oon

oon ke lambe evam chhote reshe

oon moolat: reshedaar (tantumaya) proteen hai jo vishesh prakaar ki tvacha ki koshikaaon se niklata hai. oon paalatoo bhedon se praapt kiya jaata hai, kintu bakari, yaak aadi anya jantuon ke baalon se bhi oon banaaya ja sakta hai. kapaas ke baad oon ka sarvaadhik mahatva hai. iske reshe ushma ke kuchaalak hote hain.

sookshmadarshi se dekhne par in reshon ki satah asamaan, ek doosare par chadhi hui koshikaaon se nirmit dikhaai deti hai. vibhinn nasl ki bhedon mein in koshikaaon ka aakaar aur svaroop bhinn-bhinn hota hai. maheen oon mein koshikaaon ke kinaare, mote oon ke reshon ki apeksha, adhik nikat hote hain. garmi aur nami ke prabhaav se ye reshe aapas mein guainth jaate hain. inki chamak koshikaayukt skelon ke aakaar aur svaroop par nirbhar rahati hai. mote reshe mein chamak adhik hoti hai. reshein ki bheetari parat (medulla) ko maheen kismon mein to naheen, kintu moti kismon mein dekha ja sakta hai. medulla mein hi oon ka rangavaala ansh (pigmeint) hota hai. medulla ki adhik motaai reshe ki sankuchan shakti ko kam karti hai. kapaas ke reshe se iski yeh shakti ek chauthaai adhik hai.

anukram

itihaas

sambhavat: bunane ke liye oon ka hi sarvapratham upayog praarambh hua. ooni vastron ke tukade misr, baibilon aur nineveh ki kabron, praathamik Britain nivaasiyon ke jhopadon aur pe degree vaasiyon ke anshaavasheshon ke saath mile hain. roman aakraman se poorv bhi Britain vaasi inka upayog karte the. vinchestar faiktri ki sthaapana ne iski upayogavidhi ka vikaas kiya. vijeta William ise England tak laaya. henari dviteeya ne kaanoon, vastrahaat aur bunakaari sangh banaakar is udyog ko protsaahit kiya. kintu 18veen shati ke sooti vastrodyog ne iski mahatta ko kam kar diya. san 1788 mein haartaford (amareeka) mein jal-shakti-chaalit oon fektri praanrabh hui. inke atirikt roos, nyoojeelaind, arjetaaina, Australia, cheen, Bhaarat, dakshin Africa aur great Britain ullekhaneeya oon utpaadak desh hain.

ooni reshon ki kismein

bhedon ki nasl ka oon ke svaroop, lanbaai, reshe ke vyaas, chamak, majabooti, bunaai aur sikudn aadi par bahut asar padta hai. oon ke reshe paaainch vargon mein baaainte ja sakte hain :

1. maheen oon, 2. madhyam oon, 3. lamba oon, 4. varnasankar oon aur 5. kaaleeni oon.

oon ke svaroop ko jalavaayu, bhoomi aur bhojan kaafi prabhaavit karte hain.

maheen oon

merinon bhedon se hi yeh oon praapt hoti hai. merino bhedon ki pramukh jaatiyaaain Amreeki, Australiaee, fraanseesi, saiksani, speni, dakshin afreeki aur dakshin Amreeki hain. merino oon apni komalata, baareeki, majabooti, lacheelepan, utkrusht kataai aur namada bana sakane ke gunon ke kaaran vishesh prasiddh hai. merino oon ke reshon ki lanbaai dedh se dhaai inch tak aur baareeki ausatan 17 se 21 maaikron (1 maaikron = 1/1000 mileemeetar) hoti hai. falaalen, uchch koti ke haath ke bune vastr, soot, tatha maheen banaavat ki poshaakein merino oon se hi banti hain.

madhyam oon

yeh oon Britain ki nasl ki bhedon se praapt hoti hai. lambi oon ki lanbaai aur motaai tatha maheen oon ki baareeki aur ghanatv ke beech yeh oon hai. yeh bahut ghani aur shushk hoti hai. iske reshon ki lanbaai 2 se 5 inch tak hoti hai aur inhein aasaani se kaata ja sakta hai. inki baareeki 24 se 32 maaikron tak hoti hai. iske reshe merino oon ke reshon se bahut halke hote hain, kyonki bilkul khule rahane ke kaaran inmein baaloo aur charabi bahut kam rahati hai. reshon ki vyaasavruddhi ke saath unka namada banaane ka gun kam hota jaata hai. iska upayog striyon ki poshaakein, tveed, sarj, falaalen, kot tatha ovarakot ke kapde aur kanbal banaane mein adhik hota hai.

lamba oon

sabhi naslon mein sabse bade kad ki bhedein, jinka maans khaane ke kaam mein aata hai, lambi oon paida karti hain. inke reshe maheen aur madhyam oon ke reshon ki apeksha khule aur ek doosare se alag hote hain. inki lanbaai 10 se 14 inch tak aur motaai 40 maaikron tak hoti hai. is nasl ki bhedein adhik varshaavaale kshetron mein teji se badhti hain. is kism ki oon Lincoln, kaustavold, leesestar aur romani marsh naam se vikhyaat hai. Lincoln oon ki latein chaudi aur unka baahari hissa ghuaingharaala hota hai. ismein charabi kam hone ke kaaran sikudn bhi kam hoti hai aur yeh kuchh mota hota hai. is nasl ki ek bhed 10 se 14 pound tak oon deti hai. is oon mein chamak bhi achhi hoti hai. iska adhiktar saade ooni kapde, tveed, sarj tatha kot ke kapde banaane mein upayog hota hai.

varnasankar oon

madhyam maheen koti ki yeh oon merino ya raimaboole nasl aur lambe oonavaali bhedon ki varnasankar nasl se praapt hoti hai. is oon mein merino oon ki baareeki aur komalata tatha lambe oon ki lanbaai donon hoti hain. is kism ki kuchh oonon ke rang kaafi achhe hote hain aur loch bhi poori hoti hai. in oon ka upayog moja, baniyaain aadi, striyon tatha purushon ke pahanane ke sabhi prakaar ke ooni kapadon tatha madhyam shreni ke namade banaane mein kiya jaata hai.

kaaleeni oon ya mishrit oon

is prakaar ka oon duniya ke sabhi bhaagon mein un bhedon se praapt hota hai jo ab bhi puraatan paristhitiyon mein rahati hai. ye adhiktar Asiaee deshon mein pai jaati hain. ye registaani hisson mein bhi milti hain, jahaaain unhein deergh kaal tak bina khaae ya alpaahaar par nirbhar rahana padta hai. aise samay mein ye bhedein apni pooainchh mein sanchit charabi se apni praanaraksha karti hain. jin bhedon ke pichhle hisson mein charabi jama rahati hai unki pooainchh 3 inch tak lambi hoti hai aur unke donon chootadon par charabi ki moti tah jama rahati hai. inki taul 200 pound tak tatha inmein lambe baalon ki ek parat hoti hai aur iske neeche vaastavik oon hota hai, jo nimn taap, tej hava, atyadhik shushkata, ati varsha aur kohare se bhedon ki raksha karta hain. is prakaar ki bhedon ke oon mein ek teesari tarah ka chhota, mota, evam laharadaar resha paaya jaata hai, jise keinp kehte hain. yeh oon saamaanyat: kaaleen aur rang (mota kanbal) ityaadi banaane ke kaam mein aati hai. kabhi-kabhi ismein anya prakaar ka oon milaakar mota aur saste kism ka ovarakot ka kapda aur tveed taiyaar kiya jaata hai.

oon ka sookshm svaroop

yadi oon ko sookshmadarshak yantr se dekha jaae to usaki satah vividh prakaar ki koshikaaon (selon) se bani hui dikhaai padti hai, jo seedhi ki tarah ek doosare par chadhi jaan padti hain. vibhinn naslon ki bhedon mein inka aakaar aur svaroop bhinn-bhinn hota hai. maheen kism ki oonon mein in koshikaaon ke kinaare mote kism ke oonon ki apeksha adhik nikat hote hain. inhein sookshmadarshak yantr se hi dekha ja sakta hai. khaali aaainkhon mein simtakar namade ki tarah ho jaate hain. in reshon ki chamak uparyukt selon ke aakaar aur svaroop par nirbhar rahati hai. mote kism ke reshe mein chamak adhik hoti hai. selon ke poorvokt seedheenuma svaroop ke kaaran reshon ki majabooti badh jaati hai. reshe ki chipkane ki shakti medulla ki motaai par nirbhar rahati hai. jaise-jaise yeh badhti jaati hai, vah adhik ttane yogya jaata hai.

oon ke bhautik gun

oormilta (krimp) oon ke reshe chhad ki tarah bilkul seedhe na hokar laharadaar hote hain. uske isi ghuaingharaalepan ko oormilta kehte hain. reshon ki lanbaai (maheen kismon mein) dedh inch se (moti kismon mein) 15 inch tak hoti hai. oon ke reshon ke vyaas aur unki oormilta mein ghanishth sambandh hota hai. oon ka resha jitna hi baareek hota hai usamein oormiyon (kinrapon) ki sankhya utani hi adhik hoti hai. 1seinteemeetar mein 12 se 23 tak oormiyaaain hoti hain. oon ke reshon ki vishishtata aaainkane mein usaki oormiyon ka mahatvapoorn sthaan hai.

lachak (rejiliyensi) oon ke reshon mein kheenchne ke baad pun: poorvasvaroop mein laut aane ka gun hota hai; isi ko lachak kehte hain. yadi oon ke dher ko dabaakar pun: chhod diya jaae to vah apna poorv aayatan praapt kar leta hai. oon ka yeh gun usaki oormiyon aur usaki koshikaaon ke kaaran hota hai. oon ke reshon ki lanbaai unhein kheenchakar bina tode lagbhag 30 pratishat tak badhaai ja sakti hai. lacheelepan se ooni reshe apna svaroop banaae rakhate hain aur jhurriyon tatha ghisaavat se apni raksha karte hain.

namada banaana oon par yadi garmi, nami aur dabaav daala jaae to uske reshe simtakar aapas mein mil jaate hain. saamaanyataya ooni reshon mein aapas mein vikrshan hota hai kintu poorvokt paristhiti mein vipreet kriya hoti hai. unka yeh gun vibhinn prakaar ke oonon mein bhinn-bhinn hota hai. is gun ke kaaran oon ka upayog haiton, jooton ke oopari hisson aur farsh par bichhaane ke namadon tatha kanpan aur dhvanirodhak namadon ke banaane mein kiya jaata hai.

chamak (lastar) chamak ki drushti se oonon mein yathesht bhinnataaeain pai jaati hai. chamak chaaaindi, kaaainch aur resham si, teen prakaar ki hoti hai. chaaaindi ki ya halki chamak maheen ya adhik oormiyonvaale merino oon mein hoti hai. kaaainch jaisi chamak sabse adhik seedhe aur chikne baalon mein hoti hai. resham si chamak lambe reshe aur lambi laharonvaali oon mein hoti hai.

rang oon ke svaabhaavik rang safed, kaale aur bhoore hain. bahudha paalatoo bhedon ka oon safed rang ka hi hota hai. rangeen oon sabse adhik puraatan nasl ki un bhedon se praapt hota hai jo kaaleen bunane laayak kism ka oon paida karti hain.

ghanatv oon praakrutik reshon mein sabse adhik halki hoti hai. iska ghanatv 1.3 gram prati dhan seinteemeetar hai.

vaidyut gun oon bijli ka heen chaalak hai aur ise ragadne se ismein sugamata se sthir vidyut paida ho jaati hai, jo oon ko saaf karne, ek doosare se alag karne aur shushk kaaryakaaran mein baadha upasthit karti hai.

ushma ka sanrakshan oon ka ushma ko sanrakshit rakhane ka gun uske reshe ki banaavat–oormiyon–ke kaaran hai, jinki vajah se usamein hava ke chhote chhote koshth ban jaate hain. sthir vaayu ushma-avarodhak hoti hai aur kyonki ooni kapde anginat reshon se bante hain jinke bheetar sthir vaayu ekatr rahati hai, ve bhi ooshma ke bahut achhe avarodhak hote hain. oon mein jalavaashp sokhane ka bhi aashcharyajanak gun hai. oon mein jalavaashp ki maatra us samay ke vaayumandal mein jalavaashp ki daab par nirbhar rahati hai. oon jab jalavaashp sokhata hai tab garmi niklati hai. yeh garmi usamein ghusanevaali hava ko garm rakhane ke liye paryaapt hoti hai. iske atirikt ooni reshon mein oormiyon ke kaaran jo lachak hoti hai uske falasvaroop bheetar ka kapda shareer se chipkane naheen paata aur shareer tatha us kapde ke beech hava ki ek patali parat utpann ho jaati hai jo ushma ke achhe sanrakshak ka kaarya karti hai.

kathorata oon ka yeh gun ainthan ko rokata hai. isliye yeh kataai ke liye bahut mahatva ka hai. shushk oon ki kathorata paani se santrupt oon ki apeksha 15 guni adhik hoti hai. iseeliye oon ki milon ke kataai vibhaag mein theek se kataai karne ke liye aur oon mein 15se 18 pratishat tak nami banaae rakhane ke liye, apne yahaaain ke vaataavaran mein 70 se 80 pratishat tak nami rakhani padti hai.

oon ki raasaayanik rachana aur uske raasaayanik gun

raasaayanik drushti se oon mein kaarban, haaidrojan, aaksijn, naaitrojan aur gandhak aapas mein mile hue proteen ya keraateen ke roop mein paae jaate hain. iski raasaayanik rachana bahut jatil hoti hai. is proteen mein amleeya aur kshaareeya donon prakaar ke gun hone ke kaaran iska svaroop dviguneeya hai. iska jaleeya vishleshan karne se kai prakaar ke emino aisid nikalte hain. kisi reeejeint dvaara oon ki raasaayanik sanrachana mein kisi bhi prakaar ka parivartan kiye jaane se ooni reshe ke bhautik gun nasht ho jaate hain. saamaanyataya aaksidaaijing aur ridyoosing agent, prakaash aur kshaar, oon ke sisteen linkej par aakraman karte hain at: ooni reshon ke dhavaleekaran (bleeching) aur unke klorineshan ke samay saavadhaani baratani chaahiye.

nimn taap ka prabhaav 40 se 60 degree faarenahaait tak ke taap par sabhi vasaamaya (charabeevaale) padaarth jam jaate hain; at: ve oon ko bina kisi prakaar ki haani pahuainchaae yaantrik vidhi se aasaani se alag kiye ja sakte hain.

paani aur vaashp ki prakriya thanda ya garam paani aur vaashp ki kriya ooni saamagri ke svaroop aur uske dvaara rang ki graahyata mein parivartan la deti hai. paani mein ooni resha foolata hai arthaat usaka vyaas badh jaata hai, kintu sookhane par vah pun: poorvavat ho jaata hai. 120 degree seinteegred par dabaav ke saath paani mein ubaale jaane par vah ghul jaata hai. shushk ya nam vaashp ke sansarg mein oon ksheen hota jaata hai. yeh ksheenata samay tatha dabaav ke saath badhti jaati hai. taap ki vruddhi ke saath saath oon komal hota jaata hai aur tab sheetal jal bhi use poorvasthiti mein naheen la sakta. isi tathya par ooni upakaranon ki antim prakriyaaeain aadhrut hain.

amlon ki prakriya halke amlon ka oon par koi ghaatak prabhaav naheen hota, kintu teevr aml use kamjor bana dete hain, ya kabhi-kabhi reshon ko ghula bhi dete hain.

kshaaron ki kriya kshaar oon ko peet, kathor aur namada jaisa bana dete hain. sodiym kaarbenet ke teevr ya garam tatha halke ghol se oon nasht ho jaata hai. halka kaastik soda bhi oon ko nasht kar deta hai. kaastik kshaar ke garam ghol mein to oon poornataya ghul jaata hai.

kloreen aur haaipokloraait ki kriya yadyapi shushk sthiti mein kloreen, bromeen aur aayodeen ka oon par vishesh prabhaav naheen padta to bhi nami mein ve oon ke saath milkar helomins banaate hain. tabhi oon ke proteen ka aakseekaran shu degree ho jaata hai. kloreen ke samast yaugik oon ke daaisalfaaid linkej ko aakraant kar usaki satah ko vightit karne lagte hain.

rangagraahvayata oon kshaar aur aml donon prakaar se kaam karanevaala (ainfoterik) resha hai, isliye vah sabhi prakaar ke rangon mein rainga ja sakta hai. oon ko rangane ke liye sabse mahatvapoorn rang aml aur krom hain. kuchh vait rang bhi upayogi hain.

fauramaildihaaid ki kriya fauramaildihaaid ke upayog ke do laabh hain:

1. kshaar aur aml ki kriya ke viruddh sanrakshan aur

2. keetaanuon se mukti.

fauramaildihaaid ke 2.5 pratishat ghol mein ek ghante tak rakhane par oon keetaanurahit ho jaata hai. fauramaildihaaid se kanbal tatha vastr keetaanuviheen kiye jaate hain.

Bhaarat mein oon

vedon mein dhaarmik krutyon ke samay ooni vastron ka varnan milta hai, jo is baat ka drudh pramaan hai ki praagaitihaasik kaal mein bhi log oon ko jaante the tatha usaka vyavahaar karte the. manu ne vaishyon ke yajnyaopaveet ke liye oon ko shreyaskar maana hai. rigved mein gaderiyon ke devata pashm ki stuti hai, jismein oon shvetan karne tatha kaatane ka ullekh milta hai ki kaanboj (badakhshaaain aur paameer) ke logon ne raajasooya yagya ke avsar par yudhishthir ko sunahali kadhaai ke ooni vastr (oorn) bheint mein diye the. british shaasanakaal ke aaranbhik dinon mein Punjab, Kashmir aur Tibet ke pashmeene ki badi khyaati thi.

Bhaarat mein bhi merino jaati ke medhe maingaae gaye hain aur unka milaap deshi bhedon se karaaya ja raha hai. Kashmir mein is prakaar utpann santati ko "kaashmeeri merino" kehte hain aur poona mein isi dhang se utpann ki jaanevaali jaati ko "dakshini merino" kaha jaata hai.

pashmeena, jo sansaar mein pashuon se praapt reshon mein se sabse achha resha maana gaya hai, Kashmir aur Tibet mein pai jaanevaali bakariyon se praapt hoti hai.

aisa anumaan kiya jaata hai ki sansaar mein lagbhag 3 karod kvintal oon paida hota hai. ismein se 42.8 pratishat oon merino, 46 pratishat varnasankar (krausabred) aur 11.2 pratishat kaaleeni oon hota hai. aadhuniktam anumaan ke anusaar Bhaarat apni 4 karod bhedon se lagbhag paune nau lakh man oon prati varsh paida karta hai. kul oon ka 5 pratishat se adhik oon, jiska moolya 120 karod rupae hota hai, videshon ko bheja jaata hai. desh ki ooni kapda milon ko, jo achhe kism ka kapda banaati hain, baahar se maingaae gaye 19 lakh man kachche ya ardhaviksit oon par nirbhar rahana padta hai. iska moolya videshi mudra mein lagbhag 110 karod rupae padta hai. krushi padaarthon ke niryaat vyaapaar mein oon ka sthaan aathavaaain hai, jabki pashu tatha pashujanya padaarthon ke vyaapaar mein khaal ke saath iska bhi pratham sthaan hai. uttar pradesh mein 24 karod bhedon se 5 lakh man oon paida hota hai. oon utpaadan mein Rajasthan aur Punjab sarvapratham hain, iske baad uttar pradesh ka sthaan hai. samudri barandaragaahon dvaara desh mein aayaat honevaala adhikaansh oon Australia aur England se aata hai. ye donon desh apne kul niryaat ka kramaanusaar 16.5 aur 12.1 pratishat oon Bhaarat bhejate hain. bhoobhaagon dvaara oon Tibet, Nepal, sikkim, bhootaan, Iran, pashchimi tatha poorvi Afghanistan aur uttari Afghanistan, madhya Asia aur turkistaan se aata hai. Tibet tatha aaspaas ke deshon se sabse adhik pratishat (31.10 pratishat) oon aata hai. iske baad Afghanistan aur Iran ka sthaan hai jahaaain se 25.1 pratishat oon aata hai. vyaapaarik niyamon tatha desh ki bheetari maaaing ke anusaar prati varsh oon ki maatra tatha pratishat anupaat mein parivartan hua karta hai.

hamaare oon ka sabse bada graahak England hai. adhikaansh oon kaathiyaavaad aur traavankor ke bandaragaahon se baahar bheja jaata hai. dviteeya mahaayuddh mein amareeka bhaarateeya oon bahut adhik khareedne laga tha. paryaapt maatra mein bhaarateeya oon khareedanevaale anya deshon mein Australia aur France bhi hain. sthaleeya maargon se aayaat kiye gaye oon ka kuchh bhaag videshon ko niryaat kar diya jaata hai.

prati pashu oon ki upaj jaati, sthaan ki praakrutik banaavat, varsha aur charaagaahon ki upalabdhata ke anusaar badla karti hai. kyonki Bhaarat ke vibhinn bhaagon mein poorvokt baaton mein bada antar paaya jaata hai, isliye vibhinn sthaanon ke oon mein bhi bahut antar paaya jaata hai. ek baar ki oon ki kataai mein prati bhed kitna oon praapt hota hai, iske baare mein abhi tak yadyapi paryaapt prekshan naheen kiye gaye hain, fir bhi yeh anumaan kiya jaata hai ki Bhaarat ke vibhinn bhaagon mein ek bhed se prati varsh 6 chhataaaink se lekar 2 ser tak oon praapt hota hai. sabse adhik oon Rajasthan aur kaathiyaavaad ki bhedon se praapt hota hai. uttar pradesh ke kuchh pahaadi bhaagon par kiye gaye aaranbhik prayogon se yeh gyaat hua hai ki pahaadi kshetron mein prati bhed prati kataai 12 chhataaaink oon praapt hota hai. is desh mein bhed ka oon saadhaaranataya varsh mein do baar utaara jaata hai, parantu kuchh sthaanon mein varsh mein teen baar bhi utaara jaata hai. vasant ritu mein utaara gaya oon anya rituon mein utaare gaye oon ki apeksha adhik hota hai. vibhinn rituon mein utaare gaye oon ke rang mein bhi bada antar paaya jaata hai. vasant ka oon adhik safed hota hai aur patajhad ritu ka oon halka peela hota hai. rangeen oon, jaise kaale aur katthai mein ritu ke anusaar rang mein aisa koi parivartan naheen dikhaai padta.

gunon ke aadhaar par visheshagya oon ko vibhinn shreniyon mein baaaintate hain. reshe ki lanbaai, oormilta, komalata aur oon ki chamak kuchh aise mahatvapoorn gun hain jinka chhaaaintanevaale vishesh dhyaan rakhate hain. inmein se adhikaansh gun ek doosare se sambandhit hain. anya deshon mein oon chhaaaintana ek kala ho gayi hai. oon ko sainkadon vargon mein baaainta jaata hai. parantu yeh baat hamaare bhaarateeya oon par laagoo naheen hoti. adhikaansh bhaarateeya oon apne vyaapaarik naamon se chhaaainte jaate hain, jo bhaugolik utpaadan kshetr ke anusaar unhein diye jaate hain. niryaat vyaapaar mein prayukt honevaale oon hain–joriyo, beekaaneri, rajputana, peshaavar, byaavar, maaravaad, Bikaner aur saamaanya kaala tatha katthai.

kuteer star par oon kaatane, deshi kanbal banaane, haath ya machine dvaara kaaleen ya farshi kanbal banaane, aadhunik milon mein ooni kapadon ki bunaai tatha anya udyogon, jaise ghareloo dhang se shaal, loi ya tveed banaane ke liye Bhaarat mein oon ki maaaing hai. kul oon ka 50 pratishat se adhik to deshi kanbal banaane ke kaam aata hai, lagbhag 28 pratishat oon milon ke kaam aata hai aur 12 pratishat kaaleen udyog mein prayukt hota hai. anya udyog, jaise shaal banaane mein 4 pratishat oon ki khapat hoti hai. ooni kuteer udyog vividh kshetron ki aavashyakta ke anusaar desh ke vibhinn bhaagon mein faile hain. kaaleen udyog kuteer star par tatha machine star par donon bhaaainti chalta hai. yeh udyog uttar predash mein bahut adhik viksit hai. iske banaane ke mukhya sthaan hain bhadohi (Varanasi), mirjaapur, gopeeganj (Allahabad), maadhosinh (mirjaapur), Agra, jaunapur tatha kamariha. yuddhakaal mein is udyog ki vishesh vruddhi hui. amareeka tatha England bhaarateeya kaaleen ke sabse bade khareedaar hain. bahut hi achhe kism ke kaaleen Kashmir mein bante hain. badhiya kism ka ooni maal videshon se maingaae gaye ooni dhaage se banaaya jaata hai. svatantrataapraapti ke baad se Bhaarat mein bananevaale maal mein bahut sudhaar hua hai, jo is baat se spasht hai ki Bhaarat ke baahar se tatha kuchh Europeeya deshon se ooni maal ki badi maaaing hai. Bhaarat ki pramukh ooni milein ye hain : Kanpur (uttar pradesh) mein laal imali, Punjab mein dhaareevaal, Mumbai mein remand voolan mils tatha Indian voolan mils, bangalor mein bangalor voolan, kaatan aind silk mils aur Saurashtra mein jaamanagar voolan mils. Ahmedabad ki kailiko mil bhi ab ooni maal banaane lagi hai.

