nyaayashaastr (bhaarateeya)

krupaya bhramit na hon, yeh lekh nyaayashaastr (jurisprudence) ke baare mein naheen hai.


vah shaastr jismein kisi vastu ke yathaarth gyaan ke liye vichaaron ki uchit yojana ka nirupan hota hai, nyaayashaastr kahalaata hai. yeh vivechanapaddhati hai. nyaaya, chhah bhaarateeya darshanon mein se ek darshan hai. nyaaya vichaar ki us pranaali ka naam hai jismein vastutatv ka nirnaya karne ke liye sabhi pramaanon ka upayog kiya jaata hai. vaatsyaayan ne nyaayadarshan pratham sootr ke bhaashya mein "pramaanairarthapareekshanan nyaaya" kah kar yahi bhaav vyakt kiya hai.

Bhaarat ke vidyaavid aachaaryo ne vidya ke chaar vibhaag bataae hain- aanveekshiki, trayi, vaarta aur dandaneeti. aanveekshiki ka arth hai- pratyakshadrusht tatha shaastrashrut vishyon ke taattvik roop ko avagat karaanevaali vidya. isi vidya ka naam hai- nyaayavidya ya nyaayashaastr ; jaisa ki vaatsyaayan ne kaha hai :

pratyakshaagamaabhyaameekshitsyaanveekshaamanveeksha, taya pravatrtat ityaanveekshikeenyaayavidyaanyaayashaastram (nyaayabhaashya 1 sootr)

aanveekshiki mein swayam nyaaya ka tatha nyaayapranaali se anya vishyon ka adhyayan hone ke kaaran use nyaayavidya ya nyaayashaastr kaha jaata hai. aanveekshiki vidyaaon mein sarvashreshth maani gayi hai. vaatsyaayan ne arthashaastraachaarya chaanakya ke nimnalikhit vachan ko uddhrut kar aanveekshiki ko samast vidyaaon ka prakaashak, sampoorn karmon ka saadhak aur samagr dharmon ka aadhaar bataaya hai-

pradeep: sarvashaastraanaamupaaya: sarvakarmanaam. aashray: sarvadharmaanaan seyamaanveekshiki mata. (nya.bha. 1 sootr)

nyaaya ke pravartak Gautam rishi mithila ke nivaasi kahe jaate hain. Gautam ke nyaayasootr abatak prasiddh hain. in sootron par vaatsyaayan muni ka bhaashya hai. is bhaashya par udyotakar ne vaartik likha hai. vaartik ki vyaakhya vaachaspati mishr ne 'nyaayavaartik taatparya theeka' ke naam se likhi hai. is teeka ki bhi teeka udayanaachaarya krut 'taaptarya-parishuddhi' hai. is parishuddhi par vardhamaan upaadhyaaya krut 'prakaash' hai.

nyaayashaastr ke vikaas ko teen kaalon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai - aadyakaal, madhyakaal tatha antyakaal (1200 E. se 1800 E. tak ka kaal). aadyakaal ka nyaaya "praacheen nyaaya", madhyakaal ka nyaaya "saampradaayik nyaaya" (praacheen nyaaya ki uttar shaakha) aur antyakaal ka nyaaya "navyanyaaya" kaha jaaega.

vishesh

"nyaaya" shabd se ve shabdasamooh bhi vyavahrut hote hain jo doosare purush ko anumaan dvaara kisi vishay ka bodh karaane ke liye prayukt hote hai. (dekhiye nyaaya (drushtaant vaakya)) vaatsyaayan ne unhein "param nyaaya" kaha hai aur vaad, jalp tatha vitanda roop vichaaron ka mool evam tattvanirnaya ka aadhaar bataaya hai. (nya.bha. 1 sootr)

anukram

nyaayashaastr ka prayojan

nyaayavid vidvaanon ne nishreyas ko nyaayashaastr ke adhyayan ka prayojan maana hai. ni:shreyas ka arth hai- apavarg, moksh arthaat sab prakaar ke du:khon ki aatyantik nivrutti. aisi nivrutti jiske baad kabhi kisi prakaar ke du:kh hone ki sambhaavana hi naheen rah jaati. yahi manushya ke dharm, arth, kaam aur moksh in chaturvidh purushaarthon mein sarvashreshth purushaarth hai.

nyaayashaastr ve adhyayan se padaarthon ka tatvajnyaaan hota hai aur usase aatmatatv ka saakshaatkaar hokar moksh ki praapti hoti hai. tatv saakshaatkaar se mithyaajnyaaan ki nivrutti, mithyaajnyaaan ki nivrutti se raag, dvesh aur moharoom doshon ki nivrutti, doshon ki nivrutti se ardh evam ardh roop pravrutti ki nivrutti se punarjanm ka abhaav aur punarjanm ke abhaav se samast du:khon se aatyantik mukti hoti hai. jaisa ki Gautam ne kaha hai :

du:kh janmapravruttidosh mithyaajnyaaanaanaamuttarottaraapaaye tadanantara paayaadap varg:. (nya.soo., a. 1 aa. 1 sootr 2)

jin padaarthon ke tattvajnyaaan se moksh hota hai unki sankhya is shaastr mein solah maani gayi hai; unke naam ye hain :

pramaan, prameya, sanshaya, prayojan, drushtaant, siddhaant, avayav, tark, nirnaya, vaad, jalp, vitand, hetvaabhaas, chhal, jaati aur nigrahasthaan.

nyaayashaastr ke bhed

bhaarateeya vaaङamaya mein nyaayashaastr ke do bhed maane jaate hain- vaidik nyaaya aur avaidik nyaaya. avaidik nyaaya mein bauddh nyaaya tatha jain nyaaya ka samaavesh hai. vaidik nyaaya mein - vaisheshik nyaaya, saankhya, yog nyaaya, poorv meemaansa tatha uttar meemaansa nyaaya ka samaavesh hai, kintu nyaayashaastr ke naam se akshapaad Gautam ke nyaayasootr tatha unke aadhaar par nirmit samast praacheen arvaacheen saahitya ko hi abhihit kiya jaata hai.

vaidik evam avaidik nyaaya mein antar

vaidik nyaaya mein ved ko akaatya pramaan maana jaata hai, kintu bhaaratavarsh mein aise bhi nyaayashaastr prachalit hain, jinhein "bauddhanyaaya" aur "jainanyaaya" shabd se vyavahrut kiya jaata hai. in nyaayashaastron mein ved ke pramaanatv ka bade abhinivesh se khandan kiya hai aur inki adhiktar maanyataaeain vaidik nyaaya se atyant viruddh hain; kintu yeh hone par bhi ye apne vikaas ke liye vaidik nyaaya ke nishchit roop se adhamarn hain. yadyapi in donon ke saath chir sangharsh ke falasvaroop vaidik nyaaya ka bhi paryaapt vikaas aur parishkaar hua hai tathaapi usaka ek apna maulik roop bhi hai jo inse nitaant aprabhaavit hai, jab ki in avaidik nyaayon ke sambandh mein aisa prateet hota hai ki iski maulikta bhi vaidik nyaaya se poorn prabhaavit hai. 400 E. se 1200 E. tak ka kaal avaidik nyaaya ke utkarsh ka kaal maana jaata hai.

nyaaya ka praadurbhaav

nyaayashaastr ka bhaaratavarsh mein kab praadurbhaav hua theek naheen kaha ja sakta. naiyaayikon mein jo pravaad prachalit hain unke anusaar Gautam vedavyaas ke samakaaleen thaharate hain; par iska koi pramaan naheen hai. 'aanveekshiki', 'tarkavidya', 'hetuvaad' ka nidaapoorvak ullekh raamaayan aur mahaabhaarat mein milta hai. raamaayan mein to naiyaayik shabd bhi ayodhyaakaand mein aaya hai. paanini ne nyaaya se naiyaayik shabd banane ka nirdesh kiya hai.

nyaaya ke praadurbhaav ke sambandh mein saadhaaranat: do prakaar ke mat paae jaate hain-

  • kuchh paashchaatya vidvaanon ki dhaarana hai ki bauddh dharm ka prachaar hone par uske khandat ke liye hi is shaastr ka abhyudaya hua.
  • par kuchh bhaarateeya vidvaanon ka mat he ki vaidik vaakyon ke paraspar samanvaya aur samaadhaan ke liye jaimini ne poorvameemaansa mein jin yuktiyon aur tarkon ka byavahaar kiya ve hi pehle nyaaya ke naam se kahe jaate the.

aapastanb dharmasootr mein jo nyaaya shabd aaya hai usaka poorvameemaansa se hi abhipraaya samajhna chaahiye. maadhavaachaarya ne poorvameemaansa ka jo saarasangrah likha usaka naam 'nyaayamaala-vistaar' rakha. vaachaspati mishr ne bhi 'nyaayakanika' ke naam se meemaansa par ek granth likha hai. par nyaaya ke praacheenatv se Bengal ka gaurav samajhanevaale kuchh bangaali panditon ka kathan hai ki nyaaya hi sab darshanon mein praacheen hai kyonki aur sab darshanasootron mein doosare darshanon ka ullekh milta hai par nyaayasootron mein kaheen kisi doosare darshan ka naam naheen aaya hai. yadyapi yeh naheen kaha ja sakta ki nyaaya sab darshanon mein praacheen hai, par itna avashya kah sakte hain ki tark ke niyam bauddh dharm ke prachaar se bahut poorv prachalit the, chaahe ve meemaansa ke rahe hon ya svatantr.

hemachandr ne nyaayasootron par bhaashya rachanevaale vaatsyaayan aur chaanakya ko ek hi vyakti maana hai. yadi yeh theek ho to bhaashya hi bauddh-dharm-prachaar ke poorv ka thaharata hai. kyonki bauddh dharm ka prachaar ashok ke samay se aur bauddh nyaaya ka aavirbhaav ashok ke bhi peechhe mahaayaan shaakha sthaapit hone par hua. par vaatsyaayan aur chaanakya ka ek hona hemachaindr ke shlok (jismein chaanakya ke aath naam ginaae gaye hai) ke aadhaar par hi theek naheen maana ja sakta. kuchh vidvaanon ka kathan hai ki vaatsyaayan isa ki paaainchaveen shataabdi mein hue. isa ki chhathi shataabdi mein vaasavadattaakaar subandhu ne mallanaag, nyaayasthiti, dharmakeerti aur udyotakar in chaar naiyaayikon ka ullekh kiya hai. inmein dharmakeerti prasiddh bauddh naiyaayik the. udyotakaraachaarya ne prasiddh bauddh naiyaayik diङanaagaachaarya ke 'pramaanasamuchchaya' naamak granth ka khandan karke vaatsyaayan ka mat sthaapit kiya. 'pramaanasamuchchaya' mein didnaag ne vaatsyaayan ke mat ka khandan kiya tha. isse yeh nishchit hai ki vaatsyaayan diङanaag ke purv hue. mallinaath ne diङanaag ko kaalidaas ka samakaaleen batalaaya hai, par kuchh log ise theek naheen maanate aur diङanaag ka kaal isa ki teesari shataabdi kehte hain. subandhu ke ullekh se diङanaagaachaarya ka hi kaal chhathi shataabdi ke poorv thaharata hai at: vaatsyaayan ko jo unase bhi poorv hue paaainchaveen shataabdi mein maanana theek naheen. ve usase pehle hue honge. vaatsyaayan ne dashaavayavaadi naiyaayikon ka ullekh kiya hai, isse siddh hai ki unke pehle se bhaashyakaar naiyaayikon ki parampara chali aati thi. astu, sootron ki rachana ka kaal bauddh dharm ke prachaar ke poorv maanana padta hai. vaidik, bauddh aur jain naiyaayikon ke beech vivaad isa ki paaainchaveen shataabdi se lekar 13 veen shataabdi tak baraabar chalta raha. isse khandan mandan ke bahut se granth bane. 14 veen shataabdi mein gangeshopaadhyaaya hue jinhonne 'navyanyaaya' ki neenv daali. praacheen nyaaya mein prameya aadi jo solah padaarth the unamein se aur sabko kinaare karke keval 'pramaan' ko lekar hi bhaari shabdaadanbar khada kiya gaya. is navyanyaaya ka aavirbhaav mithila mein hua. mithila se nadiya mein jaakar navyanyaaya ne aur bhi bhayankar roop dhaaran kiya. na usamein tatvanirnaya raha, na tatvanirnaya ki saamarthya.

parichay

Gautam ka nyaaya keval pramaan, tark aadi ke niyam nishchit karanevaala shaastr naheen hai balki aatma, indriya, punarjanm, du:kh apavarg aadi vishisht prameyon ka vichaar karanevaala darshan hai. Gautam ne solah padaarthon ka vichaar kiya hai aur unke samyak gyaan dvaara apavarg ya moksh ki praapti kahi hai. solah padaarth ya vishay mein hain - pramaan, prameya, sanshaya, prayojan, drushtaant, siddhaant, avayav, tark, nirnaya, vaad, jalp, vitanda, hetvaabhaas, chhal, jaati aur nigrahasthaan. in vishyon par vichaar kisi madhyasth ke saamane baadi prativaadi ke kathopakathan ke rup mein karaaya gaya hai.

kisi vishay mein vivaad upasthit hone par pehle iska nirnaya aavashyak hota hai ki donon vaadiyon ke kaun kaun pramaan maane jaayainge. isse pehle 'pramaan' liya gaya hai. iske uparaant vivaad ka vishay arthaat 'prameya' ka vichaar hua hai. vishay soochit ho jaane par madhyast ke chitt mein sandeh utpann hoga ki usaka yathaarth svarup kya hai. usi ka vichaar 'sanshaya' ya 'sandeh' padaarth ke ke naam se hua hai. sandeh ke uparant madhyasth ke chitt mein yeh vichaar ho sakta hai ki is vishay ke vichaar se kya matlab. yahi 'prayojan' hua. vaadi sandigdh vishay par apna paksh drushtaant dikhaakar badalaata hai, vahi 'drushtaant' padaarth hai. jis paksh ko vaadi pusht karke batalaata hai vah usaka 'siddhaant' hua. vaadi ka paksh soochit hone par pakshasaadhan ki jo jo yuktiyaaain kahi gayi hain prativaadi unke khaind khaind karke unke khandan mein pravrutt hota hai. yuktiyon ki khandit dekh vaadi fir se aur yuktiyaaain deta hai jinse prativaadi ki yuktiyon ka uttar ho jaata hai. yahi 'tark' kaha gaya hai. tark dvaara panchaavayavayukt yuktiyon ka kathan 'vaad' kaha gaya hai. vaad ya shaastraarth dvaara sthir satya paksh ko na maankar yadi prativaadi jeet ki ichha se apni chaturaai ke bal se vyarth uttar pratyuttar karta chala jaata hai to vah 'jalp' kahalaata hai. is prakaar prativaadi kuchh kaal tak to kuchh achhi yuktiyaaain deta jaayaga fir ootapataaaing bakane lagega jise 'vitanda' kehte hain. is vitanda mein jitne hetu diye jaayainge ve theek na honge, ve 'hetvaabhaas' maatr honge. un hetuon aur yuktiyon ke atirikt jaan boojhakar vaadi ko ghabaraane ke liye uske vaakyon ka ootapataaaing arth karke yadi prativaadi gadbad daalna chaahata hai to vah usaka 'chhal' kahalaata hai aur yadi vyaaptinirpeksh saadharmya vaidharmya aadi ke sahaare apna paksh sthaapit karne lagta hai to vah 'jaati' mein aa jaata hai. is prakaar hote hote jab shaastraarth mein yeh avastha aa jaati hai ki ab prativaadi ko rokakar shaastraarth band kiya jaaya tab 'nigrahasthaan' kaha jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

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