mein istemaal hoti hai.

stanadhaariyon mein, paachan kriya ki taiyaari kapaaleeya charan se aarambh hoti hai jismein mukh mein laar ka utpaadan hota hai aur udar mein paachak enjaaim banaae jaate hain. yaantri‍akeeya aur raasaayanik paachan mun‍aah mein aarambh hota hai, jahaan bhojan ko chaba kar laar ke saath achhi tarah milaaya jaata hai jisse staarch ka enjaaimaitik sansaadhan aarambh hota hai. udar chabaane aur amlon aur enjaaimon ke saath milaane ki prakriya ke dvaara yaantri‍akeeya aur raasaayanik roop se bhojan ko chhote chhote kanon mein badalne ka kaarya jaari rakhata hai. avashoshan udar aur aamaashaya va aanton ke maarg mein hota hai aur malatyaag ke dvaara yeh prakriya poori hoti hai.

manushyon mein paachan prakriya

sampoorn paachan pranaali lagbhag 9 meter lambi hoti hai. ek svasth manushya mein is prakriya mein 24 se 72 ghante lag sakte hain.

aamaashayi sraavan ke charan

  • kapaaleeya charan – yeh charan aahaar ke udar mein pravesh karne se pehle hota hai aur ismein khaane aur paachan ke liye shareer dvaara ki gayi taiyaariyaan shaamil hoti hain. drushya aur vichaar serebral kaurteks (pramastishk-praantastha) arthaat mastishk ki satah ko uttejit karte hain. svaad aur gandh ke uddeepan ko adh:shvetak (hypothalamus) aur meru-rajja (medulla oblongata) mein bheja jaata hai. iske baad use vegas tantri‍aka aur esitaailakolaain ke sraavan se gujaara jaata hai. is charan mein aamaashayi sraavan adhiktam dar ka 40% tak badh jaata hai. udar ki amleeyata is bindu par aahaar ke dvaara bafr naheen ki jaati aur is prakaar saumetostaitin ke D sel sraavan ke dvaara bhitteeya (aml sraavan) aur G sel (gaistrin sraavan) gatividhi rokane ka kaarya karti hai.
  • aamaashaya charan – is charan mein 3 se 4 ghante lagte hain. yeh udar ke fulaav, udar mein aahaar ki maujoodagi aur peeech (pH) mein kami dvaara uddeept kiya jaata hai. fulaav se lambi aur aantrapeshi-astar ki paraavartit kriyaaen sakriya karti hai. isse esitaailakolaain ka sraavan sakriya hota hai jisse aur adhik aamaashayi yoosh ka sraavan hota hai. jaise hi proteen udar mein pravesh karta hai, to vah haaidrojan aayans ke saath jud jaata hai, jisse udar ka pH lagbhag peeech (pH) 1-3 tak gir jaata hai. gaistrin aur echaseeel (HCl) sraavan ka avarodhan hata diya jaata hai. isse G sel gaistrin ka sraavan karne ke liye trigr ho jaata hai aur fir vah bhitteeya koshikaaon ko HCl ka sraavan karne ke liye uddeept karta hai. HCl ka sraavan esitaailakolaain aur histaamaain dvaara bhi trigr kiya jaata hai.
  • aantr charan – is charan ke do bhaag hote hain, uddeepak aur avarodhak. aanshik roop se pacha hua aahaar paachanaantr mein bhar jaata hai. isse aanton ka gaistrin sraavit hone ke liye trigr ho jaata hai. enterogaistrik paraavartit kriya vegal naabhik ka avarodhan karti hai aur samvedi faaibar sakriya karti hai jiske kaaran paayalaurik sfinktar kas jaata hai taaki aur aahaar pravesh na kar sake aur sthaaneeya paraavartit kriya ko avarodhit karta hai.