doosare maal jaise loi, tveed, shaal aadi banaane ke mukhya kshetr uttar pradesh ke pahaadi ilaakon, Punjab aur Kashmir mein hain.

bhaarateeya arthavyavastha mein oon ke mahatva ko dekhte hue bhaarateeya krushi anusandhaan parishd, Bhaarat sarkaar tatha raajya sarkaaron ne kai anusandhaan yojanaaon ko aarambh kiya tatha badhaava diya hai. vibhinn raajyon mein oon sambandhi prayogashaalaaeain sthaapit karne ka kaam bhaarateeya krushi anusandhaan parishd ne aarambh kiya, jisne raajya sarkaaron ke saath milkar in prayogashaalaaon me dhan lagaaya. ye prayogashaalaaeain vartamaan oon ke gun tatha prayogasvaroop utpann sudhare oon ke gun aaainkane ke liye aavayashyak hain. poona, Madras, banihaal (Kashmir) aur rishidesh (uttar pradesh) mein chaar kshetreeya anusandhaan prayogashaalaaeain hain. inke atirikt gaya (Bihar), Bikaner (Rajasthan) aur hisaar (Haryana) mein bhi oon prayogashaalaaeain hain. oon ke sudhaar ke baare mein neeti yeh rahi hai ki maidaan ki sthaaneeya bhedon ka beekaaneree–ya isse thodi bhinn chokala, naali, maagara aadi–jaati ke medhon se mel karaaya jaae, jismein adhikaansh raajyon mein bhedon ki utpatti badhe tatha maidaani bhedon mein sudhaar ho. vartamaan jaatiyon mein, jaise beekaaneri mein, chunaav ke baad prajanan karaake tatha sthaaneeya bhedon ka videshi jaatiyon se mel karaakar achha oon paida karne ke kuchh prayog beekaaneri tatha merino ka mel karaakar paida ki gayi hai. videshi medhon se mel karaakar oon sudhaarane ka prayatn adhiktar pahaadon mein hi kiye ja rahe hain. Kashmir, poona, hisaar aur peepalakothi mein sthaaneeya bhedon ka mel karaane ke liye merino medhe upayog mein laae ja rahe hain. haal hi mein uttar pradesh aur Himachal pradesh mein sankar jaati ke utpaadan (kraus breeding) par prayog karne ke liye Australia se polavarth, bordar, leestar aur koreedel jaatiyaaain maingaai gayi hain. chhota Nagpur ke kshetr mein sthaaneeya bhedon ka sudhaar karne ke liye romaneemaarsh jaati ke medhe baahar se maingaae gaye hain. vibhinn raajyon mein vikaas kaarya ko bhed tatha oon vikaas kendra, oon pratiyogita kendra aadi sthaapit karke badhaaya ja raha hai. Rajasthan mein saamoohik dhang se oon utaarane ka sthaan banaane ki bhi yojana hai, jismein raajya sarkaar oon ki chhaintaai (greding) tatha bikri ki suvidha dekar utpaadak ko apne maal ka achha moolya praapt karne mein sahaayak ho. san 1974 ke dauraan hisaar sthit keindreeya bhed prajanan firm ke liye Australia se koreedel nasl ki 1,033 bheindein praapt hui hain. Andhra pradesh, Karnataka aur Jammu tatha Kashmir mein teen aur bhed prajanan faarmo mein kaarya vyaapak star par teji se pragati kar raha hai. uttar pradesh aur Rajasthan mein aise do faarmon ki sthaapana ka anumodan kar diya gaya hai.

jab se aadim manushya ne apne shareer ko dhakane ke liye bhed ki khaal ka prayog kiya tab se ab tak is pashu ke oon par maanav jaati ki nirbharata badhti hi gayi hai, yahaaain tak ki ab hamaare jeevan ka kadaachit hi koi aisa pahaloo rah gaya hai, jismein yeh prakrutik resha kaam na aata ho.

baahari kadiyaaain