nyaaya (jain)

bhaarateeya nyaayashaastr mein jain nyaaya avaidik nyaaya ki shreni mein aata hai.

jain nyaaya ki do dhaaraaeain prasiddh hain - shvetaaainbar aur diganbar. donon ka pramukh siddhaant hai "anekaantavaad".

anukram

anekaantavaad

"anekaantavaad" ka aashay yeh hai ki sansaar ki pratyek vastu viruddh prateet honevaale anant karmon ke bhinn bhinn aashay hain. vastu ke sambandh mein vibhinn darshanon ki jo vibhinn maanyataaeain hain, apekshaabhed evam drushtibhed se ve sab satya hain. unamein se kisi ek ko yathaarth maanana aur anyon ko ayathaarth maanana uchit naheen hai. vastu ko kuchh parimit roopon mein hi dekhna nayadrushti hai, pramaanadrushti naheen. nayadrushti ka arth hai ekaanki drushti aur pramaanadrushti ka sarvaangeen drushti.

naya

vastu ko ekaant bhaav se kisi ek hi roop mein ya kuchh hi roopon mein grahan karanevaale gyaan ka naam hai "naya". naya ke mukhya do bhed hain- dravyaarthink aur paryaayaarthik. dravyaarthik naya teen prakaar ka hai- naigam, sangrah aur vyavahaar. paryaayaarthik naya chaar prakaar ka hai- rijusootr, shabd, samaniroodh aur evanbhoot. sabhi dravyaarthik naya vastu ke keval saamaanya ansh ko hi grahan karte hain. isi prakaar sabhi paryaayaarthik naya vastu ke keval vishesh ansh ko hi grahan karte hain. falat: kisi bhi naya se saamaanya, vishesh evam ubhayaatmak vastu ka saakalyen grahan naheen hota.

pramaan

vastu ko vividh roopon mein grahan karanevaale gyaan ko "prama" ke arth mein tatha us gyaan ke saadhan ko "pramaakaran" ke arth mein pramaan kaha jaata hai. pramaan ke do bhed hain- pratyaksh aur paroksh. vastu ko vishd roop mein grahan karne vaale pramaan ka naam hai- "pratyaksh" aur aspasht roop mein grahan karanevaale pramaan ka naam hai "paroksh". pratyaksh ke do bhed hain- saanvyaavahaarik aur paaramaarthik. "paaramaarthik" pratyaksh ka praadurbhaav man aur indriya ki sahaayata ke bina keval aatmashakti se hi sampann hota hai jab ki saanvyaavahaarik pratyaksh ke praadurbhaav mein man, indriya aadi baahya upakaranon ki bhi apeksha hoti hai. paroksh ke do bhed hain- anumaan aur shabd. anumaan se honevaale bodh ko "anumiti" tatha shabd se honevaale bodh ko shabdabodh kaha jaata hai.

saptabhangeenaya

kisi vastu ke paraspar viruddh prateet honevaale do bhaavaatmak anshon ka samanvaya bataane ke liye jin vaakyon ka prayog hota hai, unki sankhya saat hai. un saato vaakyon ke samooh ka hi naam "saptabhangeenaya" hai. usi ka doosra naam "syaadvaad" hai. is prakaar "syaadvaad" jainadarshan mahaasaagar ka ek uttung tanrag maatr hai, kintu vah itna mahatvapoorn hai ki usi ke naam se aajkal jainadarshan ka vyapadesh hone laga hai.

saptabhangeenaya (syaadvaad) ko samajhne ke liye udaaharan ke roop mein neeche ke vaakyon ko liya ja sakta hai.

vaakya arth

1. aatma syaad asti aatma ka astitv hai

2. syaannaasti naastitv bhi hai

3. syaad asti na naasti ch asti, naasti ubhayaatmak bhi hai

4. syaad avaktavya: usaki samagr vaastavikta ko

vyakt karanevaale shabd ke na hone

se vah avaktavya bhi hai

5. syaad asti ch avaktavyashch vah "asti" hokar bhi avaktavya hai

6. syaannaasti ch avaktavyashch "naasti" hokar bhi avaktavya hai

7. syaad asti ch naasti ch asti, naasti ubhayaatmak hokar

avaktavyashch bhi avaktavya hai

is saptabhangeenaya se yeh nishkarsh nishpann hota hai ki aatma ke sambandh mein ukt sabhi maanyataaeain drushtibhed se sambhav aar susangat hain.

katha

jainanyaaya mein bhi katha ke teen bhed bataae gaye hain- vaad, jalp aur vitanda; par inmein keval "vaad" ko hi upaadeya maana gaya hai. shesh do ko keval heya hi naheen kaha gaya hai, apitu unka saabhinivesh khandan bhi kiya gaya hai.

chhal aur jaati

is nyaaya mein bhi chhal aur jaati ka parichay diya gaya hai; kintu vaadaatmak katha ke hi upaadeya hone ke kaaran unke prayog ka saagrah nishedh kiya gaya hai.

nigrahasthaan

jain nyaaya mein vaidik nyaaya aur bauddh nyaaya ke nigrahasthaan-niroopan ko sadosh bataakar apne dhang se usaka vivechan kiya gaya hai aur uske sandarbh mein jaya paraajaya ke nirnaayak tatv ka bhi pratipaadan kiya gaya hai. jain nyaaya mein prativaadi ko kisi prakaar mook kar dene maatr se hi vaadi ko vijayi nahi maana jaata, kintu jab vah prativaadi ke virodhi tarkon ko nirast kar apne paksh ko sapramaan pratishthit kar deta hai use vijayi samjha jaata hai.

nyaayavaakya

jain nyaaya mein vaidik nyaaya ya bauddh nyaaya ke samaan nyaayavaakyon ki koi niyat sankhya naheen maani gayi hai, kintu use pratipaadya purush ki yogyata par nirbhar kiya gaya hai. at: is mat mein sthiti ke anusaar ek se paaainch tak nyaayavaakyon ke prayog ka auchitya maanya hai.

saddhetu

jain nyaaya mein kisi hetu ki saddhetuta ke liye use pakshasatv, sapakshasatv, vipkshaasatv, asatpratipkshatv aur abaadhittv-in paaainch roopon se athva aadi ke teen roopon se sampann hona aavashyak naheen; balki saandhya ka avinaabhaavi maatr hona aavashyak hai.

hetvaabhaas

jain nyaaya ki shvetaanbar parampara mein hetvaabhaas ke teen hi bhed maane gaye hain- viruddh asiddh tatha vyabhichaari; kintu diganbar parampara mein "akichintkar" ko jodkar unki sankhya chaar kar di gayi hai.

jain nyaaya ka tatvajnyaaan

jain nyaaya mein kul saat tatv maane gaye hain- jeev, ajeev, aasrav, bandh, sanvar, nirjara aur moksh.

jeev

jeev yeh hai, jismein upayog (bodhavyaapaar) ka udaya ho. bodhavyaapaar chaitanya shakti ka kaarya hai aur vah jeev mein svaabhaavik hai. jeev ki sankhya anant hai aur usaka parimaan dehavyaapi hai.

ajeev

jismein bodhavyaapaar ki utpaadika chaitanyashakti naheen hoti vah "ajeev" kaha jaata hai. uske do bhed hain - astikaaya evam anastikaaya. "astikaaya" roop ajeev ke chaar bhed hain - dharmaastikaaya adharmaastikaaya, akaashaastikaaya aur pudgalaastikaaya. astikaaya ka arth hai - pradeshasamooh tatha avayavasamooh. pratham (pradeshasamooh) mein dharm, adharm aur aakaash ka tatha doosare (avayavasamooh) mein pudgalon samaavesh hai. padaarthon ki gati ke nimittabhoot dravya ko "dharm", unki sthiti ke nimittabhoot dravya ko "adharm", unhein sthaan dene ke nimittabhoot dravya ko "aakaash" tatha jeev ke jeevan maran ke nimittabhoot dravya ko "pudgal" kaha jaata hai. "anastikaaya" ka ek hi bhed hai aur vah hai kaal.

aasrav

jeev ko karmabandhan mein daalanevaale jeevavyaapaar ko "aasrav" kaha jaata hai. vah man, vaak aur kaaya se janit hone ke kaaran trividh hota hai.

bandh

aatmapradeshon ke saath karmapudgalon ke sambandh ka naam hai - "bandh". vah mithaadarshan, avirti, pramaad, kashaaya aur yog in paaainch hetuon se utpann hota hai.

sanvar

man, vachan aur shareer ki kutsit pravruttiyon ke nirodh ka naam hai.

nirjara

tap, sanyam aadi ke sevan se chirsanchit shubh, ashubh karmon ke aanshik vinaash ko "nirjara" kaha jaata hai.

moksh

karmabandhanon ke aatyantik vinaash ka naam hai - moksh. samyagdarshan, samyagjnyaaan evam samyak chaaritraya ke sevan se usaki praapti hoti hai.

jain nyaaya ki vistrut jaankaari ke liye umaasvaasti, samantabhadr, siddhadarshan, akalank, vaadiraajasoori, devasoor, hemachandr mallishenasoori aur yashovijya aadi jain vidvaanon ki rachanaaon ka adhyayan aavashyak hai.

jain nyaaya ka saahitya ardhamaagadhi, praakrut aur sanskrut bhaashaaon mein praapt hota hai, at: uske vikaasakram ke parijnyaaanaarth tatha uske tatvon ke samyak aakalanaarth ukt teen bhaashaaon ka gyaan apekshit hai.

inhein bhi dekhein