nyaayaalaya

London ke puraani belly sthit ek court ka drushya

nyaayaalaya (adaalat ya court) ka taatparya saamaanyat: us sthaan se hai jahaaain par nyaaya prashaasan kaarya hota hai, parantu bahudha iska prayog nyaayaadheesh ke arth mein bhi hota hai. bolachaal ki bhaasha mein adaalat ko kachahari bhi kehte hain.

anukram

Bhaarat mein nyaayaalaya ka itihaas

bhaarateeya nyaayaalayon ki vartamaan pranaali kisi vishesh praacheen parampara se sambaddh naheen hai. mugal kaal mein do pramukh nyaayaalayon ka ullekh milta hai: sadar deevaani adaalat tatha sadar nijaam-A-adaalat, jahaaain kramash: vyavahaaravaad tatha aaparaadhik maamalon ki sunavaai hoti thi. san 1857 E. ke asafal svaatantryayuddh ke pashchaat angreji nyaaya-prashaasan-pranaali ke aadhaar par vibhinn nyaayaalayon ki srushti hui. England mein sthit privi kaaunsil Bhaarat ki sarvochch nyaayaalaya thi. san 1947 E. mein desh svatantr hua aur tatpashchaat bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke antargat sampoorn-prabhutv sampann ganaraajya ki sthaapana hui. uchchatam nyaayaalaya (Supreme court) Bhaarat ka sarvochch nyaayaalaya bana.

nyaayaalayon ke bhed

nyaayaalayon ko unke bhedaanusaar vibhinn vargon mein baaainta ja sakta hai, jaise uchch tatha nimn nyaayaalaya, abhilekh nyaayaalaya tatha ve jo abhilekh nyaayaalaya naheen hai, vyaavahaarik, raajasv tatha dand nyaayaalaya, pratham nyaayaalaya tatha appeal nyaayaalaya aur sainik tatha anyaanya nyaayaalaya.

uchchatam nyaayaalaya desh ka sarvochch abhilekh nyaayaalaya hai. pratyek raajya mein ek abhilekh nyaayaalaya hai. raajya ke samast nyaayaalaya uske adheen hain. raajasv parishd (board ov revenyoo) raajasv sambandhi maamalon ko praadeshik sarvochch abhilekh nyaayaalaya hai. katipya maamalon ko chhodkar uparyukt nyaayaalayon ko appeal sambandhi kshetraadhikaar hai. jile mein pradhaan nyaayaalaya jila nyaayaadheesh ka hai.

anya nyaayaalaya kaaryakshetraanusaar is prakaar hai:

(1) vyaavahaarik nyaayaalaya, jaise civil judge tatha munsif ke nyaayaalaya aur laghuvaad nyaayaalaya (court ov smaal kaajej),

(2) dand nyaayaalaya, jaise jila dandaadhikaari (distrikt maijistret), anya dandaadhikaariyon ke nyaayaalaya tatha satr nyaayaalaya (court ov sessions),

(3) raajasv nyaayaalaya, jaise jilaadheesh (kalaktar) tatha aayukt (commissioner) ke nyaayaalaya.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain