nyootrino

nyootrino (Neutrino) yeh ek naya kan (Particle) hai jiska sarvapratham aavishkaar san‌ 1930 mein pauli ne kiya tha. is kan ka pratham saiddhaantik aadhaar prasiddh bhautikeevid farmi ne san‌ 1934 mein batalaaya.

gun

nyootrino ke gun sankshep mein nimnalikhit hain :

(k) aavesharahit
(kh) nyoonatam bhaar - laagar evam maufaat ne san‌ 1952 mein bhaar ka anumaan lagaaya aur batalaaya ki nyootrino ka bhaar ilektraan ke bhaar ke 0.05 pratishat se bhi kam hai.
(g) bhrami (spin Spin) 1/2 (1/p) hai.
(gh) farmi-diraak saankhyiki (staatistiks statistics) ka anusaran karta hai.
(ङ) dvidhruvaaghoorn (daaipol momeint dipole moments) yadi hai, to 10-7 vor maiganetaan se bhi kam hai.

un abhikriyaaon ki, jinse beeta kirnein milti hai, jaaainch karte samay yeh dekha gaya ki nikle hue kanon ka oorja varnakram (Spectrum) ailfa kiran ke oorja varnakram se bhinn hai. ailfa kirnein pruthak‌ rekha varnakram ke anusaar milti hain, par beeta kirnein unase poornat: bhinn prakaar ke santat varnakram ka anukaran karti hain. rediym-E (Radium E) ke liye praapt beeta kiran ka oorja varnakram chitr mein dikhaaya gaya hai. beeta kirnon ki oorja ka shoonya se lekar adhiktam maan E a ke beech koi bhi maan ho sakta hai. aisa hi santat varnakram un abhikriyaaon mein bhi milta hai jinse paujitraan praapt hote hain.

beeta kirnon dvaara diye santat varnakram ka saiddhaantik aadhaar sthir karna bahut samay tak kathin samasya bana raha. maan liya jaaya ki kisi naabhik k se, jo ek vishesh oorja ke tal par hai, ek beeta kiran niklati hai aur is abhikraya dvaara ek doosra naabhik kh banta hai, jo pun: ek vishesh oorja ke tal par hai. puj evam oorjaasthirta ke siddhaant: ke anusaar, nikle hue beeta kan ki oorja naabhik k evam kh ke oorjaatalon k antar ke baraabar honi chaahiye. yeh oorja siddhaant sarvada E=mc2 ke tulya praapt hoti hai. pareeksha se kan shunya se lekar E=mc2 tak sabhi maan ki oorja lekar nikalte hain. aisa prateet haata hai ki aisi abhikriyaaon mein oorja ka kuchh ansh lupt ho jaata hai aur punj evam oorja sthirta ke siddhaant ka atikraman hota hai.

is samasya ko farmi ne beeta kiran ke baad waali apni nyootrino upakalpana dekar sarvapratham safalataapoorvak sulajhaaya. unhonne yeh sujhaav diya ki beeta kiran dene waali abhikriyaaon mein ek aur kan nyootrino bhi praapt hota hai aur vahi lupt prateet hone waali oorja ko grahan kar leta hai. aaj tak pareeksha se nyootrino ki pehchaan naheen ho pai hai, falat: iske gun aise hone chaahiye jinke kaaran iski pehchaan ati kathin ho. isaliye yeh dhaarana ki gayi ki nyootrino aavesh rahit hai aur iska bhaar ilektraan ki tulana mein atinyoon hai, shunya ke hi lagbhag hai. nyootrino ka aavesharahit hona, beeta kiran ki abhikriya ke liye aaveshasthirta ke siddhaant ke anusaar hai. nyootrino parikalpana ke anusaar, beeta kiran abhikriya mein praapt hui oorja ki maatra ir a hai. yeh oorja beeta kan nyootrino evam pratikshipt naabhik ko praapt hoti hai. teen kanon mein oorja vibhaajan anekaanek bhaaainti ho sakta hai, isaliye santat varnakram ban jaata hai.

jab ek naabhik se beeta kiran praapt hoti hai, tab naabhik ke aavesh ka ikaai dvaara parivartan hoti hai, tab naabhik ke aavesh ka ikaai dvaara parivartan hota hai, bhaar aparivrtit rahata hai. yadi ek ilektraan praapt ho, to naabhik ke protaan ki sankhya mein ikaai ki vruddhi hoti hai tatha kleebaanu ikaai dvaara sankhya ikaai dvaara kam ho jaati hai. usi bhaaainti yadi beeta kiran abhikriya mein ek paujitraun praapt ho to protaan sankhya ikaai dvaara kam tatha kleebaan sankhya mein ikaai ki vruddhi hoti hai. in beeta roopaantaron ko nimnalikhit dhang se spasht kiya ja sakta hai:

beeta - utsarjan : nyootraan protaan + ilektraan + nyootrino.........(k)
beeta + utsarjan : protaan nyootraan + paujitraan + nyootrino..........(kh)

in abhikriyaaon mein nyootraan ko protaan, ilektraan evam nyootrino se bana hua naheen maana gaya hai. beeta-utsarjan ke samay, nyootraan ka teen kanon mein tatkshan parivartan ho jaata hai. isi prakaar ka nivrtan beeta +utsarjan mein protaan mein ho jaata hai.

(k) evam (kh) sameekaranon dvaara nyootrino ke anya gunon ke baare mein bhi soochana milti hai. koneeya gamata h/2 maan li jaane par hi usaki (koneeya gamata ki) sthirta ka niyam theek theek ghatit hota hai. usi bhaaainti, saankhyiki ke baare mein bhi soochana milti hai. sameekaran (k) evam (kh) mein yadi saankhyiki ki sthirta dekhi jaaya, to yeh niyam tabhi satya thaharata hai jab nyootrino farmi-diraak saankhyiki ka anusaran kare.

mesaun ke apakshaya ki samasyaaon ko hal karne ke liye bhi nyootrino parikalpana ka prayog kiya gaya. myoo-mesaun (meson) jab ek ilektraan mein parivrtit hota hai tab beeta-kiran abhikriya ki bhaaainti, mrami tatha oorja sthirta ke niyam khandit ho jaate hain. in niyamon ki satyata ke liye nimnalikhit vidhi batalaai gayi :

myoo-mesaun - beeta kan + do nyootrino..............(g)

usi prakaar ailfa-mesaun apakshaya nimnalikhit sameekaran dvaara dikhlaaya ja sakta hai.

ailfa mesaan myoo mesaun + nyootrino..............(gh)

(g) evam (gh) sameekaranon ke virooddh koi sanpariksheeya saakshya naheen hai

is bhaaainti nyootrino dvaara beeta kiran evam mesaun ke apakshya ki samasyaaon ka saamaadhaan hua hai. is kan ke liye sabhi saakshya abhi tak apratyaksh hi hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain