ofshoring

ofshor shabd samudra mein tel aur praakrutik gas ke utpaadan ko nirdisht kar sakta hai ; dekhein oil plaitafaurm. fileepeen aautasorsing company ke liye dekhein, Offshoring Inc.

ofshoring, ek company dvaara vyaapaarik prakriya ko ek desh se doosare desh mein sthaanaantarit karne ko varnit karta hai - aam taur par parichlanaatmak prakriya ko, jaise vinirmaan, ya sahayogi prakriyaaon ko, jaise lekhaankan. yahaan tak ki raajya sarkaarein bhi ofshoring ka upayog karti hain.[1]

yeh shabd kai alag lekin ghanisht roop se sambandhit tareekon se prayog mein laaya jaata hai. kabhi-kabhi ise vyaapak arth mein kisi videshi srot se aisi seva ke vikalp ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaata hai jo pehle farm mein aantarik roop se pradaan ki ja rahi thi. anya maamalon mein, ismein keval apni sahayogi ikaai ya ghanisht roop se jude anya aapoortikrtaaon se aayaatit sevaaen shaamil hain. ek aur ulajhan hai ki aanshik roop se taiyaar computer jaise madhyavarti maal, is shabd ke daayare mein susangat roop se shaamil naheen kiye jaate hain.[2] "reeshoring" (kabhi-kabhi "baikashoring"[3]) vah ofshoring hai jise vaapas tat par laaya gaya hai.

ofshoring ko ya to utpaadan ofshoring ya sevaaon ke ofshoring ke sandarbh mein dekha ja sakta hai. 2001 mein vishv vyaapaar sangathan (WTO) mein uske parigrahan ke baad, cheeni janavaadi ganatantr utpaadan ofshoring ke pramukh gantavya ke roop mein ubhara. doorasanchaar mein praudyogiki pragati dvaara sevaaon ke vyaapaar ki sambhaavnaaon mein sudhaar ke baad, Bhaarat is kshetr mein agrani desh bana haalaanki ab duniya ke kai desh ofshoring gantavya ke roop mein ubhar rahe hain.

iska aarthik tark laagat ko kam karna hai. agar kuchh log auron ki tulana mein apna kaushal adhik saste daamon mein de sakte hain, to un logon ko tulanaatmak laabh milta hai. iske peechhe vichaar yeh hai ki desh svatantr roop se un vastuon ka vyaapaar karein jinke utpaadan mein unhein nyoonatam laagat aati hai.

anukram

aksar prayukt shabd

ofshoring ko aisi vyaapaarik prakriya ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya gaya hai jise kisi desh mein usi company mein ya kisi anya desh mein doosari company mein sthaanaantarit kiya jaata hai. lagbhag hamesha hi kaam ko nae sthaan mein parichaalan ki kam laagat ke kaaran sthaanaantarit kiya jaata hai. ofshoring ki, kabhi-kabhi aautasorsing ya apatateeya aautasorsing se tulana ki jaati hai. aautasorsing aantarik vyaapaar prakriyaaon ko kisi baahya company se karaaya jaana hai. ek hi desh mein up-theke par kaam karaane waali companiyaan ofshoring naheen, balki aautasorsing kar rahi hoti hain. company jo apne aantarik vyaapaar ikaai ko ek desh se doosare desh mein sthaanaantarit kar rahi hon ve aautasorsing naheen, balki ofshoring ya bhautik punargathan kar rahi hogi. ek company jo kisi doosare desh mein ek alag company ko vyaapaar ikaai ka up-theka de rahi hai, vah aautasorsing aur ofshoring donon kar rahi hogi.

sambandhit shabdon mein shaamil hai niyrashoring, jiska arth hai vyaapaar prakriyaaon ko (aam taur par) kam laagat vaale bhaugolik roop se atyant nikat videshi sthaanon mein pun: basaana (uda. sanyukt raashtra-aadhaarit vyaapaar prakriyaaon ko Canada/laitin America mein sthaanaantarit karna); inashoring, jiska arth hai desh ke bheetar hi sevaaen praapt karna; aur bestashoring, ya raaitashoring, vibhinn maanadandon par aadhaarit "uttam tat" ka chayan. business prauses aautasorsing (BPO) aisi aautasorsing vyavastha ko sandarbhit karta hai jab samast vyaavasaayik kaarya (jaise ki vitt aur lekhaankan, graahak seva aadi) aautasors kiye jaate hain. adhik vishisht shabd software vikaas ke kshetr mein paae ja sakte hain - udaaharan ke liye vaishvik roop se vistrut dalon ke liye/ke dvaara pranaaliyon ki shreni ke roop mein viksit global inafrmeshan system.

ofshoring ke saath kabhi-kabhi judne wala ek aur shabd hai baudeeshauping, jo poore vyaavasaayik kaarya ko apatateeya sthaan se karaane ke vyaapak iraade ke bina, kisi vyaapaar parivesh mein chhote alag-alag kaamon ko karne ke liye apatateeya sansaadhanon aur kaarmikon ke upayog ki paddhati hai.

utpaadan ofshoring

utpaadan ofshoring mein, jo sthaapit utpaadon ke bhautik punargathan ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai, kam laagat vaale gantavya ko bhautik vinirmaan prakriyaaon ka sthaanaantaran shaamil hai. utpaadan ofshoring ke udaaharanon mein shaamil hai kausta reeka mein electronic ghatakon ka nirmaan, cheen, viytanaam aadi mein vastr, khilaune tatha upabhokta vastuon ka utpaadan.

nae utpaadon ki or abhimukh utpaad design, anusandhaan aur vikaas ki prakriya ki ofshoring apekshaakrut kathin hai. iska kaaran yeh hai ki utpaadon ko behtar banaane aur nae namoona dijaain taiyaar karne ke liye apekshit anusandhaan aur vikaas ke liye kaushal ki aavashyakta hoti hai jo saste majdooron vaale kshetr se haasil karna mushkil hai. is kaaran, kai maamalon mein laagat ko kam karne ki ichhuk company dvaara keval vinirmaan ki ofshoring ki jaati hai.

tathaapi, ofshoring aur peteint pranaali shakti ke beech ek sambandh hai. iska kaaran yeh hai ek majaboot peteint pranaali ke tahat companiyaan apatateeya kaam karne se naheen darati kyonki unka kaam unki hi sampatti rahegi. iske vipreet, kamjor peteint pranaali vaale deshon mein companiyon ko videshi vikretaaon ya kaamagaaron se ek bauddhik sanpada ki chori ka adhik dar rahata hai aur isliye, ve ofshoring kam hi karti hain.

bhautik punargathan ko tab bhaari protsaahan mila jab uttar ameriki mukt vyaapaar samjhauta (NAFTA) ne nirmaataaon ke liye apni utpaadan suvidhaaon ko America se Mexico sthaanaantarit karna aasaan bana diya. yeh rujhaan baad mein cheen ki or jhuka, jisne nyoon majdoori, majdooron ke adhikaar kaanoon, ameriki dollar ke liye nishchit mudra (sanprati vividh arth-vyavasthaaon ke liye nirdhaarit) nai companiyon ke liye saste rin, bhoomi aur kaarakhaane, kam paryaavaraneeya viniym aur laakhon ki janasankhya vaale shaharon par aadhaarit vishaal aarthik laabh, jahaan majdoor kisi ek hi prakaar ke utpaad banaane mein jute hon, ki peshakash ki. tathaapi, kai companiyaan bauddhik sampatti kaanoon ke pravartan mein shithilta ki vajah se atyaadhunik utpaadon ke uchch-moolya yojit utpaadan ko cheen mein sthaanaantarit karne ki ichhuk naheen hai.[4] CAFTA ne bhautik punargathan ki gati ko badha diya hai.

IT sevaaon ki ofshoring

IT sevaaon ki ofshoring mein vikaas ke taar, 1990 ke uttaraardh mein doorasanchaar aur Internet vistaar ke baad vishvasaneeya aur saste sanchaar ke aadhaarbhoot dhaanche ki badi maatra mein upalabdhata se jude hue hain. yeh sab varsh 2000 tak chalta raha. kai sevaaon ke dijitleekaran ke saath yugmit hokar, sevaaon ke vaastavik utpaadan sthal ko kam laagat vaale deshon mein kuchh is prakaar sthaanaantarit karna sambhav ho saka ki upabhokta ko bhi saiddhaantik roop se spasht rahe.

Bhaarat is ofshoring rujhaan se pehle laabhaanvit hua jahaan angreji bolne vaale[5] aur takaneeki dakshata rakhane vaalon ki sankhya zyaada hai. 1990 dashak ke praarambh mein Bhaarat ke ofshoring udyog ne chhote-mote IT kaaryon mein jadein jamaain aur tab se call center aur len-den prakriya jaisi back-ofis prakriyaaon ki or rukh kiya hai. 1990 dashak ke uttaraardh mein, Bhaarat ke prachur aur saste software engineering pratibha ne Y2K samasya se utpann hone waali bhaari maang ke saath jud kar, America mein base graahakon ke liye bade paimaane par sauftaveyar development pariyojanaaon ko aakarshit karne ke liye Bhaarat ke mahatva ko aage badhaaya. isse baingalord jaisa naya shabd utpann hua, jo aam taur par chhantani ko darshaane ke liye prayukt hota hai, jo aksar vyavasthaaparak aur saamaanyat: companiyon dvaara vetan bhaar kam karne ke iraade se aautasorsing soochit karne ke liye- Bhaarat ke Bengaluru se vyutpann, jahaan kuchh aautasors kendra sabse pehle khule the.[6]

sanprati, Bhaarat ki engineering pratibha ne Bhaarat ko echapi (HP), aaibeeem (IBM), intel (Intel), eemadi (AMD), Microsoft (Microsoft) aurekal kaurporeshan (Oracle Corporation), sisko (Cisco), esaepi (SAP) aur beeie (BEA) jaisi vaishvik companiyon ke liye ofshoring gantavya banaaya.

mudraasfeeti, uchch ghareloo byaaj dar, majboot aarthik vruddhi aur vardhit IT ofshoring ki vajah se bhaarateeya IT kshetr mein 21veen sadi mein 10-15% vetan vruddhi dekhi gayi. parinaamasvaroop, bhaarateeya ki prachaalan companiyaan aur frmon ko chinta hai ki ve anya ofshoring gantavyon ki tulana mein adhik mahange hote ja rahe hain. uchch vikaas dar ko banaae rakhane ke liye, moolya shrrunkhala ko badhaane aur sauftaveyar tatha haardaveyar engineering ke saath-saath anya uchch laagat aur parishkrut takaneek vaale kaarya mein vividhikran ke prayaas kiye ja rahe hain. in kaamon mein shaamil hai anusandhaan aur vikaas, ikviti vishleshan, aay-kar prasanskaran, rediyolaujikl vishleshan, medical traansakripshan, aur anya kai.

ofshoring gantavya ke chayan mein aksar saanskrutik kaaran bhoomika nibhaate hain. Japani companiyon dvaara cheen ko aautasors kiya ja raha hai, jahaan Japani bolne vaale badi sankhya mein maujood hain - visheshakar daliyaan shahar, jo dashakon tak Japan ke kabje mein rahane wala cheeni pradesh hai (pustak the world ij flait mein iski charcha ki gayi hai). jarman companiyaan aautasors ke liye Poland aur romaaniya ka rukh karti hain, jahaan ke logon ko saamaanyat: jarman bhaasha mein praveenata haasil rahati hai.

 isi tarah ke kaaranon ke liye France ki companiyaan uttari Africa ko aautasors karti hain.

Australiaee IT companiyon ke liye Indonesia ek pramukh pasandeeda ofshoring gantavya hai. Indonesia ko IT sevaaon ke ofshoring ke kaaran hain tatavarti nikat sthaan, saamaanya samay-anchal aur paryaapt IT kaarya bal.

anya ofshoring gantavya sthalon mein shaamil hai Mexico, madhya aur dakshini America, fileepeens, dakshini Africa aur poorvi Europeeya desh.

madhya America mukt vyaapaar samjhaute (CAFTA) ne kausta reeka, L sailvedor, gvaatemaala, honduras, nikaaraguaa aur dominikn ripblik jaise madhya ameriki deshon aur sanyukt raashtra America ke beech niyrashoring ko kaafi aakarshak bana diya hai.

navonmesh ofshoring

jaise hi companiyaan prastut sevaaon se santusht hone lageen aur laagat bachat ko pahachaanane lagi, kai uchch-praudyogiki utpaad companiyon ne dakshin Africa, Bhaarat, Pakistan, cheen, Mexico, roos aadi deshon ko navonmeshi utpaadon ke liye prayog karna shuroo kiya.

kai mashahoor silikn valley aadhaarit companiyon ne na keval laagat kam karne ke liye balki apne utpaadan prakriya ki avadhi ko kam karne tatha in deshon mein bahutaayat se upalabdh pratibha ka upayog karne ke liye ismein kdam rakha hai. aam taur par is vyavahaar ke liye kam viksit deshon ka upayog kiya jaata hai.

bauddhik sanpada ka sthaanaantaran

ofshoring aksar apatateeya kshetr ko bahumoolya soochana ke antaran saksham ki jaati hai. is tarah ki jaankaari aur prashikshan dooravarti kaaryakartaaon aantarik karmachaariyon ke pichhle utpaadan ki tulana mein behtar parinaam dene yogya banaate hain. jab is tarah ke antaran mein koi aisi surakshit saamagri shaamil ho, jaise ki gopaneeya dastaavej aur vyaapaar rahasya, jo anudghaatan samjhauton se surakshit hoti hai, to bauddhik sanpada ka sthaanaantaran ya niryaat kiya jaata hai. aise niryaaton ka pralekhan aur moolyaankan kaafi mushkil hota hai, lekin ise mahatva diya jaana chaahiye choonki ismein kuchh aisi madein hoti hain jo viniymit ya kar yogya hoti hain.

