opera (geetinaatak)

Milan (Italy) ka teeetro alla skaala (Teatro alla Scala) naamak operaagruh; san 1778 E mein sthaapit yeh opera house vishv ke sarvaadhik prasiddh operaagruhon mein se ek hai.

gaan naatya (geetinaatak) ko opera (Opera) kehte hain. opera ka udbhav 1594 E. mein Italy ke floreins nagar mein "la daafne" naamak opera ke pradarshan se hua tha, yadyapi is opera ke prastutakarta swayam yeh naheen jaante the ki ve anajaane kis mahatvapoorn kala ki vidha ko janm de rahe hain. gat chaar shataabdiyon mein opera ki anek vyaakhyaaeain prastut ki gayi. lekin parampara aur anubhav ke aadhaar par yahi maana jaata hai ki opera gaanabaddh naatak hota hai, jismein vaartaalaap ke sthaan par gaaya jaata hai. iska aitihaasik kaaran yeh hai ki 16veen sadi tak yeh maana jaata tha ki naatak padya mein hona chaahiye. naatak ke liye padya yadi anivaarya hai to sangeet ke liye bhoomi svat: taiyaar ho jaati hai. kyonki kaavya aur sangeet poorak kalaaeain hain, donon hi amoort bhaavanaaon tatha kalpanaalokon se adhik sambandhit hain. isliye jab tak naatak kaavya mein likhe jaate rahe tab tak vishesh kathinaai naheen hui, lekin kaalaantar mein naatak ki vidha ne gadya ka roop liya tatha yathaarthonmukh hui. tabhi se operaakaaron ke liye kathinaaiyaaain badhti gayi. chooainki opera ka janm Italy mein hua tha isliye uske saare angon par Italy ka prabhutv svaabhaavik tha. lekin France tatha Germany ki bhi pratibha opera ko sushamit tatha viksit karne mein lagi thi, isliye opera kaalaantar mein anek prashaakhaaon mein pallavit hua.

parichay

vaignar (Wagner) ke 'das reengold' (Das Rheingold) naamak sangeetanaatak ka drushya

Italy mein opera paaainch ankon ka hota tha lekin France mein vah teen ankon ka hi hota tha. Italy mein usaka sangeet paksh adhik pusht tha, France mein usaki vishyavastu par adhik dhyaan diya jaata tha. lekin opera ke itihaas par Italy aur Germany ki hi pratibhaaon ne dishaakaari prabhaav daala. naatak ke pramukh bhed kaamadi (kaamedi) aur traasadi (traijedi) donon hi opera mein sannihit hain. Italy ke operaakaar naatakeeya trisandhiyon ko naheen sveekaarate the. Italy ke operaakaar sangeet tatha bhavya manchasajja par jyaada dhyaan dete rahe hain, jabki anya operaakaar opera ke naatyalekh arthaat "libretto" par keindrit rahe hain. aapera mein aaj tak paath (reseeteshan) ko lekar kaafi kathinaaiyaaain hui hain. praacheen ekaalaapon (saaleelaukeej) ko to kisi tarah sangeet mein nibddh kiya jaata tha lekin aaj ki naatakeeya vidha mein ekaalaapon ka koi sthaan naheen hai. aaj vaartaalaapon mein jo yathaarthata tatha dainik akaavyaatmakata aa gayi hai use operaakaar kis prakaar sangeet mein nibddh karein, yeh aaj ke opera ki samasya hai.

naatakon ki bhaaainti hi opera ki katha vastu bhi aarambh mein dhaarmik aakhyaanon se li jaati thi. madhyayug mein yahi aadhaar aitihaasik veeragaathaaeain ho gaya. iska arth hua ki opera grees se chalakar rom aaya. is kaaran us kaal ke operon mein do hi bhaavanaaeain pramukh hain, mahatvaakaanksha aur kaamna. aaj naatak jeevan ke beech khada hua hai isliye opera ko bhi vaheen aana pada hai aur yeh yaatra 400 varsho ki hai. kathaavastu ke saath-saath sangeet ke taalamel mein bhi parivartan hua hai. aarambh mein opera mein naatyalekh pramukh hota aur sangeet gaun, lekin kramash: naataylekh gaun hota gaya aur sangeet ne praadhaanya le liya. pehle kathaavastu ko manoranjak banaane ke liye gaan, sahagaan tatha samoohagaan ki vyavastha ki. iske baad anvarat sangeet ke siddhaant ne sampoorn opera ko hi sangeetamaya kar diya. ab vaataavaran, chitran, bhaavadasha aadi sabhi ke liye sangeet ki yojana hone lagi. iseeliye opera mein sangeet lekhak ka jitna mahatva hai utana naatyalekhak ka naheen.

sabhi kalaaon ke aashrayadaata ek samay mein raaja, saamant hua karte the. Italy mein bhi tatkaaleen saamant tatha rais is kala ke poshak the. iseeliye ek samay tak opera ke arth hi vishaal manch, bhavya saajasajja, viraat drushyaankan aadi the. peris ke kisi operaagruh mein pravesh karte hi baakson aur baalkaniyon tatha utkeern baarajon aur chhajjon ki deerghaaonvaale hall ke darshan hote hain. ye operaagruh 18veen aur 19veen sadiyon ke smaarak hain. yaheen baithakar saamantavarg tatha bhadralok glak aur mojaart, bithooven aur vebar, vaignar aur vardi ke mahaan sangeetamaya operon ko dekhte rahe hain. Italy, fraans aur Germany ke operaagruhon mein hi in mahaan operaakaaron ko apni safalataaon tatha asafalataaon ka saamana karna pada hai. Italy, 16veen sadi ke aaspaas saari Europeeya kala, saahitya aur sanskruti ka kendra tha. sarvapratham floreins mein opera khela gaya tha. aaj jiski lipi upalabdh hai, vah opera bhi vaheen khela gaya tha– "yooridis", san 1600 E mein. iske baad venis nagar opera ka sabse bada kendra ho gaya. saare Europe ke kalaapriya is nagar ki yaatra karte aur mahaan operon ko dekhkar krutakrutya hote the. san 1637 mein venis mein ek saarvajanik operaagruh ki sthaapana hui jiske kaaran opera par kramash: vyaavasaayikta ka prabhaav hua. ab opera keval shauk ki vidha na rahakar aay ka saadhan bana. opera ke liye jis unnat operaagruh ki apeksha hua karti thi uske kaaran tatkaaleen manchashilp ke vikaas mein naatakon se kaheen adhik shreya operon ko hai. un dinon chakrit manch (rivaalving stage) to aavishkrut hue naheen the, isliye opera ke vishesh kaalpanik manchaankanon ko moort kar sakana kaafi kathin kaam tha. chakrit manch ki samasya Japan dvaara 18veen sadi mein door hui.

opera dheere-dheere Europe ke doosare deshon mein bhi lokapriya hota ja raha tha. ab aastriya, France, tatha Germany bhi iske kendra ban chale the. sadiyon tak Italy ke sangeetajnyaon, kalaakaaron, naatyalekhakon tatha abhinetaaon ka praadhaanya saare Europe ke operaagruhon mein raha. opera, Italy ka raashtreeya kalaatmak udyog raha hai. veniseeya sangeet, saaj sajja, abhinay aadi hi pramaan maane jaate the. France ke manch par bhi itaalavi bhavya saaj sajja mein hi jarman sangeetajnyaon dvaara kala ki yeh adrubhut vidha manchit hoti rahi. opera ki bhaasha aarambh mein itaalavi French rahi. kaalaantar mein France ki bhaasha bhi prachalit hui. lekin anya deshon mein opera ki bhaasha itaalavi hi bani rahi. is kshetr mein Italy ka prabhaav yahaaain tak tha ki anek baar itaaleeyetar operaakaar bhi apna naam itaaleeya rakh liya karte the.

prasiddh operaakaar

vaise to France ke sangeetajnyaon ka bhi ismein yog raha hai. romiyon hi sambhavat: ek aisa fraanseesi naam hai jo janmana fraanseesi bhi hai aur pratibhaashaali sangeetajnya bhi. anyatha na fraanseesi kabhi sangeet mein shreshth rahe hain aur na itaaleeya kabhi naatyalekh mein. France mein opera ki neevan daalanevaala jevaanni batista luli bhi itaaleeya tha, jo lui 14vein ke shaasanakaal mein laaya gaya tha. romiyo hi sambhavat: pehla operaakaar hai jisne vaadyavrund ka upayog aaaindhi, samudraadi ke varnanon ke liye kiya. yadyapi luli yeh prayog kar chuka tha, tathaapi ise vyavastha romiyo ne di. jarman operaakaaron ki sabse adhik tatha mahatvapoorn den daarshanikta rahi hai. pehla jarman operaakaar glak hai, jo opera ka sudhaarak kahalaata hai. aaj 200 varshon ke baad bhi usaki rachanaaon ko sunana kalaatmak anubhav hai. glak ne sangeet ke daarshanik paksh ko pusht banaaya aur opera mein use abhivyakt kiya.

operaakaaron mein doosra mahatvapoorn naam mojaart ka hai. mojaart ne vaise to aath baras ki umr mein hi ek opera ki rachana kar daali thi lekin jo opera ke itihaas mein mahatvapoorn hai usaki rachana usane 24 varsh ki avastha mein ki aur vah tha "idomoniya" (san 1781 E.). mojaart adviteeya nishnaat operaakaar maana jaata hai. opera ke itihaas mein jin klaasikeeya operon ki ganana hai unamein "maijik fyoot" ka anyatam sthaan hai. is opera ko bhavishya ke jarman operon ka aadhaar maana jaata hai. is opera mein use divyata praapt hui thi. bithooven ke naam ke saath vidroh ki bhaavana moort ho jaati hai. opera ke itihaas mein vah shaili ya baayaran ke samaan hai. usaka vidrohi sangeet hamaare adhik nikat hai.

jarman romantic aandolan ka abhootapoorv operaakaar vebar hai. bachchon ke liye bhi usaka ek prasiddh opera hai. operon dvaara usane romantic operon ko vahi gaurav dilvaaya jo raajasabhaavaaonvaale operon ko praapt tha. "yooroaante" mein koi vaartaalaap naheen, balki anvarat sangeet hi hai. sab jarman operaakaar gaayakon se adhik vaadyavrund par jor dete rahe hain.

operaakaaron mein vebar jahaaain sundar tha vahaaain richrd vaignar (1813-1883) kuroop, naata, bade sir ka, ghamandi aur svaarthi tha. lekin 19veen sadi ke kalaatmak jeevan ka vahi pramukh stambh bhi tha. yahi ekamaatr operaakaar tha jo svat: naatyalekh bhi likhta tha. iske opera ka naam hai "the ring" jo atyant mahatvapoorn hai. vaignar ke vichaaron ko manchasajja ke tatkaaleen operaagruh moort naheen kar paate the isliye beruth naamak kasbe mein usane operaagruh khola jo aage chalakar opera ke itihaas mein saanskrutik kendra ke roop mein sveekaar kiya gaya. vaignar ka hi samakaaleen itaaleeya operaakaar tha vardi (1813-1901) jo badi visham paristhitiyon mein Italy ke opera ke kshetr mein aaya tha. raasini ne manch se avakaash le liya tha. belini ki mrutyu ho chuki thi aur daaneejetti paagal ho gaya tha. vardi ke saamane bhi samakaaleen shaasakon ne avarodh khade kar rakhe the. "svaadheenata" ka uchchaaran hi kathin ho gaya tha. vardi ne pehli baar samakaaleen jeevan par opera mein traasadi prastut ki. abhi tak darshak aadhunik bhoosha mein traasadi dekhne ke abhyast naheen the. svej nahar ke udghaatan ke avsar par vardi ne kaahira mein ek opera prastut kiya tha. chooainki vah vaignar ka samakaaleen tha, isliye praaya: itihaasajnya vardi ke prati anyaaya kar jaate hain.

pichhle dinon mein poorvi Europe mein soviyt ke atirikt yoogoslaaviya mein bhi opera ko sanjeevit aur viksit karne ke prayatn hue hain. sansaaraprasiddh opera gaayika miriyaana raadev jaagreb ki hi hain aur vahaaain ke raashtreeya operaagruh ki pradhaan taarika hain.

poorvi deshon mein opera ke kshetr mein cheen ne bada mahatvapoorn yogadaan diya hai. vastut: cheeni opera sansaar ke praacheenatam operon mein hai aur yadyapi pashchimi manchasameekshakon ne usaka ullekh naheen kiya hai, cheeni opera anek drushtiyon se apne krutitv evam pradarshanon mein apna saani naheen rakhata. Bhaarat mein bhi idhar opera likhne aur operaagruh sangathit karne ke kuchh prayaas hone lage hain.

baahari kadiyaaain