mukhadvaar

manushyon mein paachan kriya mukhadvaar se aarambh hoti hai jahaan par aahaar ko chabaaya jaata hai. mukh dwaar mein ekjaukrin laar granthiyon ki teen jodi‍ayon (pairautid, sabamaindibyoolar aur avajihvi) dvaara badi maatra mein (1-1.5 liter/din) laar sraavit ki jaati hai aur use jeebh ki madad se chabaae gaye bhojan mein milaaya jaata hai. laar do prakaar ki hoti hai. ek hoti hai taral, paani jaisa sraavan aur usaka kaam bhojan ko geela karna hota hai. doosari hoti hai gaadha, shlaishmik sraavan aur yeh lubrikeint ka kaam karke bhojan ke kanon ko ek doosare se jod kar graas banaati hai. laar mukh dwaar ko saaf karke bhojan ko nam kar deti hai aur ismein paachak enjaaim jaise saileevari emilej hote hain, jo paaleesaikeraaid jaise staarch ka raasaayanik vibhaajan karke use dissaikeraaid jaise maaltoj mein badalne mein sahaayak hota hai. ismein shleshma bhi hota hai, yeh ek glaaikoproteen hai jo bhojan ko narm karke use graas mein badalne mein sahaayak hota hai.

niglane par chabaaya gaya aahaar graasanali mein le jaaya jaata hai aur orofairinkj aur haaipofairinkj se gujrata hai. niglane ke tantr ka samanvayan meru-rajja (medulla oblongata) mein sthit niglane ke kendra aur sanyojak angon mein kiya jaata hai. jab bhojan ka graas mukh mein peechhe ki or dhakel diya jaata hai, to yeh paraavartit kriya galakosh (pharynx) mein maujood sparsh graahiyon dvaara aarambh ki jaati hai.

galakosh ya grasani (pharynx)

galakosh gardan aur gale ka hissa hai jo munh aur naasika dwaar ke theek peechhe sthit hota hai aur graasanali ke oopar sthit hota hai. yeh paachan tantr aur shvasan tantr ka hissa hota hai. choonki bhojan aur vaayu donon galakosh se hokar jaate hain, isliye bhojan ke‍ nigle jaane par sanyoji ootakon ka ek palla epiglautis shvaasanali ke oopar band ho jaata hai jisse gala ghutne ya shvaasaavarodhan ko roka ja sake.

orofairinkj galakosh ka vah bhaag hota hai jo mukhadvaar ke peechhe sthit hota hai aur usaki deevaar par stareekrut skvaimas epitheliym ki parat hoti hai. naisofairinkj naasika dwaar ke peechhe sthit hota hai aur usaki deevaar par siliyeted kaulmnar syoodostraitifaaid epitheliym ki parat hoti hai.

oopar sthit orofairinkj ki tarah haaipofairinkj (lairingofairinkj) bhojan aur vaayu ke liye ek maarg ke roop mein kaarya karta hai usaki deevaar par stareekrut skvaimas epitheliym ki parat hoti hai. yeh seedhe khade epiglautis ke neeche hoti hai aur kanthanali tak jaati hai, jahaan aavashyak shvaasatantreeya aur paachanatantreeya maarg vibhaajit hote hain. is bindu par svarayantragrasani (laryngopharynx) graasanali ke saath chalti hai. niglate samay bhojan ko praathamikta di jaati hai aur vaayu maarg asthaayi roop se band ho jaata hai.

graasanali

graasanali lagbhag 25 seinteemeetar lambi ek sankari pesheeya nali hoti hai jo mukh ke peechhe galakosh se aarambh hoti hai, seene se thoresik daayafraam se gujrati hai aur udar sthit hrudaya dwaar par jaakar samaapt hoti hai. graasanali ki deevaar maheen maansapeshiyon ki do paraton ki bani hoti hai jo graasanali se baahar tak ek satat parat banaati hain aur lambe samay tak dheere dheere sankuchit hoti hain. in maansapeshiyon ki aantarik parat neeche jaate chhallon ke roop mein ghumaavadaar maarg mein hoti hai, jabki baahari parat lanbavat hoti hai. graasanali ke sheersh par ootakon ka ek palla hota hai jise epiglautis kehte hain jo niglane ke dauraan ke oopar band ho jaata hai jisse bhojan shvaasanali mein pravesh na kar sake. chabaaya gaya bhojan inheen peshiyon ke kramaakunchan ke dvaara graasanali se hokar udar tak dhakel diya jaata hai. graasanali se bhojan ko gujrane mein keval saat second lagte hain aur is dauraan paachan kriya naheen hoti.

udar

udar ek chhoti, angreji ke 'J' akshar ke aakaar ki thaili hoti hai jiski deevaarein moti, lacheeli maansapeshiyon ki bani hoti hai jo bhojan ka bhandaaran karti hain aur use chhote chhote kanon mein badalne mein madad karti hain. bhojan yadi chhote-chhote kanon mein vibhaajit kar diya jaae, to chhoti aant mein usaka poori tarah paachan hone ki sambhaavana adhik hoti hai aur udar mein hone wala manthan munh mein aarambh hui bhojan ke vibhaajan ki prakriya mein sahaayak hota hai. jugaali karne vaale chatushpadi praani jo reshedaar padaarthon (mukhya roop se selyooloj) ko pacha sakte hain, ve agrodar aur jugaali ka upayog karke is vibhaajan ko aur aage badhaate hain. kharagosh aur anya kuchh praani padaarthon ko apne saare paachan tantr se do baar gujaarate hain. adhiktar pakshi chhote kankad khaakar apni peshani mein hone waali yaantri‍akeeya prakriya mein sahaayata karte hain.

bhojan udar sthit hrudaya dwaar se udar mein aata hai jahaan use aur adhik chhote-chhote kanon mein toda jaata hai aur proteen ke vibhaajan ke liye gaistrik aml, pepsin aur anya paachak enjaaimon ke saath achhi tarah milaaya jaata hai. udar ke enjaaimon ka ek anukoolatam bindu bhi hota hai, arthaat ve kisi khaas peeech (pH) aur taapamaan par sabse behata kaarya karte hain. aml swayam bhojan ko choorn mein naheen badalta, vah keval pepsin enjaaim ki kriya ke liye anukoolatam peeech (pH) upalabdh karaata hai aur bhojan ke saath bheetar aane vaale sookshm jeevon ko nasht kar deta hai. vah proteenon ko vikrut bhi kar sakta hai. yeh pauleepeptaaid bond ko ghataane aur namak setuon ko bhang karne ki prakriya hai jo dviteeyak, truteeyak aur chaturth proteen sanrachana ki kshati ka kaaran banti hai. udar ki bhitteeya koshikaaen ek glaaikoproteen bhi sraavit karti hain, jise intrinsik faiktar kaha jaata hai aur jo vitaamin bi-12 ke avashoshan ko saksham banaata hai. anya chhote kan, jaise alkohal, udar mein avashoshit kar liye jaate hain, ve udar ki jhilli se gujrate hue seedhe raktavaahi tantr mein pravesh kar jaate hain. udar mein bhojan ardh-drav svaroop mein hota hai jo poorn hone par kaaim ke naam se jaana jaata hai.

ann nali ka anuprasth bhaag udar ke bheetar chaar (ya paanch, shlaishmik jhilli ke tahat varnan dekhein) spasht aur suviksit paraton ko ujaagar karta hai.

  • madhyakala (Mesothelial) ko‍aashikaaon ki ek patali parat seerami jhilli, jo udar ki sabse baahari deevaar honti hai.
  • maansapesheeya parat, bheetar liye gaye bhojan ko milaane ke liye upayog ki jaane waali maansapeshiyon ki ek suviksit parat hoti hai, jo alag-alag sanrekhanon mein chalne vaale teen set se mil kar bani hoti hai. sabse baahari parat udar ke lanbavat aksh (oopar se neeche) ke samaanaantar chalti hai, beech ki parat aksh se samakeindri (udar ka kshaitij roop se chakkar lagaate hue) hoti hai aur sabse bheetar ki tirchhi parat, jo antargrahit bhojan ko milaane aur use chhote kanon mein badalne ke liye uttaradaayi hoti hai aur lanbavat aksh se koneeya roop mein chalti hai. aantarik parat keval udar mein hi hoti hai, anya sabhi paachak pranaaliyon mein keval pehli do paratein hoti hain.
  • sabamyookosa, yeh aantarik pesheeya parat ko shlaishmik jhilli jodne vaale sanyoji ootak se bana hota hai aur ismein shiraaen, rakt aur laseeka dhamaniyaan hoti hain.
  • shlaishmik jhilli bahut baar mudi hui sabse androoni parat hoti hai. ise epitheeliym (epithelium), laimina propriya (lamina propria) aur maskyoolairis myookosa (muscularis mucosae) mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai, haalaanki kuchh log sabse baahari maskyoolairis myookosa (muscularis mucosae) ko ek alag parat maanate hain kyonki yeh ant:janastar ya endodarm ke bajaae poorvamadhyajanastar ya mesodarn se viksit hoti hai (aur is tarah kul 5 paratein hoti hain). epitheeliym aur laimina sanyoji ootakon se bhari hoti hai aur aamaashayi granthiyon se dhanki hoti hai jo saral ya naleedaar shaakhaaon waali ho sakti hain aur shleshma, haaidroklorik aml, pepsinojen aur renin ka sraavan karti hai. shleshma bhojan ko chikna banaati hai aur haaidroklorik aml ko udar ki deevaaron ko prabhaavit karne se rokati hai.

chhoti aant

udar mein sansaadhit kiye jaane ke baad bhojan jatharanirgameeya sankochi peshi se hokar chhoti aant mein bhej diya jaata hai. doodhiya kaaim ke paachanaantr mein pravesh karne ke baad paachan aur avashoshan prakriyaaon ka ek bada bhaag yaheen par sampann hota hai. yahaan use teen alag alag dravon se milaaya jaata hai:

  • pitt, jo avashoshan karne ke liye vasa ka imalseekaran karta hai, kaaim ko nishprabhaavi karta hai aur iska upayog bilin aur pittaaml jaise apashisht utpaadon ko baahar nikaalne ke liye kiya jaata hai. pitt ka utpaadan yakrut dvaara kiya jaata hai aur fir use pittaashaya mein bhandaarit kiya jaata hai. pittaashaya mein maujood pitt bahut adhik saandr hota hai.
  • agnyaashaya dvaara banaaya gaya paachak ras.
  • kshaareeya shlaishmik jhilliyon ke aantr enjaaim. in enjaaimon mein maaltej, laiktej aur sukrej (ye teenon keval shakaron ko sansaadhit karte hain), tripsin aur kaaimotripsin shaamil hote hain.

jab chhoti aant mein peeech (pH) star badalta hai aur dheere-dheere samaakshaareeya ho jaata hai, to aur adhik enjaaim sakriya ho jaate hain jo raasaayanik roop se vibhinn poshak tatvon ko aur chhote anuon mein vibhaajit kar dete hain taaki ve raktavaahikeeya ya laseekeeya tantron mein avashoshit kiye ja sakein. vili naamak chhoti, ungali jaisi sanrachanaaen, jinmein se pratyek maaikrovili naamak aur bhi chhoti, baalon jaisi sanrachanaaon se ghiri hoti hai, aant ka satahi kshetrafal badha kar aur poshak tatvon ke avashoshit hone ki gati badha kar poshak tatvon ke avashoshan ko behtar banaati hain. avashoshit poshak tatvon se bhara rakt hepaatik portal shira se hokar chhoti aant se baahar le jaaya jaata hai aur yakrut mein pahunchaaya jaata hai jahaan use chhaana jaata hai, usamein se tauksin nikaale jaate hain aur poshak tatvon ko sansaadhit kiya jaata hai.

chhoti aant aur paachak pranaali ka shesh bhaag kramaakunchan karta hai jisse bhojan ko udar se malaashaya tak le jaaya jaata hai aur bhojan ko paachak rason se mila kar avashoshit kiya jaata hai. vruttaakaar aur lanbavat maansapeshiyaan paraspar virodhi hoti hai, jab ek sikudti hai to doosari shithil ho jaati hai. jab vruttaakaar maansapeshiyaan sikudti hain, to kotar aur adhik sankara aur lamba ho jaata hai aur isse bhojan ko daba kar aage ki or dhakel diya jaata hai. jab lanbavat maansapeshiyaan sikudati hain, to vruttaakaar maansapeshiyaan shithil ho jaati hain aur aahaar nali aur adhik chaudi aur chhoti hokar bhojan ko pravesh karne mein sahaayak hoti hai. manusyo me choti aant ki lambai 7mitar hoti hai

badi aant

chhoti aant se hokar gujrane ke baad bhojan badi aant mein pravesh karta hai. badi aant mein paachan ki kriya itni avadhi tak jaati hai jisse aahaar nali ke baikteeriya kriya karke kinvan kar sakein, jismein chhoti aant mein sansaadhan ke baavajood bache rah gaye kuchh padaarthon ko vibhaajit kiya jaata hai. vibhaajan ke kuchh utpaad avashoshit kar liye jaate hain. manushyon mein, in padaarthon mein sabse jatil saikeraaid (manushyon mein adhiktam teen daaisaikeraaid pachaae ja sakte hain) shaamil hote hain. iske alaava, kai prushthavanshiyon mein badi aant drav ko pun: avashoshit kar leti hai; registaani jeevanashaili vaale kuchh prushthavanshiyon mein is punarshoshan ke kaaran satat astitv sambhav hota hai.

manushyon mein badi aant lagbhag 1.5 meter lambi hoti hai aur iske teen bhaag hote hain: chhoti aant se milne vaale bindu par sthit andhaantr, bruhadaantr aur malaashaya. bruhadaantr ke bhi chaar bhaag hote hain: aarohi bruhadaantr, anuprasth bruhadaantr, avarohi bruhadaantr aur avagrah bruhadaantr. badi aant graas se paani sokh leti hai aur mal ko tak tak jama rakhati hai jab tak ki use baahar nikaal naheen diya jaata. jo aahaar utpaad vili se hokar naheen nikal sakte, jaise selyooloj (aahaar faaibar), unhein shareer ke anya apashisht padaarthon mein mila diya jaata hai aur ve kada aur saandr mal ban jaate hain. yeh mal ek nishchit avadhi ke liye malaashaya mein rahata hai aur fir aakunchan aur shithiln ke kaaran guda dwaar ke jriye shareer se nikaal diya jaata hai. is apashisht padaarth ka baahar niklana guda ki sankochak peshi dvaara niyantri‍at kiya jaata hai.

skaai paachan

chhoti aant mein vasa ki maujoodagi aise haarmon paida karti hai jo agnyaashaya se paachak ras laaipej ke sraavan ko uddeept karti hai, jo saamaanyat: aage ki prakriya ke liye yakrut mein, ya bhandaaran ke liye vaseeya ootak mein jaata hai.

paachak haarmon

pramukh paachan haarmon ki ladaai

stanadhaariyon mein paanch haarmon hote hain jo paachak pranaali mein sahaayak hote hain aur use niyantri‍at karte hain. prushthavanshiyon mein ismein kai parivartan hote hain, udaa‍aaharan ke liye pakshiyon mein. ye prakriyaaen jatil hoti hain aur inke atirikt vivran lagaataar khoje jaate rahe hain. udaaharan ke liye, haal ke varshon mein chayaapachayi ya metaabolik niyantran (mukhyat: glookoj-insulin tantr) ke kai sambandh khoje gaye hain.

  • gaistrin – yeh udar mein hota hai aur gaistrik granthiyon ko pepsinojen (pepsin enjaain ka ek akriya svaroop) aur haaidroklorik aml ke sraavan ke liye uddeept karta hai. gaistrin ka sraavan udar mein bhojan ke pahunchane se aarambh hota hai. nyoon pH is sraavan mein rukaavat laata hai.
  • seekretin – yeh paachanaantr mein hota hai aur agnyaashaya mein sodi‍ayam baaikaarbonet ke sraavan ki shurooaat karta hai aur yakrut mein pitt ke sraavan ka uddeepan karta hai. yeh haarmon kaaim ki amleeyata par pratisaad deta hai.
  • kaulasistakaainin (CCK) - yeh paachanaantr mein hota hai aur agnyaashaya mein paachak enjaaimon ke sraavan ki shurooaat karta hai aur pittaashaya mein pitt ke sraavan ka uddeepan karta hai. yeh haarmon kaaim mein vasa hone par sraavit hota hai.
  • gaistrik inahibi‍atari peptaaid jeeaaipi (GIP) - yeh paachanaantr mein hota hai aur udar mein manthan kam karta hai jisse udar mein udar mein khaali hone ki prakriya ko dheema karta hai. iska ek anya kaarya hai insulin ka sraavan prerit karta hai.
  • motilin - yeh paachanaantr mein hota hai aur gaistrointestinl motiliti ke sthaanaantarit hote maayoilektrik jatil ghatak ko badhaata hai aur pepsin utpaadan ka uddeepan karta hai.

paachan mein peeech (pH) ka mahatva

paachan ek jatil prakriya hai jo kai kaarakon dvaara niyantri‍at ki jaati hai. saamaanya roop se kaarya karne waali paachak nali mein peeech (pH) ek aham bhoomika nibhaata hai. mukh, galakosh aur graas nali mein peeech (pH) saamaanyat: 6.8 hota hai, jo ki atyant ksheen amleeya hai. paachak nali ke is kshetr mein laar peeech (pH) ka niyantran karti hai. laar mein sailivri emilej hota hai aur yeh carbohydrate ka monosaikeraaids mein vibhaajan aarambh karta hai. adhikaansh paachak enjaaim pH ke prati samvedansheel hote hain aur ye kisi nyoon peeech (pH) vaale parivesh, jaise udar, mein kaarya naheen kareinge. 7 se kam pH amleeyata ingit karta hai, jabki 7 se adhik peeech (pH) kshaar ka sanket deta hai; haalaanki aml ya kshaar ki saandrata ki bhi ek bhoomika hoti hai.

udar mein peeech (pH) atyadhik amleeya hota hai aur vahaan hone ke dauraan carbohydrate ke‍ vibhaajan ko avarodhit karta hai. udar ke in teevr amleeya padaarthon ke do laabh hote hain, chhoti aant mein paachan ki kriya aage badhaane ke liye proteen ka vikrutikran karna aur saath hi gair-vishisht pratirksha pradaan karna, jisse vibhinn rogaanu dheeme ya nasht ho jaate hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

chhoti aant mein paachak kinvakon (enzymes) ko sakriya karne ke liye paachanaantr mahatvapoorn santulan pradaan karta hai. udar ki amleeya sthiti ko prabhaavaheen karne ke liye yakrut paachanaantr mein pitt ka sraavan karta hai. saath hi agnyaashaya vaahini paachanaantr mein khaali hoti hai aur baaikaarbonet mila kar amleeya kaaim ko nishprabhaavi karti hai aur is prakaar ek udaaseen parivesh ka nirmaan karti hai. chhoti aant ka shlaishmik ootak kshaareeya hota hai, jo lagbhag 8.5 ke peeech (pH) ka nirmaan karta hai aur is prakaar mand kshaareeya parivesh mein avashoshan saksham karta hai.

manushyon dvaara pashuon ki aahaar nali ke upayog

  • bachhadon ke udar aam taur par cheej banaane ke liye vasaatanch ke srot ke roop mein upayog kiye jaate rahe hain.
  • sangeetakaaron dvaara praani aant ke taaron ka upayog misr ke teesare raajavansh ke kaal se kiya jaata raha hai. haal mein memane ki aant se taar banaae jaate the. aadhunik yug ka udbhav ke saath sangeetakaaron ne resham, ya sinthetik saamagri, jaise naailaun ya steel ke taaron ka upayog kiya hai. haalaanki kuchh yantravaadak aaj bhi puraani dhunein paida karne ke liye aant ke bane taaron ka upayog karte hain. yadyapi ye taar saamaanyat: “akaitagata” ke naam se jaane jaate hain, lekin aanton ke taar banaane ke liye billiyon ka kabhi upayog naheen kiya gaya.
  • raikets, jaise tennis ke raikets, mein upayog kiye jaane vaale aanton ke praakrutik taaron ke liye bhed ki aantein mool srot theen. aaj sinthetik taar bahut aam hain, lekin behatareen gunavatta ke aant ke taar gaaya ki aant ke banaae jaate hain.
  • sneyar drum ki vishisht dhvani dene vaale jaal banaane ke liye bhi aanton ki rassi ka upayog kiya jaata hai. haalaanki vartamaan mein sneyar drum mein lagbhag har jagah dhaatu ke taaron ka upayog kiya jaata hai, lekin uttari America beindir frem drum ab bhi iske liye aanton ke taar ka upayog karte hain.
  • "natural (Natural)" sausej hals (ya kesing) praaniyon, khaas kar shookar, gaaya aur memane ki aanton ke banaae jaate hain. isi prakaar, haigeej naamak dish paaramparik roop se bhed ke udar mein ubaali aur parosi jaati hai.
  • ek prakaar ka aahaar, chitralings achhi tarah se dhoi gayi shookar ki aant se bana hota hai.
  • deevaal ghadi‍ayon ke taaron ke liye aur puraani shaili ki braiket ghadi‍ayon ki fyooji gati ke liye praani aanton ka upayog kiya jaata tha, lekin ab unki jagah dhaatu ke taaron ne le li hai.
  • praacheenatam gyaat nirodh, lagbhag isvi san 1640 se, praaniyon ki aanton se banaae jaate the.[16]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-13-981176-1. OCLC 32308337.
  2. daseinberi, David bi. (1996). "life ait smaul skel", peepi. 113-115. vaigyaanik ameriki laaibreri, New York. ISBN 0-7167-5060-0.
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