bahas

ofshoring ek vivaadaaspad mudda ban gaya hai jisne arthashaastriyon ke beech garama garam bahas chhed di hai, jinmein se kuchh mukt vyaapaar ke vishay ke saath ghaal-mel bhi kar dete hain. mukt vyaapaar ke maadhyam se ise mool aur gantavya donon deshon ke liye laabhakaari maana ja raha hai, jahaan gantavya desh ko rojgaar pradaan kiya jaata hai aur mool desh ko kam laagat par maal aur sevaaen upalabdh hoti hain. isse donon deshon ke sakal ghareloo utpaad (GDP) mein vruddhi darj hoti hai. aur donon hi deshon mein rojagaar ke avsar badh jaate hain choonki mool desh mein jin kaamagaaron ki naukriyaan chhoot gayi hain, ve aise behtar rojgaar pa sakte hain jo unke desh ke liye apekshaakrut faayademand hai.

doosari or, viksit deshon mein naukri chhootane aur vetan mein katauti ne ofshoring ke prati virodh ki chingaari sulagaai hai. visheshagyon ka tark hai ki viksit deshon mein kisi bhi nae rojagaar ki gunavatta khoi hui naukariyon se kam hain aur kam vetan ki peshakash ki jaati hai. ofshoring ka virodh karne vaale arthashaastri aarop lagaate hain ki sarkaar aur unke keindreeya bankon dvaara mudra mein kiye jaane vaale herafer se shram laagat mein antar hota hai jisse tulanaatmak laabh ka bhram paida hota hai. iske alaava, ve sanket dete hain viksit deshon mein sauftaveyar engineer, lekhaakaar, rediyaulojist aur patrakaar jaise uchch-moolya waali naukariyon vaale shikshit aur unnat roop se prashikshit log bhi Bhaarat aur cheen jaise atyadhik shikshit aur saste majdooron dvaara visthaapit kiye ja rahe hain. 1 May 2002 ko arthashaastri aur poorv raajadoot arnest H. preeg ne cheen mein banking, aavaas aur nagareeya maamalon ki senate samiti ke samaksh pramaan prastut karte hue bataaya ki udaaharan ke liye, cheen apni mudra ko dollar ke mukaabale lagbhag samamoolya par sthir rakhata hai joki antarraashtreeya maudrik nidhi samjhaute ke niyam 6 ka ullanghan hai, jismein kaha gaya hai ki koi bhi desh baajaar mein laabhaprad sthiti haasil karne ke liye apni mudra mein herafer naheen karega.[7] viksit deshon ke paramparaagat roop se "surakshit" maane jaane vaale anusandhaan aur vikaas, vigyaan, praudyogiki, engineering aur ganit (STEM) ke kshetr ki naukariyon par ab khtare ke baadal mandaraane lage hain kyonki vikaasasheel deshon mein in kshetron ke liye bhaari maatra mein kaamagaaron ko prashikshit kiya ja raha hai. paul kreg raubarts jaise arthashaastriyon ka daava hai ki jo arthashaastri ofshoring ko protsaahit kar rahe hain ve tulanaatmak laabh aur poorn laabh ke beech ke antar ko samajhne mein glati kar rahe hain.

aashcharya naheen ki kai ameriki kaaryapaalak America mein maujooda berojgaari ke ghatate star (4.5%)[8] ka havaala dete hue use sakaaraatmak pramaan maanate hain ki ofshoring na to ameriki kaamagaaron ke liye haanikaarak raha hai aur na hi America ke liye. yeh bahas ka vishay ho sakta hai ki vartamaan berojgaari ke aankadon ke upayog ki samasyaaon mein se ek hai ki ismein ghatate rojgaar ke aankadon par dhyaan naheen diya gaya hai.

adhik mahatvapoorn baat yeh hai ki is tark-vitrk mein aaj se 10-20 varshon baad satat apatateeya aautasorsing ke prabhaav par na to vichaar kiya gaya hai aur na hi poorvaanumaan lagaaya gaya hai, udaaharan ke liye ubharate deshon mein shram laagat mein sambhaavit vruddhi aur unki aarthik avasthiti mein parivartan, jaisa ki pichhle dashakon mein Japan aur dakshin Korea ke maamale mein ho chuka hai.

vinirmaan kshetr mein rojagaar ki giraavat ne audyogik kshetr ke kaamagaaron ke beech kaafi bhaya utpann kiya hai[krupaya uddharan jodein], haalaanki kai deshon mein kul rojgaar mein badhotri ho rahi hai. iska prabhaav ofshoring ya videshi nivesh se kaheen zyaada darshaaya gaya hai[krupaya uddharan jodein], fir bhi berojgaari ki tohamat inheen ke maathe madhi ja rahi hai[krupaya uddharan jodein], kyonki audyogik samaaj se audyogeekaranottar samaaj mein hone vaale dheeme parivartan ki apeksha bade ofshoring pariyojanaaen logon ki nazar mein zyaada aane lagi hain[krupaya uddharan jodein]. fir bhi, 2000-2005 ki avadhi ke dauraan America mein rojgaar-srujan dheemi aur vetan vruddhi kam rahi thi[krupaya uddharan jodein]. kuchh log ofshoring ko iske liye jimmedaar thaharaate hain[krupaya uddharan jodein]. 1970 ke baad se hi kul rojgaar ke pratishat ke roop mein deerghaavadhik berojgaari mein lagaataar vruddhi rahi hai. 2003 mein deerghaavadhik berojgaari mein 22%+ vruddhi rahi.[9] March 2009 tak, berojgaari beeme par rahane vaale 45.6% logon ki saari nidhi chuk gayi par unhein koi naukri naheen mili.[10]

seva-star ki chintaaen

call center jaise anuprayogon ki ofshoring ke saath, ek yeh bhi bahas chhid gayi ki is prakaar ka abhyaas graahakon ko companiyon se milne waali graahak seva aur takaneeki sahaayata ki gunavatta ko gambhir nuksaan pahuncha raha hai. kai companiyon ko graahak seva aur takaneeki sahaayata ke liye videshi karmiyon ke istemaal ke apne faisale ke liye janta ka rosh sahana pada hai, jo adhikaanshat: iske dvaara khadi hone waali bhaashaai samasya ke kaaran rahi hai. haalaanki kuchh deshon mein uchch stareeya yuva, kushal shramik hain jo apni janmajaat bhaasha ke roop mein angreji bolne mein saksham hain, lekin unke angreji kaushal ne uttari America mein savaal khada kiye hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

adhikaansh ameriki janta dvaara aautasorsing ki aalochna ke peechhe ghatiya graahak seva aur takaneeki sahaayata se upaji vah pratikriya hai jo videshi kaamagaar amerikiyon ke saath vaartaalaap ka prayaas karte samay pradaan kar rahe hain.

aapoorti shrrunkhala chintaaen

kuchh logon ka daava hai ki outasorsing ke antargat companiyaan apni visteern aapoorti shrrunkhala par niyantran aur drushyata kho rahi hain, jiske falasvaroop jokhim badh jaata hai. 2005 mein industry daairekshans ink aur electronics saplaai chen association (ESCA) dvaara kiye gaye 121 electronics udyog ke saankhyiki sarvekshan mein paaya gaya ki 69% uttaradaataaon ne kaha ki outasorsing shuroo hone ke baad se, kam se kam 5 aapoorti shrrunkhalaaon par unka niyantran kam ho gaya hai, jab ki 66% pradaataaon ne mahasoos kiya ki graahakon ke saath unka kul jokhim adhik ya bahut adhik ho gaya hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] 36% pradaataaon ne javaab diya ki unhonne outasorsing se pehle ki apni anishchitta ki tulana mein ab anishchitta ke jokhim mein vruddhi mahasoos ki hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] 62% uttaradaataaon ne kam se kam do pramukh vyaapaar saajhedaari prabandhan vyavahaar ko "samasyaatmak" roop mein varnit kiya, jinmein shaamil hain nishpaadan prabandhan aur parinaamon par saamaanya sahamati.[krupaya uddharan jodein] is anusandhaan ke anusaar, kul uttaradaataaon ke 40% ko aautasors saajhedaari samjhaute mein jokhim saajha karne par pratirodh raha.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

pratispardhaatmak chintaaen

desh ke baahar gyaan ke antaran se mool companiyon ko swayam ke khilaaf bhi koi pratispardhi taiyaar ho sakta hai. cheeni vinirmaata pichhle ghareloo madhyavartiyon ke maadhyam se gaye bina, jinke saath unhonne apni sevaaon ke liye anubandh kiya tha, pehle se hi videshi graahakon ko apna maal seedhe bechne lage hain. 1990 aur 2000 ke dashak mein, ameriki auto nirmaata apne vaahanon ke liye kalapurje taiyaar karne ke liye teji se cheen ki or rukh karne lage. 2006 tak, cheen ne yeh takaneek bhali-bhaanti haasil kar li aur ghoshit kar diya ki ab ve ameriki auto nirmaataaon ke saath unheen ke ghareloo baajaar mein ameriki logon ko cheeni automobile ki bikri karte hue pratispardha kareinge. jab koi company kisi doosare desh mein maal aur sevaaon ka utpaadan karti hai, to jo nivesh vah ghareloo baajaar mein karti, vah videshi baajaar mein sthaanaantarit ho jaata hai. kaurporet dhan jo kaarkhaanon, prashikshan aur karon mein vyaya hota hai, vah company ke baajaar mein kharch hone ke bajaay videshi baajaar mein vyaya ho jaata hai. videshi baajaar mein jaise-jaise utpaadan badhta hai, yogya aur anubhavi ghareloo kaamagaar chhod kar chale jaate hain ya unhein majabooran apni naukri se haath dhona padta hai, jab ki kai baar unhein sthaai roop se udyog chhodna padta hai. kisi charan par, naatakeeya roop se kaarya nishpaadit karne ke liye bahut kam yogya ghareloo shramik baaki rah jaate hain. isse ghareloo baajaar ko un vastuon aur sevaaon ke liye videshi baajaar par nirbhar hona padta hai, jo rananeetik taur par "khokhale" svadesh ko aur kamzor bana deti hai. vaastav mein, ofshoring videsh ke pratispardhi udyogon ko taiyaar aur majboot karta hai, jab ki rananeetik roop se svadesh ko kamzor banaata hai.[sandigdh ]

tathaapi, rojgaar ke aankade is daave par sandeh jataate hain. udaaharan ke liye, haal hi mein America mein IT rojgaar 2001 ke pehle vaale star tak aa gaya hai[11][12] aur tab se badh raha hai. ofshoring ke kaaran chhootane waali naukariyon ki sankhya poore ameriki shram baajaar ke 1 pratishat se bhi kam rah gaya hai.[13] heritej foundation dvaara kiye gaye ek adhyayan ke anusaar, aautasorsing America mein chhootane waali naukariyon ke ek bahut chhote se anupaat ka pratinidhitv karta hai. ofshoring ki badaulat chhootane waali naukariyon ki kul sankhya, donon nirmaan aur takaneeki, America mein chhooti naukariyon ke keval 4 pratishat ka pratinidhitv karte hain. naukariyon ki katauti ke pramukh kaaran anubandh samaapan aur karmachaariyon ki sankhya ko ghataaya jaana hai.[14] kuchh arthashaastriyon aur teekaakaaron ka daava hai ki ofshoring ke maamale ko kuchh zyaada hi badha-chadha kar kaha ja raha hai.[14]

punarprashikshan chintaaen

ofshoring ke kaaran naukri khone vaale desheeya karmachaariyon ke liye aksar prastut ek samaadhaan hai nai naukri ke liye pun: prashikshan. kuchh visthaapit karmachaari uchch shiksha aur snaatak yogyata praapt hain. kisi anya kshetr mein unke vartamaan star tak pun: prashikshan, shiksha mein lage varshon aur aaveshtit shaikshanik laagat ki drushti se shaayad hi sahi vikalp ho sakta hai.

utpaadan gatisheelata ke kaarak ka prabhaav

shaastreeya arthashaastriyon ke anusaar, utpaadan ke ghatak teen hain, bhoomi, shram aur poonji. ofshoring in kaarakon mein se kinhi do ki gatisheelata par kaafi nirbhar karta hai. arthaat, ofshoring kaise arth-vyavasthaaon ko prabhaavit karta hai is baat par nirbhar karta hai ki kitni aasaani se poonji aur shram ko alag uddeshya ke liye prayukt kiya ja sakta hai. utpaadan ke ek kaarak ke roop mein bhoomi mein aam taur par kam ya gatisheelata ki koi sanbhaavyata naheen dekhi jaati hai.

ofshoring par poonji gatisheelata ke prabhaav par vyaapak roop se charcha ki gayi hai. vyashti-arthashaastr mein, ek nigam ko ofshoring ke praarambhik laagat ko vahan karne ke liye kaaryasheel poonji ko kharch karne ki kshamata honi chaahiye. agar sarkaar bhaari taur par viniymit karti hai ki kaise ek nigam apni kaaryasheel poonji kharch kar sakta hain, vah apne parichaalanon ko ofshor karne mein saksham naheen hoga. isi vajah se ofshoring ki safalta ke liye samashti-arthashaastr ko mukt hona chaahiye. aam taur par, jo ofshoring ka paksh lete hain ve poonji gatisheelata ka samarthan karte hain aur jo ofshoring ka virodh karte hain ve atyadhik viniyman chaahate hain.

shram gatisheelata bhi ek pramukh bhoomika nibhaati hai aur is par bhi garama-garam bahas hoti hai. jab computer aur Internet ne kaam ko electronic roop se portebal bana diya, mukt baajaar ki taaktein seva udyog mein kaarya ki vaishvik gatisheelata mein parint huin. adhikaansh siddhaant jo bahas karte hain ki ofshoring antat: ghareloo kaamagaaron ko laabh pahunchaata hai, yeh maan kar chalte hain ki ve karmachaari nae rojgaar praapt karne mein saksham ho jaaenge, bhale hi unhein khud ke avmoolyan dvaara (kam vetan sveekaar karte hue) ya nae kshetr mein swayam ke pun: prashikshan dvaara rojgaar paane ke liye vaapas shram baajaar mein jaana pade. videshi kaamagaaron ko nai naukri aur oonchi majadoori ka laabh milta hai jab kaam unke paas aata hai.

itihaas

viksit vishv mein, desh se baahar naukariyon ko le jaane ka maamala kam se kam 1960[15] ke dashak mein dekha gaya aur tab se yeh jaari hai. mukhya roop se iski visheshata rahi hai viksit deshon se vikaasasheel deshon mein kaarkhaanon ko sthaanaantarit karna. yeh ofshoring aur kaarkhaanon ko band karna, viksit deshon mein audyogik se audyogikranottar seva samaaj mein sanrachanaatmak parivartan ka kaaran bana.

20veen sadi ke dauraan, parivhan aur sanchaar ki laagat mein kami, bhugataan daron ki pramukh asamaanataaon ke saath, ameer deshon se kam ameer deshon ko ofshoring ke falasvaroop kai companiyon ke liye aarthik roop se sanbhaavya banaaya. iske alaava, Internet ke vikaas ne vishesh roop se faaibar optik antaramahaadveepeeya adhik vistaar kshamata aur world wide web ne kai prakaar ke soochana kaaryon ki "parivhan laagat" ko lagbhag shoonya tak kam kar diya.[16]

Internet ke vikaas ke saath, call center, computer prograaming jaisi kai nai shreniyon ke kaarya, ex-re aur chunbakeeya anunaad pratibinban (maignetik rejoneins imejing) jaise chikitsa deta ke pathan, chikitseeya pratilekhan (medical traanskripshan), aay kar taiyaari aur sheershak khoj ki ofshoring ki jaane lagi hai.

1990 ke dashak se pehle, Ireland Europeeya sangh ke sabse gareeb deshon mein se ek tha. Ireland ki apekshaakrut kam nigmit kar daron ke kaaran ameriki companiyon ne Ireland ke liye software, electronic aur aushadheeya bauddhik sanpada ke niryaat ki ofshoring shuroo kar di. isne uchch takaneek "uchhaal" laane mein madad ki aur isse Ireland ko Europeeya sangh ke samruddh deshon mein se ek banane mein madad mili.[16]

1994 mein uttar ameriki mukt vyaapaar karaar (NAFTA) prabhaavi ho gaya. choonki sansthaaen asamaan saudebaaji shakti, jokhim tatha laabhon mein vyaapak hain, aam taur par samjhauta vaarta itna mushkil ho jaata hai ki mukt vyaapaar kshetron ko taiyaar karna (jaise ki amerikaas ka mukt vyaapaar kshetr) abhi tak safal naheen ho paaya hai. 2005 mein, kushal kaam ki ofshoring ki, jise naulej vark ke roop mein bhi sandarbhit kiya jaata hai, America mein naatakeeya roop se vruddhi hui, jisne naukri khtm karne sambandhi badhti aashankaaon ko poshit kiya.[16]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • bhoomandaleekaran-virodhi
  • call center ki suraksha
  • ekeekrut vaishvik udyam
  • vaishvikta
  • homeshoring
  • inashoring
  • apatateeya anusandhaan network
  • aautasorsing
  • vyaktigat ofshoring
  • punargathan
  • utpaadan palaayan
  • prograamars gild
  • follow-the-san
  • diklaain end faul of the American prograamar

kshetravaar:

saahitya

  • ashok Dave bardhan aur sinthiya kraul "the new vev of aautasorsing" (2 November 2003). fishr center faur real estate end urban economics. center reesarch report: report #1103. http://repositories.cdlib.org/iber/fcreue/reports/1103
  • elan E. blaaindar, videshi maamalon mein ofshoring: the next industrial revalyooshan?, khand 85, san.2, March/April 2006, 113-128.
  • vinj kaauto, mahaadev mani, vikaas sahagal, eri vaai. levin, steefn maining, jef dablyoo. Russel, Offshoring 2.0: Contracting Knowledge and Innovation to Expand Global Capabilities Offshoring Research Network 2007 service provaaidar report.
  • George erbar, aida Sayyed-Ahmad, intaraikonaumiks mein: ofshor aautasorsing - a global shift in the preseint IT indastreej, khand 40, sankhya 2, March 2005, 100-112,[17]
  • Thomas L.fredamain, the world ij flait: ikkeesaveen sadi ka sankshipt itihaas 2005 ISBN 0-374-29288-4
  • Gary jerefi aur vivek vaadhava "freming the engineering aautasorsing dibet: plesing the United states on A level pleing feeld vith India end China" (2006) http://memp.pratt.duke.edu/outsourcing
  • laau daubs ke praakkathan ke saath raun heera aur anil heera,

aautasorsing America: vhaatj bihaaind avar national kraaisis end how vi kain reeklem American jaubs . (May 2005). ISBN 0-8053-4003-3.

  • braidaford jensen aur lori kletjr (sitmbar 2005), "tredebal sarviss: andarastainding the skop end impaikt of sarviss aautasorsing", Institute faur international economics varking pepar nan. 05-9 SSRN 803906
  • mark kobaayaashi-Hillary 'bilding a fyoochar vith beeaaraaaisi: the next diked faur ofshoring', (November 2007). ISBN 978-3-540-46453-2.
  • mark kobaayaashi-Hillary aur dau॰ richrd saaikas 'global services: mooving too a leval pleing feeld', (May 2007). ISBN 978-1-902505-83-1.
  • William lejaunik, globalaaijeshan of the aaiseeti lebar fors : the Oxford haindabuk on aaiseeti, san. klaudiyo saaibora, raubin mainasel, daini kvaah, Roger saulvaraston, Oxford university press, (aagaami)
  • eri vaai. levin aur vind kaauto, Next Generation Offshoring: The Globalization of Innovation Offshoring Research Network 2006 sarvekshan report.
  • maariyo luis, IT aplikeshan service ofshoring: N inasaaidars guide, sej pablikeshans, ISBN 0-7619-3525-8, ISBN 978-0-7619-3525-4
  • Cathrine maan, eksalareting the globalaaijeshan of America: the rol faur inafrmeshan teknauloji, Institute for international economics, Washington, di.si. June 2006[18], ISBN pepar 0-88132-390-X
  • steefn maining, silviya maasini aur eri vaai. levin, "a daainamik parsapektiv on next-janareshan ofshoring: the global sorsing of saains end engineering talent": akaademi of management parsapektivs, khand 22, san. 3, October 2008, 35-54.[19]
  • maikakinse global instityoot, "ofshoring: ij it A vin-vin game?", August 2003
  • Bhaarat vagaadiya "aautasorsing tu India: a leegal haindabuk", August 2007, springar, ISBN 978-3-540-72219-9
  • atul vashishth aur Avinash vashishth the ofshor nation, ISBN 0-07-146812-9

sandarbh

  1. "the ofshoring of American gavarnameint", kaarnel law review, November 2008: http://www.lawschool.cornell.edu/research/cornell-law-review/upload/Zuckerman.pdf par upalabdh
  2. maha lekha kaaryaalaya mein dekhein: "apeindiks II: defineshans of ofshoring": "international trade: kareint gavarnameint deta provaaid limited inasaait intu ofshoring of sarviss", sitmbar 2004. "the new pailagrev dikshanari of economics" 2008 mein "svenasan, di: "international aautasorsing" ke aautasorsing mein aayaatit madhyavarti vastuen shaamil hain.
  3. varkafors management online, December 2007
  4. fishmain, ti: "China, ink" skribnar, 2006.
  5. varking throo aautasorsing: software practice, industry organaaijeshan end industry ivalyooshan in India Kelly eshen. E-skaularaship ripaujitri, 2006. 25 November 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  6. bainglord
  7. arnest H. preeg (1 May 2002). testeemoni on chaainij currency mainipuleshan mainyufaikcharars elaayans
  8. "United States Economy at a Glance". Bls.gov. http://www.bls.gov/eag/eag.us.htm. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-22.
  9. kaangreshanal bajat ofis (October, 2007). laung tarm anemplauyameint kaangreshanal bajat ofis
  10. silviya alegreto aur Andrew stetanar (6 May 2009). naukri ki kami ka bhaari sankat gambhir aur uske saath deerghakaalik berojgaari mein vruddhi raashtreeya rojagaar kaanoon pariyojana
  11. America mein IT rojagaar ka uchch rikaard tak pahunchana - IT rojagaar ka uchch rikaard - inafrmeshanaveek
  12. adhik outasorsing ke baavajood ameriki takaneeki kaamagaar ki bhaari maang-aautasorsing blog - inafrmeshanaveek
  13. mithk aur vaastaviktaaen: aautasorsing ka jhootha sankat
  14. a aa "Samuelson: Debunking the Great Offshoring Myth". Newsweek.com. 2007-08-21. http://www.newsweek.com/id/34690. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-22.
  15. maha lekha kaaryaalaya: "ofshoring: ameriki semeekandaktar aur software udyog ka Bhaarat aur cheen mein adhik utpaadan", sitmbar, 2006.
  16. a aa i saara bais, "A gift of faayar: social, leegal, end ethikl ishyoos for kanpyooting end the Internet." teesara san. vark" (2008)
  17. "SpringerLink Home - Main". Springerlink.com. 2006-12-18. http://springerlink.com/(cjss10jclc5nzv55zy21zmqt)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,5,6;journal,8,9;linkingpublicationresults,1:113472,1. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-22.
  18. "Accelerating the Globalization of America: The Role for Information Technology - Catherine L. Mann, Jacob Funk Kirkegaard, Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Economics". Bookstore.iie.com. 2010-03-25. http://bookstore.iie.com/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Product_Code=3900. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-22.
  19. "SSRN-A Dynamic Perspective on Next-Generation Offshoring: The Global Sourcing of Science and Engineering Talent by Stephan Manning, Silvia Massini, Arie Lewin". Papers.ssrn.com. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1287369. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-22.

baahari kadiyaaain

Wiktionary-logo-en.png
ofshoring ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.

samaachaar

anusandhaan

Internet lekh