nyootan ke gati niyam

nyootan ke gati ke pratham evam dviteeya niyam, san 1687 mein laitin bhaasha mein likhit nyootan ke prinsipiya maithemetika se

nyootan ke gati niyam teen bhautik niyam hain jo chirsammat yaantriki ke aadhaar hain. ye niyam kisi vastu par lagne vaale bal aur usase utpann us vastu ki gati ke beech sambandh bataate hain. inhein teen sadiyon mein anek prakaar se vyakt kiya gaya hai.[1] nyootan ke gati ke teenon niyam, paaramparik roop se, sankshep mein nimnalikhit hain -

  1. pratham niyam: pratyek pind tab tak apni viraamaavastha athva saral rekha mein ekasamaan gati ki avastha mein rahata hai jab tak koi baahya bal use anyatha vyavahaar karne ke liye vivsh naheen karta. ise jadtv ka niyam bhi kaha jaata hai.[2][3][4]
  2. dviteeya niyam: kisi bhi pind ki sanveg parivartan ki dar lagaaye gaye bal ke samaanupaati hoti hai aur usaki (sanveg parivartan ki) disha vahi hoti hai jo bal ki hoti hai.
  3. truteeya niyam: pratyek kriya ki sadaiv baraabar evam vipreet disha mein pratikriya hoti hai.

sabse pehle nyootan ne inhe apne granth filaasafi nechuraalis prinsipiaa maithemetika (san 1687) me sankalit kiya tha.[5] nyootan ne anek sthaanon par bhautik vastuon ki gati se sambandhit samasyaaon ki vyaakhya mein inka prayog kiya tha. apne granth ke truteeya bhaag mein nyootan ne darshaaya ki gati ke ye teenon niyam aur unke saarvatrik gurutvaakarshan ka niyam sammilit roop se keplar ke aakaasheeya pindon ki gati se sambandhit niyam ki vyaakhya karne mein samarth hain.

anukram

sinhaavalokan

nyootan ke gati niyam sirf unhi vastuon par lagaaya jaata hai jinhein ham ek kan ke roop mein maan sake.[6] matlab ki un vastuon ki gati ko naapate samay unke aakar ko najrandaaj kiya jaata hai. un vastuon ke pind ko ek bindu mein kendrit man kar in niymo ko lagaaya jaata hai. aisa tab kiya jaata hai jab vishleshan mein dooriyaan vastuyon ki tulana mein kaafi bade hote hai. isliye grahon ko ek kan maan kar unke kaksheeya gati ko maapa ja sakta hai.

apne mool roop mein in gati ke niymo ko drudh aur viroopanasheel pindon par naheen lagaaya ja sakta hai. 1750 me liyonaard yoolar ne nyootan ke gati niymo ka vistaar kiya aur yoolar ke gati niyamon ka nirmaan kiya jinhein drudh aur viroopanasheel pindo par bhi lagaaya ja sakta hai. yadi ek vastu ko asatat kanon ka ek sanyojan maana jaaye, jinme alag-alag kar ke nyootan ke gati niyam lagaaye ja sakte hai, to yoolar ke gati niyam ko nyootan ke gati niyam se viyuttpann kiya ja sakta hai.[7]

nyootan ke gati niyam bhi kuchh nirdesh tantron mein hi laagu hote hai jinhein jadtveeya nirdesh tantr kaha jaata hai. kai lekhako ka maanana hai ki pratham niyam jadtveeya nirdesh tantr ko paribhaashit karta hai aur dviteeya niyam sirf unhi nirdesh tantron se mein maanya hai isi kaaran se pehle niyam ko dusare niyam ka ek vishesh roop naheen kaha ja sakta hai. par kuchh pehle niyam ko doosare ka parinaam maanate hai.[8][9]nirdesh tantron ki spasht avadhaarana nyootan ke marne ke kaafi samay pashchaat viksit hui. nyootani yaantriki ki jagah ab aainsteen ke vishesh aapekshikta ke siddhaant ne le li hai par fir bhi iska istemaal prakaash ki gati se kam gati vaale pindon ke liye abhi bhi kiya jaata hai.[10]

pratham niyam

nyootan ke mool shabdon mein

Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum, nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare.

hindi anuvaad

"pratyek vastu apne sthiraavastha athva ekasamaan vegaavastha me tab tak rahati hai jab tak use kisi baahya kaarak (bal) dvaara avastha mein badlaav ke liye prerit naheen kiya jaata."

nyootan ka pratham niyam padaarth ke ek praakrutik gun jadtv ko paribhaashit karat hai jo gati me badlaav ka virodh karta hai. isliye pratham niyam ko jadtv ka niyam bhi kehte hai. yeh niyam apratksh roop se jadtveeya nirdesh tantr (nirdesh tantr jismein anya donon niyamon maanya hain) tatha bal ko bhi paribhaashit karta hai. iske kaaran nyootan dvaara is niyam ko pratham rakha gaya.

is niyam ka saral pramaaneekaran mushkil hai kyonki gharshan aur gurutvaakarshan ke prabhaav ko jyaadaatar pind mahasoos karte hain.

asal mein nyootan se pehle gaileeliyo ne is prekshan ka varnan kiya. nyootan ne anya shabdon mein ise vyakt kiya.

dviteeya niyam

nyootan ke mool shabdo mein :

Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae, et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur.

hindi mein anuvaad

" kisi vastu ke sanveg me aaya badlaav us vastu par aaropit dhakke (Impulse) ke samaanupaati hota hai tatha samaan disha mein ghatit hota hai. "

nyootan ke is niyam se adholikhit bindu vyupatrit kiye ja sakte hai :

,

jahaaain bal, sanveg aur samay hain. is sameekaran ke anusaar, jab kisi pind par koi baahya bal nahi hai, to pind ka sanveg sthir rahata hai.

jab pind ka dravyamaan sthir hota hai, to sameekaran zyaada saral roop mein likha ja sakta hai:

jahaaain dravyamaan hai aur tvaran hai. yaani kisi pind ka tvaran aaropit bal ke anukramaanupaati hai.

aaveg

aaveg dviteeya niyam se sambandhit hai. aaveg ka matlab hai sanveg mein parivartan. arthaat:

jahaaain I aaveg hai. aaveg takkaron ke vishleshan mein bahut aham hai.

truteeya niyam

nyootan ke gati ke truteeya niyam ka anuprayog: do sket khilaadi ek-doosare ko dhakiya rahe hain. baaeain wala sketar daaeain vaale sketar par N12 bal lagaata hai jiski disha daayeen taraf hai. daaainyein wala sketar bhi baaen vaale sketar par baayeen disha mein N21 bal lagaata hai. dono bal parimaan mein samaan aur disha mein ek doosare ke vipreet honge. ek bal ki anupasthiti mein doosare ka astitv hi naheen ho sakta

truteeya niyam ka arth hai ki kisi bal ke sangat ek aur bal hai jo uske samaan aur vipreet hai. nyootan ne is niyam ko istemaal karke sanveg sanrakshan ke niyam ka varnan kiya, lekin asal mein sanveg sanrakshan ek adhik moolabhoot siddhaant hai. kai udahaaran hain jinmein sanveg sanrakshit hota hai lekin truteeya niyam maanya nahi hai.

sandarbh

  1. For explanations of Newton's laws of motion by Newton in the early 18th century, by the physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the mid-19th century, and by a modern text of the early 21st century, see:-
  2. Browne, Michael E. (1999-07) (Series: Schaum's Outline Series). Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science. McGraw-Hill Companies. pp. 58. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-07-008498-8. http://books.google.com/?id=5gURYN4vFx4C&pg=PA58&dq=newton's+first+law+of+motion&q=newton's%20first%20law%20of%20motion.
  3. Holzner, Steven (2005-12). Physics for Dummies. Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated. pp. 64. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-7645-5433-9. http://books.google.com/?id=FrRNO6t51DMC&pg=PA64&dq=Newton's+laws+of+motion&cd=8#v=onepage&q=Newton's%20laws%20of%20motion.
  4. bhautiki bhaag 1 kaksha 11. NCERT.
  5. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation
  6. [...]while Newton had used the word 'body' vaguely and in at least three different meanings, Euler realized that the statements of Newton are generally correct only when applied to masses concentrated at isolated points;Truesdell, Clifford A.; Becchi, Antonio; Benvenuto, Edoardo (2003). Essays on the history of mechanics: in memory of Clifford Ambrose Truesdell and Edoardo Benvenuto. New York: Birkhäauser. pa॰ 207. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 3-7643-1476-1. http://books.google.com/?id=6LO_U6T-HvsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=essays+in+the+History&cd=9#v=snippet&q=%22isolated%20points%22.
  7. Lubliner, Jacob (2008). Plasticity Theory (Revised Edition). Dover Publications. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-486-46290-0. http://www.ce.berkeley.edu/~coby/plas/pdf/book.pdf.
  8. Galili, I.; Tseitlin, M. (2003). "Newton's First Law: Text, Translations, Interpretations and Physics Education". Science & Education 12 (1): 45–73. Bibcode 2003Sc&Ed..12...45G. doi:10.1023/A:1022632600805. http://www.springerlink.com/content/j42866672t863506/.
  9. Benjamin Crowell. "4. Force and Motion". Newtonian Physics. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-9704670-1-X. http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/1np/ch04/ch04.html.
  10. In making a modern adjustment of the second law for (some of) the effects of relativity, m would be treated as the relativistic mass, producing the relativistic expression for momentum, and the third law might be modified if possible to allow for the finite signal propagation speed between distant interacting particles.

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