pH

peeech ya pH, kisi vilyan ki amlata ya kshaarakata ka ek maap hai. ise draveebhoot haaidrojan aayanon (H+) ki gatividhi ke sah-laghuganak (kaulaugaridm) ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya jaata hai. haaidrojan aayan ke gatividhi gunaank ko prayogaatmak roop se naheen maapa ja sakta hai, isliye ve saiddhaantik ganana par aadhaarit hote hain. pH skel, koi sunishchit skel naheen hai; iska sambandh maanak vilyan ke ek set (samuchchaya) ke saath hota hai jiske pH ka aakalan antarraashtreeya sanvida ke dvaara kiya jaata hai.[1]

pH ki avadhaarana ko sabse pehle 1909 mein kaarlsabarg laibauretri ke denish rasaayanashaastri, sauren pedar lauritj saurenasen ne prastut kiya tha. yeh abhi bhi agyaat hai ki p ki sateek paribhaasha kya hai. kuchh sandarbhon se pata chalta hai ki p, "power" (“aPower”)[2] ka prateek hai aur anya ise jarman shabd "poteinj" (“aPotenz”) (jarman mein jiska arth, power ya shakti hota hai)[3] ke roop mein sandarbhit karte hain aur abhi bhi anya ise "poteinshiyl" (“apotential” ya vibhv) ke roop mein sandarbhit karte hain. jeins naurbi ne 2000 mein ek patra prakaashit kiya jismein usane tark diya ki p, ek sthiraank hai aur "rinaatmak laghuganak"[4] ka prateek hai; jiska prayog anya kaaryon[5] mein bhi kiya jaata hai.H, haaidrojan ka prateek hai. saurenasen ne suvidha ke liye "PH" sanket ka sujhaav diya jo "power of haaidrojan" ka prateek hai[2] jismein saulyooshan, p[H] mein haaidrojan aayan ki saandrata ke sah-laghuganak ka prayog kiya gaya hai.[6] yadyapi is paribhaasha ka adhikraman kar diya gaya hai. yadi ek ilektrod ko gyaat haaidrojan aayan ki saandrata ke saulyooshan ke saath anshaakit kiya jaata hai to p[H] ko maapa ja sakta hai.

shuddh jal ko tatasth (nyootral) maana jaata hai. 25 °ase (77 °afai) par shuddh jal ka pH, 7.0 ke aas-paas hota hai. 7 se kam pH vaale saulooshan ko amleeya kaha jaata hai aur 7 se adhik pH vaale saulyooshan ko kshaarakeeya ya kshaareeya kaha jaata hai. chikitsa shaastr, jeev vigyaan, rasaayan shaastr, khaadya vigyaan, paryaavaran vigyaan, samudra vigyaan aur kai anya anuprayogon mein pH ke maapan ka bahut mahatva hai.

anukram

paribhaashaaen

pH

pH ko ek jaleeya saulyooshan mein haaidrojan aayan ki gatividhi ke dashamlav laghuganak ke ghataav ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya jaata hai.[7] iski laghuganakeeya prakruti ki visheshata ke kaaran, pH, ek aayaamarahit kvaantiti hai.

jahaan a H, haaidrojan aayanon ki (aayaamarahit) gatividhi hai. is paribhaasha ka kaaran yeh hai ki a H, kisi ekal aayan ka ek gun hai jise keval ek aayan-chayanaatmak ilektrod ki sahaayata se prayogaatmak roop se maapa ja sakta hai jo nernst sameekaran ke anusaar haaidrojan aayan ki gatividhi ke saath pratikriya karta hai. pH ko saadhaaranat: ek sanyukt glaas ilektrod ki sahaayata se maapa jaata hai jo haaidrojan ke aayan ki gatividhi ke prati samvedansheel ek ilektrod aur ek kailomel ilektrod ya ek silver kloraaid ilektrod jaise kisi rifreins ilektrod ke beech ke poteinshiyl antar ya ilektromotiv bal, E, ko maapata hai. sanyukt glaas ilektrod aadarshat: nernst sameekaran ka anusaran karta hai:

jahaan E, ek maapa gaya poteinshiyl hai aur E 0, maanak ilektrod poteinshiyl arthaat maanak avastha ka ilektrod poteinshiyl hai jismein gatividhi bhi ek hai. R, gas sthiraank hai; T, kelvin taapamaan hai; F, fairaade sthiraank hai aur n, hastaantarit ilektrauns ki sankhya ka ek udaaharan hai. ilektrod poteinshiyl, E, haaidrojan aayan ki gatividhi ke laghuganak ka samaanupaati hota hai.

yeh paribhaasha apne aap mein poori tarah se avyaavahaarik hai kyonki haaidrojan aayan ki gatividhi, saandrata aur gatividhi gunaank ka gunanafal hota hai. haaidrojan aayan ke ekal-aayan ki gatividhi ka gunaank, ek aisi kvaantiti hai jise prayogaatmak roop se naheen maapa ja sakta hai. is kathinaai se chhutakaara paane ke liye, ilektrod ko gyaat gatividhi ke saulyooshan ke sambandh mein anshaakit kar diya jaata hai.

pH ki sankriyaatmak paribhaasha ko aadhikaarik roop mein intaranaishanal standard (antarraashtreeya maanak) ISO 31-8 ne nimn roop mein paribhaashit kiya hai:[8] saulyooshan X ke liye, gailvaanik sel ke ilektromotiv bal, E X ko maapa jaata hai

rifreins ilektrod

| KCl ka saandrit saulyooshan || saulyooshan X | H2 | Pt aur tab ek gailvaanik sel ke ilektromotiv bal, E S ko bhi maapa jaata hai jo gyaat maanak pH ke saulyooshan S ke dvaara agyaat pH ke saulyooshan X, pH(X) ki pratisthaapana dvaara uparyukt se bhinn hota hai. tab X, ka pH hota hai

saulyooshan X ke pH aur maanak saulyooshan ke pH ke beech ka antar keval do maape gaye poteinshiyl ke beech ke antar par nirbhar karta hai. is prakaar, pH ko ek poteinshiyl se praapt kiya jaata hai jise ek ilektrod ke saath maapa jaata hai jo ek ya ek se adhik pH maanakon ke vipreet anshaakit hota hai; ek pH meter seting ko is prakaar se samaayojit kiya jaata hai ki maanak ke saulyooshan ki meter ka pathan, pH(S) maan ke baraabar hota hai. maanak saulyooshan S ke ek range ke pH(S) maanon ko, aage ki vistrut jaankaari ke saath, IUPAC ki anushansa mein darshaaya gaya hai.[9] maanak saulyooshan ko praay: maanak bafar (antarrodhi) saulyooshan ke roop mein varnit kiya jaata hai. vyavahaar mein, vaastavik ilektrod mein nernst ke niyam ki aadarshata se chhote-chhote vichlan ke liye anumati dene ke liye do ya do se adhik maanak bafar ka prayog karna behtar hota hai. dhyaan dein ki choonki taapamaan, paribhaashit karne vaale sameekaranon mein paaya jaata hai, isliye saulyooshan ka pH, taapamaan-aadhaarit hota hai.

bahut kam pH maanon, jaise kuchh bahut amleeya khadaan ke jalon ke maapan ke liye[10] vishesh prakriyaaon ki aavashyakta hoti hai. aise maamalon mein ilektrod ka anshaankan, saandrit salfyoorik esid maanak saulyooshan ke saath kiya ja sakta hai jiske pH maanon ki ganana, gatividhi gunaankon ki ganana karne ke liye pitjr maapadandon ka prayog karke ki ja sakti hai.[11]

pH, ek amlata ke fankshan (falan ya prakaarya) ka udaaharan hai. haaidrojan aayan ki saandrata ko ajaleeya saulveints mein maapa ja sakta hai lekin iske falasvaroop ek bhinn amlata ke fankshan ki praapti hoti hai kyonki ajaleeya saulveint ki maanak sthiti, jal ke maanak sthiti se bhinn hoti hai.suparaesids, ajaleeya amlon ka ek varg hai jiske liye haimet amlata ke fankshan, H 0 ko viksit kiya gaya hai.

p[H]

yeh saurenasen ki mool paribhaasha thi[2] jise pH ke paksh mein adhikramit kiya gaya. haalaanki, haaidrojan aayanon ki saandrata ko pratyaksh roop se maapana sambhav hai, yadi haaidrojan ke aayan ki saandrata ke sandarbh mein ilektrod ko anshaakit kiya jaata hai. ise karne ka ek tareeka, jo bade skel par prayukt hota raha hai, yeh hai ki background ilektrolaait ke ek apekshaakrut uchch saandrata ki upasthiti mein strong (tej ya prabhaavashaali) kshaar ke gyaat saandrata ke saulyooshan ke saath ek strong esid ke gyaat saandrata ke saulyooshan ka anumaapan karna hai. choonki esid aur kshaar ki saandrata gyaat hoti hai isliye haaidrojan aayanon ki saandrata ki ganana karna aasaan hota hai taaki maape gaye poteinshiyl ko saandrata ke saath sah-sambaddh kiya ja sake. anshaakan ka kaarya praay: graan plaut ka prayog karke kiya jaata hai.[12] anshaankan, ek slop factor, f aur maanak ilektrod poteinshiyl, E 0 ke liye ek maan utpann karta hai taaki nernst sameekaran ko form

mein E ke praayogik maapan se haaidrojan aayan saandrata ko praapt karne ke liye prayukt ho sakta hai. slop factor saamaanyat: ek se thoda kam hota hai. 0.95 se kam ka ek slop factor yeh darshaata hai ki ilektrod sahi dhang se kaam naheen kar raha hai. background ilektrolaait ki upasthiti yeh sunishchit karta hai ki anumaapan ke dauraan haaidrojan aayan gatividhi gunaank prabhaavi dhang se sthir hota hai. choonki yeh sthir hota hai isliye iske maan ko maanak sthiti ko paribhaashit karke ek mein sthaapit kiya ja sakta hai jo background ilektrolaait yukt saulyooshan hota hai. is prakaar, is prakriya ke prayog ke parinaamasvaroop gatividhi ko saandrata ke sankhyaatmak maan ke baraabar kiya jaata hai.

p[H] aur pH ke beech ka antar bahut kam hota hai. yeh kaha gaya hai[13] ki pH = p[H] + 0.04. durbhaagyavash, donon prakaar ke maapan ke liye "pH" sanjnyaa ka prayog karna bahut aam baat hai.

pOH

pOH ko kabhi-kabhi kshaariyta ya haaidrauksaaid aayanon, OH ki saandrata ke ek maap ke roop mein prayukt hota hai. pOH ko svatantr roop se naheen maapa ja sakta hai balki ise pH se praapt kiya jaata hai. jal mein haaidrauksaaid aayanon ki saandrata,

[OH] = K W /[H+]

dvaara haaidrojan aayanon ki saandrata se sambandhit hota hai jahaan KW, jal ke sv-aayaneekaran ka sthiraank hai. nimn sah-laghuganak ko liya jaata hai

pOH = pK W − pH.

to, kamre ke taapamaan par pOH ≈ 14 − pH. haalaanki mitti ki kshaariyta ke maapan jaisi anya paristhitiyon mein yeh sambandh poori tarah se maanya naheen hai.

anuprayog

kuchh vishisht pH maan

shuddh jal lagbhag 7 pH hota hai; sateek maan, taapamaan par nirbhar karta hai. jab ek esid ka vilyan jal mein kiya jaata hai to pH, 7 se kam hoga aur jab ek kshaarak ya kshaar ka vilyan jal mein kiya jaata hai to pH, 7 se adhik hoga. 1 mol dm−3 saandrata par haaidroklorik esid jaise kisi strong aml ke saulyooshan ka pH, 0 hota hai. 1 mol dm−3 saandrata par sodiym haaidrauksaaid jaise kisi strong kshaar ke saulyooshan ka pH, 14 hota hai. is prakaar, maape gaye pH ke maan adhiktar 0 se 14 ke antargat hi hoga. choonki pH, ek laghuganakeeya (laugaridmik) skel hai isliye ek pH ikaai ka antar, haaidrojan aayan saandrata mein das guna antar ke baraabar hota hai.

choonki glaas ilektrod (aur anya aayan chayanit ilektrod), gatividhi ki pratikriya karta hai isliye ilektrod ko kisi aise maadhyam mein anshaakit kiya jaana chaahiye jo kisi jaanch kiye ja rahe maadhyam ke samaan hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, yadi koi samudri jal ke ek namoone ke pH ko maapana chaahata hai to ilektrod ko ek aise saulyooshan mein anshaakit kiya jaana chaahiye jiski raasaayanik sanrachana samudri jal ke sadrush ho, jiska vistrut varnan neeche diya gaya hai.

ek pH indiketar ka prayog karke pH ke ek lagbhag maap ko praapt kiya ja sakta hai. ek pH indiketar ek aisa sabstains hai jo ek vishesh pH maan ke aas-paas ke rang ko badal deta hai. yeh ek week esid ya week base hai aur rang parivartan ya to 1 pH ikaai ke aas-paas aml pruthakkaran sthiraank mein ya pK a maan mein, donon mein se kisi ek taraf hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, svaabhaavik roop se parivrtit hone wala litmas, esidik saulyooshan (amleeya ghol) (pH<7) mein laal aur alkalaain (pH>7) saulyooshan (kshaareeya ghol) mein neela ho jaata hai. yoonivrsal indiketar mein indiketaron ka ek mishran is prakaar se hota hai ki lagbhag pH 2 se pH 10 tak ek satat rang parivartan hota rahata hai. yoonivrsal indiketar patra, saamaanya patra hai jismein yoonivrsal indiketar shaamil hota hai.

yoonivrsal indiketar ke ghatak
indiketar nimn pH rang parivartan pH range uchch pH rang
thaaimaul neela (pehla parivartan) laal 1.2-2.8 oreinj
mithaail laal laal 4.4-6.2 peela
bromothaaimaul neela peela 6.0-7.6 neela
thaaimaul neela (doosra parivartan) peela 8.0-9.6 neela
fenolfthaaleen berang 8.3-10.0 baingani

jis saulyooshan ka pH, 7 hota hai use nyootral (tatasth) kaha jaata hai arthaat yeh na to esidik (amleeya) hai aur na hi besik (kshaarakeeya). jal, ek sv-aayaneekaran prakriya ke adheen hai.

H2O is in equilibrium with H+ + OH

pruthakkaran sthiraank, K W ka maan lagbhag 10−14 hota hai isliye namak (saalt) ke nyootral saulyooshan mein haaidrojan aayan saandrata aur haaidrauksaaid aayan saandrata donon lagbhag 10−7 mol dm−3 hote hain. taapamaan mein vruddhi hone par shuddh jal ka pH ghatne lagta hai. udaaharan ke liye, 50 °aC par shuddh jal ka pH, 6.55 hota hai. dhyaan dein, haalaanki, hava ke sampark mein aane wala jal thoda-thoda esidik (amleeya) hota hai. iska kaaran yeh hai ki jal, hava se kaarban daaioksaaid ko avashoshit kar leta hai jo baad mein dheere-dheere kaarbonik esid mein badal jaata hai jo haaidrojan aayan ko mukt karke pruthak kar deta hai:

CO2 + H2O is in equilibrium with H2CO3 is in equilibrium with HCO3 + H+

week aur strong esid ke liye pH ki ganana

ek strong esid ke maamale mein, sampoorn pruthakkaran hota hai isliye pH saadhaaranat: esid saandrata ke laghuganak ke ghataav ke baraabar hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, haaidroklorik esid ke ek 0.01 molar saulyooshan ka pH, −log(0.01) hota hai arthaat pH = 2.

ek week esid ke saulyooshan ke pH ki ganana, ICE table (saarani) ke maadhyam se ki ja sakti hai. lagbhag 2 se adhik pK a maan vaale esid ke liye,

pH = ½ (pKa − log c0),

jahaan c0, esid ki saandrata hai. yeh baroj ke week esid pH sameekaran ke baraabar hai

ek adhik saamaanya vidhi is prakaar hai. ek week esid, HA ka jal mein vilyan karne ke maamale par vichaar karein. sabse pehle santulan abhivyakti ko likh lein.

HA A + H+

is pratikriya ke liye santulan sthiraank ko

ke dvaara nirdisht kiya gaya hai jahaan [], ek saandrata ko darshaata hai. do abhikrmakon, [A] ke liye CA aur [H+] ke liye CH ki vishleshanaatmak saandrata, abhikrmak vaale vargon ki saandrata ke yog ke baraabar honi chaahiye. CH, milaae gaye mineral esid (khanij aml) ki saandrata hai.

CA = [A] + K a[A][H+]
CH = [H+] + K a[A][H+]

pehle sameekaran se

doosare sameekaran mein is abhivyakti ke pratisthaapan se praapt hota hai

yeh haaidrojan aayan saandrata mein ek ek dvighaat sameekaran ko spasht karta hai

is sameekaran ke saulyooshan (samaadhaan) se [H+] aur isse pH bhi praapt hota hai.

is vidhi ka prayog pauliprotik esid ke liye bhi kiya ja sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye, daaiprotik esid oksaalik esid ke liye, oksaalet aayan ke liye A2− likha jaata hai,

CA = [A2−] + β1[A2−][H+] + β2[A2−][H+]2
CH = [H+] + β1[A2−][H+] + 2β2[A2−][H+]2

jahaan β1 aur β2, kyumuletiv protoneshan sthiraank hain. pehle sameekaran se doosare sameekaran mein pratisthaapit karne ki isi prakriya ke baad, [H+] mein ek ghan sameekaran praapt hota hai. saamaanyat:, sameekaran ki degree, aayanityogya protaunon ki sankhya se ek adhik hota hai. in sameekaranon ke saulyooshan ko ek spredasheet, jaise [[EXCEL [eksel]|eksel (EXCEL)]] ya orijin (Origin) ki sahaayata se apekshaakrut aasaani se praapt kiya ja sakta hai.

prakruti mein pH

haaidreinjiya maikrofeela fool ya to gulaabi hoti hain ya neeli, jo ek pH-aadhaarit sanghatan aur paudhon mein mitti elyuminiym ke udgrahan par nirbhar karta hai.

pH-aadhaarit vanaspati varnak jinka prayog pH indiketar ke roop mein kiya ja sakta hai, ve hibiskas, maireegold (geinda), red kaibej (enthosaayaanin)[14] sahit kai vanaspatiyon aur red vaain mein paae jaate hain.

samudri jal

samudri jal ka pH, bahut mahattvapoorn hota hai aur usamein samudra ke amleekaran ke liye saboot bhi hota hai. nirdhaaran ki paddhati ke aadhaar par vishisht pH paimaanon ka astitv hota hai.[15]

  1. NBS skel, pHNBS chihnit. yeh skel, NIST maanakon ke saath anshaakit gailvaanik sales (bijli utpann karanevaali koshikaaon) dvaara pH nirdhaaran ke liye upayogi hai. durbhaagya se, maanak bafar saulyooshan ki aayani shakti, samudri jal (~0.7 M) ki shakti ki tulana mein bahut kam (~0.1 M) hoti hai. nateejatan, ek strong likvid jankshan poteinshiyl partarabeshan, pHNBS skel ko mukt karta hai jo samudri jal ke pH nidhaaran ke saath prayog karne ke liye anushansit naheen hain.
  2. kul skel, pHT dvaara chihnit. krutrim samudri jal par aadhaarit bafaron ke ek set ko viksit kiya gaya.[16] yeh pH skel, pHT dvaara chihnit kul skel ke roop mein nirdisht hota hai. salfet aayanayukt kisi maadhyam ka prayog karke kul skel ko paribhaashit kiya gaya jo protaun avashoshit santulan ke adheen hai H+ + SO42− is in equilibrium with HSO4.
  3. muft skel, pHF chihnit. yeh skel, salfet aayanon ke prabhaav ko hata deta hai aur poori tarah se [H+]F par keindrit hota hai jiska siddhaant ise haaidrojan aayan saandrata ka ek saral niroopan karna hai. vishleshanaatmak dhang se, keval [H+]T ko nirdhaarit kiya ja sakta hai,[17] isliye, [SO42−] aur HSO4 ke pruthakkaran sthiraank ka prayog karke hi [H+]F ka anumaan lagaaya jaana chaahiye. is skel ki upayogita ko ganan ki jatilta ke dvaara seemit kiya jaata hai. mukt skel par maape gaye pH ka maan, kul aur samudri jal skel donon se 0.12 pH ikaaiyon tak bhinn hota hai.
  4. samudri jal skel, pHSWS dvaara chihnit. ant mein, samudri jal skel is tathya ki vivechana karta hai ki haaidrojan floraaid ek week esid hai, H+ + F is in equilibrium with HF. haalaanki, salfet aayanon ki saandrata, floraaid ki saandrata se 400 adhik hota hai, isliye kul aur samudri jal skel ke beech ka antar bahut kam hota hai.

living sistams

living sistams mein pH
[18]
kampaartameint pH
gaistrik esid 0.7
laaisojoms 4.5
kromaafin koshikaaon ke daanein 5.5
mootr 6.0
37 °aC par nyootral H2O 6.81
saaitosol 7.2
mastishkameru drav (CSF) 7.3
rakt 7.34 – 7.45
maaitokaundriyl metriks 7.5
agnyaashaya ke sraav 8.1
esidosis ke saamaanya lakshan, [39] [40] shareer mein pH ki kami ka parinaam.

vibhinn selular kampaartameints, shareer ke drav aur angon ke pH ko aamtaur par esid-base homiyostesis naamak ek prakriya mein kasakar niyamit kiya jaata hai.

rakt ka pH aamtaur par thoda-thoda kshaarakeeya hota hai jiske pH ka maan 7.4 hota hai. jeev vigyaan aur chikitsa vigyaan mein is maan ko praay: fijiolaujikl pH ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai.

plek (falak), ek sthaaneeya amleeya vaataavaran taiyaar kar sakta hai jiska parinaam, diminralaaijeshan dvaara dant kshaya ke roop mein ho sakta hai.

enjaaim aur anya proteen mein pH ki ek ishtatam seema hoti hai aur is seema ke baahar ve nishkriya ya vikrut ho sakte hain.

esid-base homiyostesis mein sabse aam vikaar, esidosis hai, jiska arth shareer mein aml ke adhibhaar se hai jise aam taur par pH ke 7.35 se neeche girne ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya jaata hai.

shareer mein, nimnalikhit sameekaran dvaara gyaat base ekses (be) aur baaikaarbonet ki saandrata (HCO3) se pH ka anumaan lagaaya ja sakta hai:[19]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • esidosis
  • alkalosis
  • pH meter
  • pH indiketar

sandarbh

  1. "The Measurement of pH - Definition, Standards and Procedures – Report of the Working Party on pH, IUPAC Provisional Recommendation"]. 2001. http://www.iupac.org/reports/provisional/abstract01/rondinini_prs.pdf. pH ke vartamaan IUPAC 1985 aur ISO 31-8 paribhaasha ko sanshodhit karna ka ek prastaav.
  2. a aa i kaarlsabarg groop company ke itihaas ka prushth, http://www.carlsberggroup.com/Company/Research/Pages/pHValue.aspx
  3. vaataraloo vishvavidyaalaya - pH skel, http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/c123/ph.html
  4. naurbi, jeins. 2000. pH mein chhote akshar ke p ki utpatti aur usaka arth. baayokemikl science mein pravruttiyaan 25:36-37., http://download.cell.com/trends/biochemical-sciences/pdf/PIIS0968000499015170.pdf
  5. fandaameintals of enaalaaitikl tauksikaulauji (vishleshanaatmak vish vigyaan ke moolabhoot siddhaant), http://books.google.com.br/books?id=LBag6XlAJY0C
  6. saurenasen, http://web.archive.org/20011031201702/www.geocities.com/bioelectrochemistry/sorensen.htm
  7. "pH". IUPAC Goldbook. http://goldbook.iupac.org/P04524.html.
  8. maatr aur ikaaiyaan - bhaag 8: bhautik rasaayan aur aanvik bhautiki, eneks C (maanak): pH. antarraashtreeya maanakeekaran sangathan, 1992.
  9. pH skels, maanak rifreins maanon, pH ke maapan aur sambandhit shabdaavali ki paribhaashaaen. pyor epl. rasaayan. (1985), 57, pp 531–542.
  10. nordastrom, DK et al . (2000) rinaatmak pH aur aayaran maaunten California ke ati amleeya khadaan jal. paryaavaran vigyaan takaneek, 34, 254-258.
  11. Zemaitis, J.F.; Clark, D.M; Rafal, M; Scrivner, N.C. (1986). Handbook of Aqueous Electrolyte Thermodynamics: Theory & Application. Wiley. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-8169-0350-4. 4 adhyaaya
  12. Rossotti, F.J.C.; Rossotti, H. (1965). "Potentiometric titrations using Gran plots: A textbook omission". J. Chem. Ed. 42: 375–378.
  13. saaaincha:VogelQuantitative13.23 dhaara, "pH ka nirdhaaran"
  14. chemistry.about.com
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  18. Boron, Walter, F.; Boulpaep, E.L. (2004). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-4160-2328-3.
  19. medical kailkyooletars > kailkyooleted baaikaarbonet & base ekses; teven paun, MD, veil medical college of kaurnel university

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