oorja

kisi bhi kaaryakarta ke kaarya karne ki kshamata ko urja (Energy) kehte hain.

oorja ki saral paribhaasha dena kathin hai. oorja vastu naheen hai. isko ham dekh naheen sakte, yeh koi jagah naheen gherati, na iski koi chhaaya hi padti hai. sankshep mein, anya vastuon ki bhaaainti yeh dravya naheen hai, yadyaapi bahudha dravya se iska ghanishth sambandh rahata hai. fir bhi iska astitv utana hi vaastavik hai jitna kisi anya vastu ka aur is kaaran ki kisi pind samudaaya mein, jiske oopar kisi baahari bal ka prabhaav naheen rahata, iski maatra mein kami beshi naheen hoti. vigyaan iska mahatvapoorn sthaan hai.

anukram

urja ke vibhinn roop

teen roopon mein urja - sthitij, gatij evam aantarik

saadhaaranat: kaarya kar sakane ki kshamata ko oorja kehte hain. jab dhanush se shikaar karanevaala koi shikaari dhanush ko jhukaata hai to dhanush mein oorja aa jaati hai jiska upayog baan ko shikaar tak chalaane mein kiya jaata hai. bahate paani mein oorja hoti hai jiska upayog panachakki chalaane mein athva kisi doosare kaam ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. isi tarah baarood mein oorja hoti hai, jiska upayog patthar ki shilaaeain todne athva top se gola daagane mein ho sakta hai. bijli ki dhaara mein oorja hoti hai jisse bijli ki motor chalaai ja sakti hai. soorya ke prakaash mein oorja hoti hai jiska upayog prakaashaselon dvaara bijli ki dhaara utpann karne mein kiya ja sakta hai. aise hi anubam mein naabhikeeya oorja rahati hai jiska upayog shatru ka vidhvans karne athva anya kaaryon mein kiya jaata hai.

is prakaar ham dekhte hain ki oorja kai roopon mein pai jaati hai. jhuke hue dhanush mein jo oorja hai use sthitij oorja kehte hain; bahate paani ki oorja gatij oorja hai; baarood ki oorja raasaayanik oorja hai; bijli ki dhaara ki oorja vaidyut oorja hai; soorya ke prakaash ki oorja ko prakaash oorja kehte hain. soorya mein jo oorja hai vah uske ooainche taap ke kaaran hai. isko ushma oorja kehte hain.

kaarya evam urja

vibhinn upaayon dvaara oorja ko ek roop se doosare roop mein parivrtit kiya ja sakta hai. in parivrtanon mein oorja ki maatra sarvada ek hi rahati hai. usamein kami beshi naheen hoti. ise oorja-avinaashita-siddhaant kehte hain.

oopar kaha gaya hai ki kaarya kar sakane ki kshamata ko oorja kehte hain. parantu saari oorja ko kaarya mein parint karna sarvada sambhav naheen hota. isliye yeh kehna adhik upayukt hoga ki oorja vah vastu hai jo utani hi ghatati hai jitna kaarya hota hai. is kaaran oorja ko naapane ke ve hi ekak hote hain. jo kaarya ko naapane ke. yadi ham ek kilogram bhaar ko ek meter ooaincha uthaate hain to pruthvi ke gurutvaakarshan ke viruddh ek vishesh maatra mein kaarya karna padta hai. yadi ham isi bhaar ko do meter ooaincha uthaaeain athva do kilogram bhaar ko ek meter ooaincha uthaaeain to donon dashaaon mein pehle ki apeksha doona kaarya karna padega. isse prakat hota hai ki kaarya ka parimaan us bal ke parimaan par, jiske viruddh kaarya kiya jaae aur us doori ke parimaan par, jis doori dvaara us bal ke viruddh kaarya kiya jaae, nirbhar rahata hai aur in donon parimaanon ke gunanafal ke baraabar hota hai.

urja ke maatrak

kaarya ki kisi bhi maatra ko ham kaarya ka ekak maan sakte hain. udaaharanat: ek kilogram bhaar ko pruthvi ke aakarshan ke viruddh ek meter ooaincha uthaane mein jitna kaarya karna padta hai use ekak maana ja sakta hai. parantu pruthvi ka aakarshan sab jagah ek samaan naheen hota. iska jo maan chennai mein hai vah Delhi mein naheen hai. isliye yeh ekak asuvidhaapoorn hai. fir bhi bahut se deshon mein engineer aise hi ekak ka upayog karte hain. jise foot-pound kehte hain. yeh us kaarya ki maatra hai jo London ke akshaansh mein samudratat par ek pound ko ek doosare hi ekak ka prayog kiya jaata hai jo seinteemeetar-gram-seinkad ke oopar nirbhar hai. ismein bal ke ekak ko "daain" (Dyne) kehte hain. daain bal ka vah ekak hai jo ek gram ke pind mein ek second mein ek seinteemeetar prati second ka veg utpann kar sakta hai. is bal ke kriyaabindu ko iske viruddh ek sein. mi. hataane mein jitna kaarya karna padta hai use varg kehte hain. parantu vyaavahaarik drushti se kaarya ka yeh ekak bahut chhota hai. ataev dainik vyavahaar mein ek doosra ekak upayog mein laaya jaata hai. ismein lanbaai ka ekak seinteemeetar ke sthaan par meter hai tatha dravyamaan ka ekak gram ke sthaan par kilogram hai. ismein bal ka ekak "nyootan" hai. nyootan bal ka vah ekak hai jo ek kilogram ke pind mein ek second mein ek meter prati second ka veg utpann kar sakta hai. is tarah nyootan 100000 daain ke baraabar hota hai. is bal ke kriyaabindu ko uske viruddh ek meter tak hataane mein jitna kaarya karna padta hai use jool kehte hain. ek jool 107 argo ke baraabar hota hai.

anya maatrak

oorja ko bhi inheen ekakon mein naapa jaata hai. parantu kabhi kabhi vishesh sthalon par kuchh anya ekakon ka upayog hota hai. inmein ek ilektraan volt hai. vah oorja ka vah ekak hai jise ilektraan ka volt ke vibhvaantar (poteinshiyl difreins) se gujarane par praapt karta hai. yeh bahut chhota ekak hai aur keval 1.60 x 10 -19 jool ke baraabar hota hai. iske atirikt gharon mein upayog mein aanevaali vaidyut oorja ko naapane ke liye ek doosare ekak ka upayog hota hai, jise kilovaat-ghanta (KWh ya 'unit') kehte hain aur jo 3.6x 10 6 joolon ke baraabar hota hai.

yaantrik oorja

un vastuon ki apeksha, jinke astitv ka anumaan ham keval tark ke aadhaar par kar sakte hain, hamein un vastuon ka gyaan adhik sugamata se hota hai jinhein ham sthool roop se dekh sakte hain. manushya ke mastishk mein oorja ke us roop ki bhaavana sabse pratham udaya hui jiska sambandh bade bade pindon se hai aur jise yantron ki sahaayata se kaaryaroop mein parinaat hote ham spashtat: dekh sakte hain. is yaantrik oorja ke do roop hain : ek sthitij oorja evam doosra gatij oorja. iske vipreet us oorja ka gyaan jiska sambandh anuon tatha paramaanuon ki gati se hai, manushya ko baad mein hua. is kaaran yeh kam aashcharya ki baat naheen hai ki nyootan se bhi pehle Francis bekan ki yeh dhaarana thi ki ushma dravya ke kanon ki gati ke kaaran hai.

sthitij oorja

ek kilogram bhaar ke ek pind ko pruthvi ke aakarshan ke viruddh ek meter ooaincha uthaane mein jo kaarya karna padta hai use ham kilogram-meter kah sakte hain aur yeh lagbhag 981 joolon ke baraabar hota hai. yadi ham ek dor lekar or use ek ghirni ke oopar daalkar uske donon siron se lagbhag ek kilogram ke pind baaaindhe aur unhein aisi avastha mein chhodein ki ve donon ek hi ooainchaai par na hon aur ooainche pind ko bahut dheere-se neeche aane dein to ham dekheinge ki ek kilogram ke pind ko ek meter ooaincha utha dega. ghirni mein gharshan jitna hi kam hoga doosra pind bhaar mein utana hi pehle pind ke bhaar ke baraabar rakha ja sakega. isak arth yeh hua ki yadi ham kisi pind ko pruthvi se ooaincha badh jaati hai. ek kilogram bhaar ke pind ko yadi 5 meter ooaincha uthaaya jaae to usamein 5 kilogram-meter kaarya karne ki kshamata aa jaati hai, evam usaki oorja pehle ki apeksha usi parimaan mein badh jaati hai. yeh oorja pruthvi tatha pind ki aapekshik sthiti ke kaaran hoti hai aur vastut: pruthvi evam pind dvaara bane tantr (system) ki oorja hoti hai. iseeliye ise sthitij oorja kehte hain. jab kabhi bhi pindon ke kisi samudaaya ki paarasparik doori athva ek hi pind ke vibhinn bhaagon ki svaabhaavik sthiti mein antar utpann hota hai to sthitij oorja mein bhi antar aa jaata hai. kamaani ko dabaane se athva dhanush ko jhukaane se unamein sthitij oorja aa jaati hai. nadiyon mein baaaindh baaaindhakar paani ko adhik ooainchaai par ikattha kiya jaae to is paani mein sthitij oorja aa jaati hai.



gatij oorja

nyootan ne bal ki yeh paribhaasha di ki bal sanveg (momeintam) ke parivartan ki dar ke baraabar hota hai. yadi m kilogram ka koi pind praarambh mein sthir ho aur usapar ek niyat bal F, t seinkad tak kaarya karke jo veg utpann kare usaka maan v meter prati second ho to bal ka maan nyootan hoga. isi samay mein pind jo doori tai kare vah yadi d meter ho to bal dvaara kiya gaya kaarya F.d jool ke baraabar hoga.

arthaat m dravyamaanavaalein pind ka veg yadi v ho to usaki oorja hogi. yeh oorja us pind mein usaki gati ke kaaran hoti hai aur gatij oorja kahalaati hai. jab ham dhanush ko jhukaakar teer chhodte hain to dhanush ki sthitij oorja teer ki gatij oorja me parivartan ho jaati hai.

sthitij oorja evam gatij oorja ke paarasparik parivartan ka sabse sundar udaaharan saral lolak hai. jab ham lolak ke golak ko ek or kheenchate hain to golak apni saadhaaran sthiti se thoda ooaincha uth jaata hai aur ismein sthitij oorja aa jaati hai. jab ham golak ko chhodte hain to golak idhar udhar jhoolane lagta hai. jab golak latakane ki saadhaaran sthiti mein aata hai to ismein keval gatij oorja rahati hai. sanveg ke kaaran golak doosari or chala jaata hai aur gatij oorja pun: sthitij oorja mein parivrtit ho jaati hai. saadhaaranat: vaayu ke gharshan ke viruddh kaarya karne se golak ki oorja kam hoti jaati hai aur iski gati kuchh der mein band ho jaati hai. yadi gharshan ka bal na ho to lolak anant kaal tak chalta rahega.

ushmeeya oorja


aag, raasaayanik urja ko ushmeeya urja mein badal deti hai.

gati vigyaan mein oorja-avinaashita-siddhaant ke pramaanit ho jaane ke baad bhi iske doosare svaroopon ka gyaan na hone ke kaaran yeh samjha jaata tha ki kai sthitiyon mein oorja nasht bhi ho sakti hai; jaise, jab kisi pindasamudaaya ke vibhinn bhaagon mein apekshik gati ho to gharshan ke kaaran sthitij aur gatij oorja kam ho jaati hai. vastut: aisi sthitiyon mein oorja nasht naheen hoti varan ushma oorja mein parivartan ho jaati hai. parantu 18veen shataabdi tak ushma ko oorja ka hi ek svatantr svaroop naheen samjha jaata tha. us samay tak yeh dhaarana thi ki ushma ek dravya hai. 19veen shataabdi mein prayogon dvaara yeh nirvivaad roop se siddh kar diya gaya ki ushma bhi oorja ka hi ek doosra roop hai.

vaashp engine, ushmeeya urja ko yaantrik urja mein badalta hai

yon to praagaitihaasik kaal mein bhi manushya lakadiyon ko ragadkar agni utpann karta tha, parantu oorja evam ushma ke ghanishth sambandh ki or sabse pehle beinjaamin taamasan (kaaunt rumafard) ka dhyaan gaya. yeh sanyukt raajya (amareeka) ke maisaachoosets pradesh ka rahanevaala tha. parantu us samay yeh baveriya ke raaja ka yuddhamantri tha. dhali hui peetal ki top ki naliyon ko chhedate samay isne dekha ki nali bahut garm ho jaati hai tatha usase nikle buraade aur bhi garam ho jaate hain. ek prayog mein top ki naal ke chaaron or kaath ki naaaind mein paani bharakar usane dekha ki kharaadane se jo ushma utpann hoti hai usase dhaai ghante mein saara paani ubalane ke taap tak pahuainch gaya. is prayog mein usaka vaastavik dhyeya yeh siddh karna tha ki ushma koi drav naheen hai jo pindon mein hoti hai aur daab ke kaaran vaise hi baahar nikal aati hai jaise nichodne se kapde mein se paani; kyonki yadi aisa hota to kisi pind mein yeh drav ek seemit maatra mein hi hota, parantu chhedanevaale prayog se gyaat hota hai ki jitna hi adhik kaarya kiya jaae utani hi adhik ushma utpann hogi. rumafard ne yeh prayog san 1798 E. mein kiya. iske 20 varsh pehle hi laavvaajiye tatha laagraaainj ne yeh dekha tha ki jaanvaron mein bhojan se utani hi ushma utpann hoti hai jitni raasaayanik kriya dvaara us bhojan se praapt ho sakti hai.

san 1819 mein fraanseesi vaigyaanik dyoolon ne dekha ki kisi gas ke sanpeedan se usamein ushma usi anupaat mein utpann hoti hai jitna sanpeedan mein kaarya kiya jaata hai. san 1842 E. mein isi bhaavana ka upayog jooliys raabart maayar ne, jo us samay keval 28 varsh ka tha aur Germany ke haailabraun nagar mein Doctor tha, is baat ki ganana ke liye kiya ki ek kalari ushma utpann karne ke liye kitna kaarya aavashyak hai. ham jaante hain ki pratyek gas ki do vishisht ushmaaeain hoti hai : ek niyat aayatan par tatha doosari niyat daab par. pehli avastha mein gas koi kaarya naheen karti. doosari avastha mein gas ko baahya dabaav ke viruddh kaarya karna padta hai aur donon vishisht ushmaaon mein jo antar hota hai vah isi kaarya ke samatulya hota hai. is tarah maayar ko ushma ke yaantrik tulyaank ka jo maan praapt hua vah lagbhag utana hi tha jitna kaaunt rumaford ko praapt hua tha.

saayakil ka daayanemo, yaantrik urja ko vidyut urja mein badal deta hai

isi samay England mein James presakaat jool bhi ushma ka yaantrik tulyaank nikaalne mein laga hua tha. iske prayog san 1842 E. se san 1852 E. tak chalte rahe. apne prayog mein isne ek taaainbe ke ushmaamaapi mein paani liya aur use ek mathani se matha. mathani ko do ghirniyon par se latake hue do bhaaron par chalaaya jaata tha. jis dor se ye bhaar latake hue the vah is mathani ke sire mein lapeti hui thi aur jab ye bhaar neeche ki or girte the to mathani ghoomti thi. jab ye bhaar neeche girte the to inki sthitij oorja kam ho jaati thi. is kami ka kuchh bhaag bhaaron ki gatij oorja mein parint hota tha aur kuchh bhaag mathani ko ghumaane mein vyaya hota tha. is tarah yeh gyaat kiya ja sakta tha ki mathani ko ghumane mein kitna kaarya kiya ja raha tha. ushmaamaapi ke paani ke taap mein jitni vruddhi hui usase yeh gyaat ho sakta tha ki kitni ushma utpann hui; aur tab ushma ka yaantrik tulyaank gyaat kiya ja sakta tha. jool ne ye prayog paani tatha paara donon ke saath kiye.

san 1847 E. mein haramaan faan helmaholts ne ek pustak likhi jismein ushma, chunbak, bijli, bhautik rasaayan aadi vibhinn kshetron ke udaaharanon dvaara ushma-avinaashita-siddhaant ka pratipaadan kiya gaya tha. jool ne prayog dvaara vaidyut oorja tatha ushma-oorja ki samaanata siddh ki.

vidyut oorja

dekhein - vidyut oorja

urja ki avinaashita tatha urja ka parivartan

urja ka sanrakshan ka pradarshan (nyootan ka kredil)
sthitij urja --> gatij urja --> vikruti urja --> gatij urja ka chakr

dravyamaan tatha oorja ki samatulyata

san 1905 E. mein aainstaain ne apna aapekshik siddhaant pratipaadit kiya jiske anusaar kanon ka dravyamaan unki gatij oorja par nirbhar rahata hai.

iska yeh arth hai ki oorja ka maan dravyamaan vruddhi ko prakaash ke veg ke varg se guna karne par praapt hota hai. is siddhaant ki pushti naabhikeeya vigyaan ke bahut se prayogon dvaara hoti hai. soorya mein bhi oorja isi tarah banti hai. soorya mein ek shrrunkhal kriya hoti hai jiska fal yeh hota hai ki haaidrojan ke chaar naabhikon ke sanyog se heeliym ka naabhik ban jaata hai. haaidrojan ke chaaron naabhikon ke dravyamaan ka yogafal heeliym ke naabhik se kuchh adhik hota hai. yeh antar oorja mein parivrtit ho jaata hai. parmaanu bam evam haaidrojan bam mein bhi isi dravyamaan-oorja-samatulyata ka upayog hota hai.

oorja ka kvaantameekaran (Quantization of energy)

varnakram ke vibhinn varnon ke anusaar Krishna pind ke vikirn ke vitran ka theek sootr kya hai, iska adhyayan karte hue plaank is nishkarsh par pahuaincha ki vikirn ka aadaan pradaan aniyamit maatra mein naheen hota pratyut oorja ke chhote kanon dvaara hota hai. in kanon ko rahata hai. aavruttisankhya ko jis niytaank se guna karne par oorjaakvaantam ka maan praapt hota hai use plaank niytaank kehte hain.

neels bor ne san 1913 E. mein yeh dikhlaaya ki yeh kvaantam siddhaant atyant vyaapak hai aur paramaanuon mein ilektraan jin kakshaaon mein ghoomate hain. ve kakshaaeain bhi kvaantam siddhaant ke anusaar hi nishchit hoti hain. jab ilektraan adhik oorjaavaali kaksha se kam oorjaavaali kaksha mein jaata hai to in do oorjaaon ka antar prakaash ke roop mein baahar aata hai. haaijenabarg, shrodingar tatha diraak ne is kvaantam siddhaant ko aur bhi vistrut kiya hai.

urja ke srot

aadhunik bhautik vigyaan mein pratyek kaarya ke liye oorja ko aavashyak bataaya gaya hai. oorja sanrakshan siddhaant ke anusaar oorja ko na to jana ja sakta hai aur na to nasht kiya ja sakta keval iska svaroop badla ja sakta hai. ham apne dainik jeevan mein prayog karne hetu oorja ke istemaal kai roopon mein karte hain, yatha - yaantrik oorja, vidyut oorja, ooshmeeya oorja, prakaash oorja, rasaayanik oorja ityaadi. motor mein vidyut oorja ko yaantrik oorja mein badal kar kaam liya jaata hai to baitari mein rasaayanik oorja ko vidyut oorja mein. maanav shareer khaadya padaarthon ki raasaayanik oorja ko pacha kar usase yaantrik kaarya karta hai. isi prakaar ek vidyut balb vidyut oorja ko prakaay tatha ooshmeeya oorja mein badal deta hai. car ya bas ka injan petrol ki raasaayanik oorja ko pehle ooshmeeya oorja mein badalta hai tatha use fir yaantrik oorja mein. in sabhi kaaryon ke liye prayukt oorja in sroton se praapt hoti hai -

urja evam audyogik kraanti

urja ki avadhaarana (kaansept) unneesaveen shataabdi mein aayi. yeh maanav dvaara aavishkrut ek atyant mahatvapoorn evam maulik avadhaarana hai. yeh vibhinn prakaar ki ghatnaaon mein hone waali antarkriyaaon (intaraikshans) ko sankhyaatmak roop mein vyakt karne mein bahut upayogi hai. ise ek tarah se vibhinn bhautik fenaamena ke beech hone waali ant:kriyaaon ke liye sarvanisht (kauman) mudra ki tarah samjha ja sakta hai.

urja ki avadhaarana se hi parivartan (traansfaarmeshan) (jaise rasaayan evam dhaatukarm mein) evam traansamishn se sambandhit hai jo ki audyogik kraanti ke aadhaar hain. jab tak keval maanavi ya paashavik urja se hi kaam hota tha, tab tak urja seemit thi; use svachaalit evam niyantrit karna kathin kaarya tha. kintu vaashp aadi se chalne waali masheenon ke aavishkaar se yeh sthiti badal gayi jisse audyogik kraanti ka sootrapaat hua.

aadhunik kaal mein kisi desh dvaara khapat ki jaane waali urja uske vikaas ki pramukh maap hai.

urja se sambandhit pramukh sootr

  • tane hue spring ki gatij urja
jahaaain k spring ka bal niytaank hai tatha x spring ka saamaayaavastha ki tulana mein kul tanaav hai.
jahaaain Q sandhaaritr ki pleton par ekatr aavesh hai; tatha C sandhaaritr ki dhaarita hai; U sandhaaritr ki pleton ke beech vibhvaantar hai.
  • dravyamaan evam urja ki samatulyata -

dravyamaan evam veg ke mukt kan ki saapekshik (riletivistik) urja:

jahaaain prakaash ka veg hai.
  • fotaunon ya prakaash kvaanta ki urja
jahaaain h plaank niytaank hai; tatha fotaun ki aavrutti hai.
tan teeenati ke samatulya
jahaaain M bhookamp ki teevrata (richr paimaane par) hai.
  • kaarya ya urja mein parivartan, bal ka doori ke saath inteegral ke baraabar hota hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain