nyaaya darshan

nyaaya darshan Bhaarat ke chh: vaidik darshanon mein ek darshan hai. iske pravartak rishi akshapaad Gautam hain jinka nyaayasootr is darshan ka sabse praacheen evam prasiddh granth hai.

jin saadhanon se hamein jnyaeya tattvon ka gyaan praapt ho jaata hai, unheen saadhanon ko 'nyaaya' ki sanjnyaa di gayi hai. kaha bhi hai ki-

neeyate vivkshitaarth: anen iti nyaaya:

ismein kul 5 adhyaaya hain . tark karna, pramaan ke saadhan, prameya aur saadhya-saadhan ka vivran inmein likhe hain . pracheen kaal mein vaatsyaayan muni ne, madhyakaal mein vaachaspati mishr aur aadhunik kaal mein udayaveer shaastri ne inapar bhaashya (tippani) likhe hain .

anukram

nyaayadarshan ka itihaas

Gautam ke 'nyaayasootr' se hi nyaayashaastr ka itihaas spasht roop se praarambh hota hai. praacheen granthon mein is nyaayashaastr ke katipya siddhaanton ki charcha to aaj bhi vishd roop se upalabdh hai; parantu us praacheen tarkashaastr ka samyak evam sarvaangapoorn svaroop kya aur kaisa tha, iska sahi gyaan kisi ko naheen hai. 'bauddh darshan' ke prakaranon mein yeh ullekh milta hai ki bauddh mat vaale apne mat ka pratipaadan aastik siddhaanton ke viruddh kiya karte the. isi ka pratishedh karne hetu nyaayadarshan ki sanrachana hui.

budgh ka samay chhathi shataabdi isa poorv maana jaata hai. yahi vah samay tha jab Gautam ne nyaayashaastr ki rachana ki. nyaayadarshan ka ek naam tarkashaastr bhi hai. praacheen granth shaastron mein kinheen-kinheen sthaanon mein Gautam tatha kaheen-kaheen akshapaad ko nyaayadarshan ka rachayita kaha gaya hai. aachaarya vishveshvar ki tarkabhaasha ki bhoomika ke antargat prushth 11-20 mein iska ullekh hai. Umesh mishr dvaara rachit 'bhaarateeya darshan' mein kaha gaya hai ki tarkashaastr bauddhon ke pehle bhi tha aur vah bada vyaapak tha. iske bhinn-bhinn praacheen naam hain. yatha - aanteekshaki, hetushaastr, hetuvidya, tarkashaastr, tarkavidya, vaadavidya, pramaanashaastr, vaakovaakya, takki, vimansi aadi.

nyaayasootr ki sanrachana kab hui, iska nirnaya kar paana bahut kathin hai. kaaran ki vidvaanon ne E. poo. chhathaveen shataabdi se lekar isa poorv paaainchavi shataabdi ke beech apni maanyataayein prastut ki hain; parantu sabke apne-apne paksh tarkayukt hain. usase kisi nishchit nirnaya par naheen pahuaincha ja sakta.

nyaayashaastr ke samagr vichaar do dhaaraaon mein vibhkt kiye ja sakte hain - prameyapradhaan aur pramaanapradhaan. Gautam se gangeshopaadhyaaya ke poorv tak ke vidvaanon ki rachanaaon ke vichaar prameyapradhaan hain aur gangeshopaadhyaaya ki tattvachintaamani tatha usapar aadhaarit paravarti vidvaanon ki rachanaaon ke vichaar pramaanapradhaan hain. prameyapradhaan vichaar vaale granthasamooh ko 'praacheen nyaaya' tatha pramaanapradhaan vichaaravaale granthasamooh ko 'navya nyaaya' kaha jaata hai. praacheen nyaaya ki bhaasha saral aur padaarthavivechan sthool hai tatha navya nyaaya ki bhaasha jatil aur padaarthavivechan sookshm hai.

bhaashya granth

nyaayasootr ke pashchaat ka jo saahitya upalabdh hai, un sabamein 'nyaayabhaashya' ka pratham sthaan maana jaata hai. 'nyaayavaartik' naam ki ek teeka nyaayabhaashya par 'udyotakar' ne bhi likhi hai, jismein nyaayashaastr ke prameyon ke sahi svaroop ko jaanane ki sarvaadhik upaadeyata vidyamaan hai. inka kaal bhi isa ki paaainchaveen-chhatheen shataabdi ke aaspaas hi hai. udyotakar dvaara rachit 'nyaayavaartik' naamak teeka prakaashit hone ke pashchaat bhi nyaayashaastr par bauddhon ka aaghaat band naheen hua, jiske kaaran khyaati praapt teekaakaar vaachaspati mishr ko nyaayavaartik ke oopar bhi ek teeka likhni padi, jo 'nyaayavaartiktaatparyateeka' ke naam se prasiddh atyadhik mahattvapoorn teeka hai. vidvaanon ne vaachaspati mishr ka samay isa ki naveen shataabdi maani hai. inhonne hi is nyaayashaastr ko shuddh evam lipibddh kiya. isi shudghata ke kaaran hi aaj yeh lekha-jokha upalabdh hai ki nyaayadarshan mein 5 adhyaaya tatha 10 aahnik hain, 84 prakaran evam 528 sootr hain, 196 pad evam 8385 akshar hain.

nyaayashaastr ke kuchh mukhya siddhaant

pramaan

nyaayadarshan mein pratyaksh, anumaan, upamaan aur shabd - ye chaar pramaan maane gaye hain. ismein aitihm arthapatti, sambhav aur abhaav ke pramaanatv ka khandan kiya gaya hai.

pratyaksh

pratyaksh pramaan ke do bhed hain- baahya aur aabhyantar. ghraan, rasana, chakshu tvak aur shrotr, in indriyon ko, shareer ke baahar oopari bhaag mein rahane ke kaaran tatha baahari vishyon ka graahak hone ke kaaran "baahya pratyaksh pramaan" aur man ko shareer ke bheetar aatma ke saath rahane tatha bheetari padaarth aatma evam aatmeeya gunon ka grahaak hone ke kaaran "aantar pratyaksh pramaan" kaha jaata hai. pratyaksh shabd se indriya, tajjanya gyaan aur unke vishay in teenon ka bodh hota hai. ye teen prakaar ke bodh nimnalikhit vyutpattiyon se kramash: utpann hote hain :

1. "(arth) prati gatam aksham = indriym" - (arthasannikrusht indriya)

2. "(arth) prati gatam aksham yasmai" (indriyjanya gyaan)

3. "yan prati gatam aksham" (indriysannikrusht vishay)

indriya roop pratyaksh pramaan ki sankhya chh: hone se tajjanya jnyaaanon ki sankhya chh: hoti hai aur unhein idriydvaarak naamon se vyavahrut kiya jaata hai, jaise- ghraanaj, raasan, chaakshush, tvaach, shraavan aur maanas in pratyaksh jnyaaanon mein pratyek ke do bhed hote hain- nirviklpak aur saviklpak.

nirviklpak- is pratyaksh mein vastu ke svaroop maatr ka bhaan hota hai, usaki vishyabhoot, mein paraspar sambandh ka maan naheen hota; ataev is pratyaksh ki vishyata visheshanata visheshyata aur sansargata se vilkshan hoti hai aur vah vilkshan vishyata hi is pratyaksh ka lakshan hai. yeh ateedinraya hota hai arthaat iska pratyaksh naheen hota. "saviklpak pratyaksh" ke kaaran roop mein iska anumaan hota hai.

saviklpak - yeh pratyaksh vishishtagraahi hota hai. iski vishyata visheshanata-prakaarata, visheshyata aur sansargata ke bhed se teen prakaar ki hoti hai. yeh nirviklpak" se utpann hota hai aur man se iska pratyaksh vedan hota hai. iske pratyaksh ko "anuvyavasaaya" shabd se vyavahrut kiya jaata hai. pratyek janya saviklpak pratyaksh ke do bhed hote hain- laukik aur alaukik.

laukik - pratyaksh vartamaan aur sameepasth vastu ka hi graahak hota hai. usaka janm vastu ke saath indriya ke laukik sannikrsh se hota hai; ve sannikrsh chh: hain - sanyog, sanyukt samavaaya, sanyuktasamavet samavaaya, samavaaya, samavet samavaaya aur visheshanata. inmein sanyog se dravya ka, sanyuktasamavaaya se dravya ke gun, karm aur saamaanya ka, sanyuktasamavet samavaaya se gun aur karm ke saamaanya ka, samavaaya se shabd ka, samavet samavaaya se shabd ke saamaanya ka aur visheshanata se samavaaya tatha abhaav ka pratyaksh hota hai.

alaukik - alaukik pratyaksh doorasth aur avidyamaan padaarth ko bhi grahan karta hai. usaka janm vishay ke saath indriya ke alaukik sannikrsh se sampann hota hai. alaukik sannikrsh teen hain- saamaanyalakshan, jnyaaanalakshan aur yogaj.

saamaanyalakshan - jnyaaatasaamaanya ya saamaanyajnyaaan ko saamaanyalakshanasannikrsh kaha jaata hai. isse sameepasth, doorasth, vidyamaan aur avidyamaan sabhi prakaar ke samast saamaanyaashrayon ka pratyaksh hota hai. yeh pratyaksh usi dasha mein hota hai, jab saamaanya ke kisi aashray ke laukik pratyaksh ki saamagri sannihit rahati hai. isi sannikrsh ki mahima se kisi ek maatr dhoom mein kisi ek maatr vahri ke saahacharya gyaan se hi sab dhoomon mein sab vahri ki vyaapti ka gyaan ho jaata hai tatha sannikrusht dhoom mein vahri ki vyaapti ka nishchaya rahate hue bhi asannikrusht dhoom mein vahrivyabhichaar ka sandeh hota hai.

jnyaaanalankshan - tattad vishay ka gyaan hi tattad vishay ke saath indriya ka "jnyaaanalakshan" sannikrsh kaha jaata hai. is sannikrsh se gyaan ke vishay ka hi pratyaksh hota hai, uske aashray ka naheen. isi ke prabhaav se ek padaarth mein anya padaarth ke dharm ka bhramaatmak pratyaksh hota hai.

yogaj - yogaabhyaas se manushya ki aatma mein ek vishisht dharm ka udaya hota hai. is dharm ko hi vishay ke saath indriya ka yogaj sannikrsh kaha jaata hai. isse indriyon ka saamathrya badh jaata hai, jiske falasvaroop indriyaan doorasth aur avidyamaan padaarth ka bhi pratyaksh karne lagti hain. uske prabhaav se hi yogi ko sarvejnyaata ki praapti hoti hai.

nitya pratyaksh - is sandarbh mein yeh baat dhyaan dene yogya hai ki ukt janya pratyakshon se atirikt ek nitya pratyaksh bhi hai, jo ajanma evam avinaashi hai. vah pratyaksh samagr sansaar ko vishay karta hai aur upaadaanapratyaksh ke roop mein sabhi kaaryon ka kaaran hota hai. vah ekamaatr ishvar mein hi samavet rahata hai.

anumaan

anumaan pramaan se un sabhi padaarthon ka gyaan kiya jaata hai jo indriya dvaara gyaat hone ki yogyata rakhate hue bhi doorasth ya avidyamaan hone ke kaaran indriya se gyaat naheen hete athva jismein indriya se gyaat hone ki yogyata hi naheen hoti. iske do bhed hote hain - svaarthaanumaan aur paraarthaanumaan. jis anumaan se apne sanshaya ka niraakaran ya apne aap ko saadhya ka nishchaya hota hai, use "svaarthaanumaan" tatha jis anumaan se anya vyakti - jijnyaaasu, prativaadi ya madhyasth - ke sanshaya ka niraakaran ya saadhya ka nishchaya hota hai, use "paraarthaanumaan" kaha jaata hai. "svaarthaanumaan" ki nishpatti anya purush ke vachan ki apeksha na kar apne prayaas se hetu mein saadhya ki vyaapti ka gyaan arjit kar ki jaati hai aur "paraarthaanumaan" ki nishpatti anya purush ke vachan se arthaat panchaavayavaatmak nyaaya ke prayog se vyaaptijnyaaan praapt kar ki jaati hai. iseeliye gangeshopaadhyaaya ne tatvachintaamani (anumaan khand) ke avayavaprakaran mein spasht kaha hai-

"tachchaanumaanan paraarthan nyaayasaadhyamiti nyaayastadavayavaashch pratijnyaa hetoodaaharanopanaya nigmanaani niroopyante."

nyaaya - iski paribhaasha aarambh mein bataai gayi hai. nyaayashaastr mein iske paaainch avayav maane gaye hain - pratijnyaa, hetu, udaaharan, upanaya aur gimn. jis vaakya se paksh ke saath saadhya ke sambandh ka gyaan ho use "pratijnyaa", jis vaakya se hetu mein saadhya ki jnyaaapakata avagat ho use "hetu", jis vaakya se hetu mein saadhya ki vyaapti bataai jaae use "udaaharan", jis vaakya se paksh mein saadhyavaakya hetu ka sambandh bodhit ho use "upanaya" aur jis vaakya ke hetu ka abaadhittv evam asatpratipkshittv bataate hue hetu ke saamarthya se paksh mein saadhya ke sambandh ka upasanhaar kiya jaae use "nigman" kaha jaata hai. unke udaaharan kram mein is prakaar hain :

1. "parvato vahrimaan" - pratijnyaa

2. "dhoomaat" - hetu

3. "yo yo dhoomavaan s s vahrimaanan" - udaaharan

4. tatha chaayam - upanaya'

5. tasmaad vahrimaan - nigman

isi panchaavayavaatmak vaakya ko vaatsyaayan ne "param nyaaya" kaha hai.

anumaan ka svaroop - hetu, vyaaptijnyaaan ya vyaapti jnyaaanasahakrut man ko anumaan kah jaata hai. inmein teesara paksh bahut hi kam prasiddh hai par pratham do paksh adhik prasiddh hain. udayanaachaarya tatha unke anuyaayi "hetu" ko aur gangeshopaadhyaaya tatha unke anuyaayi vyaaptijnyaaan ko anumaan kehte hain.

anumaan ke bhed - nyaaya darshan mein anumaan ke teen bhed bataae gaye hain- poorvavat, sheshavat aur saamaanyatodrusht. vaatsyaayan ne in anumaanon ki nimnalikhit roop se do prakaar ki vyaakhyaaeain ki hain :

1. poorvavat = kaaran se kaarya anumaan jaise- medh se bhaavi vrushti ka.

2. sheshavat = kaarya se kaaran ka anumaan jaise- pravaah ki poornata, drutagaamita, trunaadiyuktata se bhoot vrushti ka.

3. saamanyatodrusht = kaarya-kaaranabhaav ka niyman hone par bhi jaise- "ek sthaan mein dekhe gaye padaarth ki anya sthaan mein saamaanyata ek sahacharit padaarth se anya upalabdhi us padaarth ke anya sthaan mein jaane se sahacharit padaarth ka anumaan. hi sambhav hai"- is sahachaar niyam ke aadhaar par praat: poorv mein dekhe gaye soorya ko saayankaal pashchim mein dekhkar soorya ke poorv se pashchim jaane ka anumaan

1. poorvavat = ek aashray mein ek saath pratyaksh do padaarthon mein jaise- paakashaala mein ek pratyaksh dekhe gaye dhoom aur ek se doosare ka poorv ki bhaaainti saath hone ka anumaan vahri mein dhoom se parvat vahri ka anumaan

2. sheshavat = prasakt ka pratishedh aur anyatr prasakti ke abhaav se jaise- bhaavaatmak hone ke kaaran dravya, gun, karm, saamaanya shesh bachanevaale padaarth ka anumaan. vishesh aur samavaaya mein shabd ke antarbhaav ki prasakti honepar satta jaati ka aashray hone se saamaanya, (2) vishesh aur samavaaya mein ek dravyamaatr mein samavet hone se dravya mein aur shabdaantar ka kaaran hone se karm mein antarbhaav ka nishedh tatha abhaav mein bhaavaatmak shabd ke antarbhaav ki aprasakti se shesh bachane vaale gun mein shabd ke antarbhaav ka anumaan.

3. saamaanyatodrusht = jin do padaarthon mein vyaapyavyaapak bhaav sambandh jaise- ichha aadi gun aur aatma ka paraspar sambandh pratyaksh vidit na ho, kintu pratyaksh vidit sambandh jab pratyakshavidit naheen hai, kintu saamaanya roop se vaale padaarthon ka saamaanya saadrushya ho, unamein gun aur dravya ka sambandh pratyakshavidit hai, ichha ek doosare ka anumaan aadi mein gun ka evam aatma mein dravyatv roop se anya dravya ka saadrushya hone ke kaaran ichha aadi gunon se unke aashray roop mein aatmasvaroop dravya ka anumaan.

ukt teenon anumaanon mein pratyek ke teen bhed maane jaate hain- "kevalaanvayi", "kevalavyatireki" aur anvayavyatireki. in bhedon ka aadhaar raghunaath shiromani ne saadhya ko, udayaanaachaarya ne vyaaptigraahak sahachaar ko aur gangeshopaadhyaaya ne vyaapti ko maana hai.

raghunaath ka taatparya yeh hai ki jis saadhya ka vipaksh naheen hota us saadhya ka anumaan "kevalaanvayi" anumaan kaha jaata hai, jaise vaachyatv, jnyaeyatv aadi saarvatrik dharmon ka anumaan; evam jis saadhya ka sapaksh naheen hota us saadhya ka anumaan "keval vyatireki" anumaan kaha jaata hai, jaise gandh se pruthivi mein pruthiveetarabhed ka anumaan; tatha jis saadhya mein sapaksh, vipaksh donon hote hain us saadhya ka anumaan "anvayavyatireki" anumaan kaha jaata hai, jais ghoom se vahri ka anumaan.

udayanaachaarya ka aashay yeh hai ki "anvayasahachaar" = hetu mein saadhya ka sahachaar aur "vyatirekasahachaar" = saadhyaabhaav mein hetvabhaav ka sahachaar, in donon sahachaaron se anvayavyaapti ka hi gyaan hota hai aur usi se anumiti hoti hai, at: jis anumiti ke utpaadak vyaaptijnyaaan ka udaya keval anvayasahachaar ke gyaan se hota hai us anumiti ka kaaran "kevalaanvayi" anumaan, evam jis anumiti ke utpaadak vyaaptijnyaaan ka janm keval vyatirekasahachaar se hota hai us anumiti ka kaaran "keval vyatireki" tatha jis anumiti ke utpaadak vyaaptijnyaaan ka udaya anvayasahachaar aur vyatirek sahachaar donon ke gyaan se hota hai us anumiti ka kaaran "anvayavyatireki" anumaan kaha jaata hai.

gangeshopaadhyaaya ka abhipraaya yeh hai ki anumiti ki utpatti keval anvayavyaaptijnyaaan se hi naheen hoti, kintu vyatirekavyaaptijnyaaan se bhi hoti hai, at: jis anumiti ka janm keval anvayavyaaptijnyaaan se hota hai us anumiti ka kaaran "kevalaanvayi", evam jis anumiti ka janm keval vyatirekavyaapti ke gyaan se hota hai us anumiti ka kaaran "kevalavyatireki" tatha jis anumiti ka janm anvaya aur vyatirek donon vyaaptiyon ke gyaan se hota hai us anumiti ka kaaran "anvayavyatireki" anumaan kaha jaata hai.

hetu - jis padaarth mein saadhya ki vyaapti aur pakshadharmata ke gyaan se anumiti ki utpatti hoti hai use "hetu" ya ling kaha jaata hai. uske do bhed hote hain - "saddhetu" aur hetvaabhaas (dusht hetu). saddhetu mein nimnalikhit paaainch roop avashya hone chaahiye :

1. pakshasatv = paksh mein rahana

2. sapakshasattav = saadhya ke nishchit aashray mein rahana

3. vipkshaasatv = saadhyaabhaav ke nishchit aashray mein na rahana

4. abaadhiktv = paksh mein saadhya ka baadhit na hona.

5. asatpratipkshittv = paksh mein saadhyaabhaav ke saadhanaarth anya hetu ke gyaan ya prayog ka na hona

yahaaain ukt paaainchon ke roopon se sampann hona keval anvayavyatireki saddhetu ke liye hi aavashyak hai. kevalaanvayi saddhetu ke liye "vipkshasaatv" se atirikt chaar roopon se hi sampann hona apekshit hota hai.

hetvaabhaas - jiske gyaan se anumiti uske kaaranabhoot vyaaptijnyaaan ya pakshadharmataajnyaaan ka pratibandh hota hai use - hetugat dosh arth mein - "hetvaabhaas" kaha jaata hai aur ye dosh jin hetuon mein hote hain unhein- "dusht hetu arth mein"- "hetvaabhaas" kaha jaata hai. hetugat dosh ke paaainch bhed maane jaate hain. nimnalikhit taalika se yeh samjha ja sakta hai ki ve bhed kaun hain, unke dvaara kya pratibdhya hota hai, tatha unase yukt dusht hetuon ke kya naam hain?

hetudosh pratibdhya dusht hetu

1- vyabhichaar vyaaptijnyaaan viruddh (anaikaantik)

2- virodh vyaaptijnyaaan viruddh

3- asiddhi praaya: anumiti, vyaapti asiddh gyaan, pakshadharmataajnyaaan

4- satpratipksh anumiti satyapratipkshit (prakaranasam)

5- baadh anumiti baadhit (kaalaateet)

anumiti ke kaaran - ling - hetu ka trividh paraamarsh anumiti ka kaaran hota hai. "paksh hetu ke sambandh ka gyaan" pratham ling paraamarsh kaha jaata hai- jaise parvat mein dhoom ke sambandh ka "parvato dhoomavaan" is prakaar ka gyaan. "hetu mein saadhya ki vyaapti ka gyaan" dviteeya ling paraamarsh kaha jaata hai - jaise dhoom mein, vahrivyaapti ka "dhoomo vahri vyaapya:" is prakaar ka gyaan. paksh mein saadhyavyaapya hetu ke sambandh ka gyaan" truteeya ya charam ling paraamarsh kaha jaata hai - jaise parvat mein vahrivyaapya dhoom ke sambandh ka "parvato vahrivyaapya dhoomavaan" is prakaar ka gyaan.

pakshata - "pakshata" bhi anumiti ka ek kaaran hai. paksh mein saadhya ka nishchaya rahane ki dasha mein anumiti ki utpatti ko rokane ke liye ise anumiti ka kaaran maana jaata hai. chir praacheen naiyaayikon ne "saadhyasanshaya" ko, udayanaachaarya ne "anumiti vishyak ichha" ko, pakshadhar mishr ne anumitijnak ichha ke roop mein "anumaata ki anumiti - ichha" ko tatha uske abhaav mein "ishvar ki ichha" ko aur gangeshopaadhyaaya ne "sishaadhayishaavirhavishishtasiddhyabhaav" ko "pakshata" maana hai. gangeshopaadhyaaya ka mantavya yeh hai ki jab paksh mein saadhya siddhi hoti hai aur us saadhya ko anumaan se jaanane ki ichha naheen hoti, usi samay anumiti ki utpatti naheen hoti hai; kintu saadhya ko anumaan se jaanane ki ichha hone par paksh mein saadhyanishchaya ki dasha mein bhi anumiti ki utpatti hoti hai. uske liye saadhyasanshaya ya anumitta ki niyat apeksha naheen hoti.

pratibandh ka bhaav - yeh bhi anumiti ka kaaran hai. ise nimnalikhit taalika ke anusaar chaar roop mein vibhkt kiya ja sakta hai.

1. aashrayaasiddhi - paksh mein pakshataavachhedak ka abhaav; jaise-aakaashapushp ko paksh banaane par puruparoop paksh mein aakaasheeyatv roop pakshataavachhedak ka abhaav.

2. saadhyaaprasiddhi - saadhya mein saadhyataavachhedak ka abhaav; jaise-aakaashapushp ko saadhya banaane par pushp roopasaadhya mein aakaasheeyatv roop saadhyataakachhedak ka abhaav.

3. satpratipksh - paksh mein saadhyaabhaavavyaapya hetu ka sambandh; jaise-shabd mein nityatv roop saadhya ke abhaav anitya ke vyaapya "janyatv" ka sambandh.

4. baagh - paksh mein saadhya ka abhaav jaise-shabd roop paksh mein nityatv roop saadhya ka abhaav.

in chaaron nishchayon se anumiti ka pratibandh hota hai; at: in chaaron nishchayon ka abhaav "pratibandhakaabhaav" ke roop mein anumiti ka kaaran hota hai.

vyaapti - vyaapti gyaan ko dviteeya lingaparaamarsh ke roop mein anumiti ka kaaran kaha gaya hai. is vyaapti ke nirvachan mein naiyaayikon ne bada purushaarth pradarshit kiya hai; kyonk yahi anumaan ke pramaanatv ki aadhaarashila hai. vyaapti mukhya roop se do prakaar ki maani gayi hai - "anvayavyaapti" aur "vyatirekavyaapti". jis vyaapti ke shareer mein - saadhya mein hetu vyaapakatv - pravesh ho use siddhaantabhat anvayavyaapti kaha jaata hai - jaise "hetuvyaapakasaadhyasaamaanaadhikranya". aur jis vyaapti ke shareer mein - hetvabhaav mein saadhyaabhaavavyaapakatv- ka pravesh ho use "vyatirekavyaapti" kaha jaata hain - saadhyaabhaavavyaapakaabhaav pratiyogitv". anvayavyaapti ka taatparya yeh hai ki hetu ka aise saadhya ke aashray mein rahana, jiska hetu ke kisi aashray mein abhaav na ho. aur vyatirekavyaapti ka taatparya yeh hai ki saadhyaabhaav ke aashrayon mein hetvabhaav ka hona. jaise - dhoomaketu kisi aashray mein vahri ka abhaav na hone se vahri dhoom ka vyaapak hai aur us vahri ke aashray mahaanas aadi mein dhoom rahata hai; isi prakaar vahnyabhaav ke aashrayon mein dhoom ka abhaav rahata hai; isliye dhoom mein vahni ki "anvaya" aur "vyatirek" donon vyaaptiyaaain rahati hain.

vyaaptijnyaaan ke upaaya - vyaatijnyaaan ke teen saadhak maane jaate hain- "vyabhichaar ka ajnyaaan," "hetu mein saadhyasahachaar ya saadhyaabhaav mein hetvabhaavasahachaar" ka gyaan aur "tark". inmein pratham do vyaaptijnyaaan ke saarvatrik saadhan hain; par tark sarvatr naheen kvachit hi apekshit hota hai. jaisa ki vishvanaath ne apne bhaasha parichhed (kaarikaavali) naamak granth ke gun prakaran mein kaha hai :

vyabhichaarasyaagrahodath sahachaaraagrahastatha.

hetuvryaaptigrahe tark: kvachichhankaanivtrtak:.. 137..

tark - Gautam ne tark ka lakshan kaha hai :

"avijnyaaatatattaveऽrthe kaaranopapattitstattavajnyaaanaarthamoohastark:"

(nya. the. 1.1.42)

(jis arth ka tatv nirneet na ho uske tattvajnyaaan ke liye yukti poorvak kiye jaanevaale "ooh" gyaan ka naam hai "tark").

paravarti navya naiyaayikon ne tark ka lakshan is prakaar kiya hai : "vyaapya ke aahaarya aarop se vyaapak ka jo aahaarya aarop hota hai" vah "tark" hai. is tark ka vipreet anumaan mein arthaat vyaapak u aapaadya ke abhaav se vyaapya u aapaadak ke abhaav ke anumaan mein paryavasann hona iski shuddhata ka niksh maana jaata hai. jab kabhi hetu mein saadhya vyabhichaar ki shanka hone se vyaaptijnyaaan ka pratibandh hone lagta hai, us shanka ko tark dvaara nirast kar vyaaptijnyaaan ka path prashast kar diya jaata hai. jaise-paakagruhagat dhoom mein paagruhagat vahri ke sahachaar ka gyaan hone par bhi jab parvateeya dhoom mein vahrivyabhichaar ki shanka hoti hai, use door karne ke liye "tark" ka sahaara liya jaata hai. jaise - "kisi bhi dhoom mein yadi vahri ka vyabhichaar hoga to vahri dhoom ka kaaran na ho sakega aur yeh sambhav naheen hai ki vahri ko dhoom ka kaaran na maana jaae; kyonki us dasha mein dhoom ke sanpaadanaarth vahri ke grahan mein manushya ki niyat pravrutti ka lop ho jaaega". is tark ke falasvaroop yeh nishkarsh niklata hai ki "dhoom vahri se utpann hota hai at: usamein vahrivyabhichaar ka abhaav hai" aur is nishkarsh ke nishpann hote hi parvateeya dhoom mein vahrivyabhichaar ki shanka nivrutt ho jaane se dhoom mein vahrivyaapti ka gyaan nirbaadh roop se sampann ho jaata hai.

uparyukt tarkalakshak sootr ki vishvanaathavrutti mein tark ke aatmaashraya, anyonyaashraya, chakrak, anavastha aur in chaaron se pruthak baadhitaarthaprasang, ye paaainch bhed batala kar pratyek ka udaaharan pradarshit kiya gaya hai.

upaadhi - jo padaarth ke sab aashrayon mein rahata ho par hetu ke sab aashrayon mein na rahata ho, "upaadhi" kaha jaata hai. upaadhi ke teen bhed hote hain - shuddh saadhya ka vyaapak, pakshadharmasahit saadhya ka vyaapak tatha saadhanayukt saadhya ka vyaapak.

shuddhasaadhya vyaapak upaadhi - jab vahri se dhoom ka anumaan kiya jaata hai, tab "aadrr rindhan" u geeli lakdi shuddh saadhya ka vyaapak upaadhi hota hai, kyonki aadrran rindhan dhoom roop saadhya ke sabhi aashrayon mein rahata hai par agnitpt lohagolak mein na rahane ke kaaran vahri roop saadhan ke sab aashrayon mein naheen rahata.

pakshadharmasahit saadhya ki vyaapak upaadhi - jab vaayu mein pratyaksh sparsh roop hetu se pratyakshatv ka anumaan kiya jaata hai tab "udbhoot roop" pakshadharmasahit saadhya ka vyaapak upaadhi hota hai, kyonki vaayusvaroop paksh ke vahidrravyatv roop dharm ke saath pratyakshatv jin pratyakshabaahmadravya roop aashrayon mein rahata hai un sabhi mein udbhoot roop rahata hai, par vaayu mein na rahane ke kaaran pratyaksh sparsh ke sab aashrayon mein naheen rahata.

saadhanayukt saadhya ki vyaapak upaadhi - jab dhvans mein "janyatv" hetu se "vinaashitv" ka anumaan kiya jaata hai tab "bhaavatv" saadhan yukt saadhya ka upaadhi hota hai, kyonki janyatv ke saath vinaashitv jin janya vinaashi padaarthon mein rahata hai un sabhi mein bhaavatv rahata hai, par dhvans mein na rahane ke kaaran janyatv ke sab aashrayon mein naheen rahata.

upaadhi ka gyaan vyaaptijnyaaan ka seedha virodhi naheen hota hai. arthaat hetu mein saadhya vyaapak upaadhi ke vyabhichaar se usamein saadhya vyabhichaar ka anubhav hota hai aur saadhya ke us aanumaanik vyabhichaarajnyaaan se vyaaptijnyaaan ka saakshaat pratibandh hota hai.

upamaan

ek padaarth mein anya padaarth ke saadrushyajnyaaan "upamaan" pramaan kaha jaata hai. isse arthavishesh mein shabd vishesh ke shakti sambandh ka gyaan hota hai. usaki prakriya is prakaar hai.

jab koi aranyavaasi manushya kisi graamavaasi manushya ko bataata hai ki aranya mein tumhaari gau ke sadrush gavaya naam ka ek pashu hota hai, jab tum aranya mein kabhi jaana to jis pashu ko apni gau ke sadrush dekhna use gavaya samajh lena, tadanusaar jab graamavaasi kabhi aranya jaata hai aur vahaaain apni gau ke sadrush kisi pashu ko dekhta hai use aranyavaasi ki baat ka smaran hota hai aur use falasvaroop us pashu mein use gavaya shabd ke shaktisanbandh ka nishchaya ho jaata hai. is prakaar gavaya mein gosaadrushya ka darshan upamaanakraman, aranyavaasi ke dvaara upadisht arth ka smaran usaka vyaapaar tatha gavaya mein gavaya shabd ki shakti ka nishchaya upamiti naamak fal kaha jaata hai. udayanaachaarya ne yahi baat agrim kaarika mein kahi hai.

sanbandhasya parichhed: sanjnyaaaya: sanjnyaina sah.

pratyakshaaderasaadhyatvaadupamaanafalan vidu:.. (nya. ku. 3 st. 10 ka)

vishvanaath nyaayapanchaanan ki agrim kaarikaaon mein yeh vishay aur bhi vishd hai :

graameenasya prathamat: pashyato gavayaadikm.

saadrushyadheergavaadeenaan ya syaat sa karanan smrutam.. 79..

vaakyaarthasyaatideshasya smrutivryaapaar uchyate.

gavayaadipdaana tu shaktidheerupama falama.. 80.. (bhaasha parichhed)

shabd

ise bhi dekhein - aaptapramaan

jismein padaarth ke shakti ya lakshan sambandh ke gyaan se padaarth ka smaran hokar padaarth ka anubhav hota hai, use "shabd pramaan" kaha jaata hai. ghat shabd mein ghatapadaarth ke shakti sambandh ke gyaan se ghat ka smaran hokar ghat ka anubhav aur ganga shabd mein gangaateer ke lakshan sambandh ke gyaan se gangaateer ka smaran hokar gangaateer ka anubhav hone se ghat aur gangaateer roop arthon mein ghat aur ganga shabd pramaan hote hain.

amuk shabd amuk arth ka bodhak ho, athva amuk arth amuk shabd se bodhit ho, is prakaar ke anaadi ishvar-sanket ko shakti kaha jaata hai. jaise raaja bhageerath ne Kapil muni ke shaap se dugdh aur apne poorvaj saar suton ke uddhaaraarth jis jalapravaah ko pruthvi par pravartit kiya, us jalapravaah mein ganga ka anaadi sanket us arth mein ganga shabd ki shakti hai.

jis arth mein jis shabd ka anaadi sanket na hokar aadhunik sanket hota hai, us arth mein us shabd ke aadhunik sanket ko "paribhaasha" kaha jaata hai. jaise kisi nootan vastu ke liye uske nirmaata dvaara nishchit kiya gaya koi naam.

shabd ke shakyaarthasanbandh ko "lakshana" kaha jaata hai. jaise- shabd ke shakyaarth jalapravaah ka teer ke saath sanyog sambandh.

jab kisi shabd se shakti dvaara vakta ke abhimt arth ki prateeti naheen ho paati us shabd se lakshan dvaara us arth ki prateeti sampann ho jaati hai.

nyaayashaastr ke anusaar arth ke shakti aur lakshan sambandh sanskrut bhaasha ke shuddh shabdon mein hi aashrit hote hain, anya bhaashaaon ke shabd nyaayashaastr ki drushti mein apashabd ya apabhransh maane jaate hain. apabhransh shabd se arth ki prateeti hoti hai jab usamein arth ki paribhaasha ki gayi hoti hai ya usamein arth ka shaktibhram hota hai.

shakti aur lakshan se atirikt vyanjana naam ka koi shabdaarth sambandh nyaayashaastr mein maanya naheen hai. jis arth ke avabodh ke liye aise teesare sambandh ki aavashyakta samajhi jaati hai, usaka bodh kaheen lakshana se, kaheen gyaan lakshan sannikrsh ke dvaara man se aur kaheen anumaan se hi sampann ho jaata hai.

shabd pramaan ke do bhed hote hain- laukik aur vaidik. inmein laukik shabdaavali ko anya laukik pramaanon ke samvaad se hi pramaan maana jaata hai, par vaidik shabdaavali (ved) ko kisi laukik pramaan ke samvaad ke bina bhi pramaan maana jaata hai. vedamoolak smrutiyon ko laukik kaha jaae ya vaidik, kintu unka pramaanatv ved ke samvaad par nirbhar hota hai.

shabd pramaan honevaale anubhav ko shabdabodh kaha jaata hai. vah padajnyaaan, pad-padaarth sambandh gyaan, padaarth smaran aakaankshaajnyaaan, aasakti ya aasaktijnyaaan, yogyataajnyaaan ya ayogyata nishchaya ka abhaav, taatparyajnyaaan ya taatparyajnyaaapak prakaran in saat kaaranon se utpann hota hai.

anubhav aur smaran - ukt chaar pramaanon se honevaale gyaan anubhav kaha jaata hai. anubhav ke do bhed hote hain- upekshaatmak aur anupekshaatmak. jo anubhav apne vishay ka koi sanskaar daale bina hi vileen ho jaata hai use "upekshaatmak anubhav" tatha jo anubhav apne vishay ka sanskaar utpann kar nasht hota hai use "anupekshaatmak" anubhav kaha jaata hai. kaalaantar mein isi sanskaar ke jaagaran se jo poorv anubhav ke samaan jnyaaanaantar paida hota hai use hi "smaran" kaha jaata hai. smaran ki yathaarthata aur ayathaarthata anubhav ki yathaarthata aur ayathaarthata par nirbhar hoti hai. smaran ko pramaan aur bhram donon se bhinn maana jaata hai, kyonki use pramaan maanane par uske liye atirikt pramaan tatha bhram maanane par uske kaaran roop mein atirikt dosh ki kalpana karni hogi, jo uchit naheen hai.

pratyabhijnyaa - dhaaraapravaahi pratyakshajnyaaan ko "pratyabhijnyaa" kaha jaata hai. sanskaar aur indriya ke sammilit vyaapaar se usaki utpatti hoti hai. poorvadrusht evam drushyamaan padaarth ki ekta ka graahak hone se vahi sthaayi padaarth ki satta mein pramaan hota hai. jab man sanyukt indriya ke sannikrsh se kisi vishay ka pratyaksh hota hai, jab tak us vishay ke saath indriya ka tatha indriya ke saath man ka sanyog bana rahata hai, pratirkshan us vishay ka naya naya pratyakshajnyaaan hota rahata hai. is pratyaksh samooh ko hi dhaaraavaahi gyaan kaha jaata hai. vishay ke abaadhit hone se yeh gyaan bhi pramaatmak maana jaata hai.

anyathaakhyaati - janya saviklpak gyaan ke do bhed hote hain- prama aur bhram. bhram ka hi doosra naam hai "anyathaakhyaati". iske teen bhed hote hain- sanshaya vipryaya aur aarop. ek hi aashay mein paraspar virodhi do padaarthon ke ek gyaan ko "sanshaya" kaha jaata hai, jaise- "shabd: nityo na va" (shabd nitya hai ya anitya). kisi vastu mein anya vastu ke dharm ka nishchaya "vipryaya" kaha jaata hai, jaise soorya ke prakaash mein chamakati CP mein chaandeepan ka gyaan. virodhi gyaan ke rahate hue jnyaaata ki ichha se utpann honevaala gyaan "aarop" ya "aahaarya" kaha jaata hai, jaise raanga ko chaaaindi bataakar kisi gainvaar ke haath use bechanevaale thag ko raange mein chaaaindeepan ke abhaav ka gyaan hote hue bhi usamein ichhaapoorvak chaandeepan ka gyaan. in anya vyaakhyaatiyon ki upapatti karne ke liye hi nyaayashaastr mein "jnyaaanalakshan" alaukik sannikrsh ki kalpana ki gayi hai.

svatastv, paratasttv- gyaan ke prama aur bhram do bhed bataae gaye hain. unki utpatti tatha pramaatv ya bhramatv roop se unki jnyaapti ke baare mein bhinn bhinn darshanon ke bhinn bhinn mat hain, kintu nyaayashaastr mein yeh baat maani gayi hai ki prama ki utpatti svat: arthaat gyaan saamaanya ke kaaran maatr se na hokar gunaatmak kaaran ki sahaayata se hoti hai aur bhram ki utpatti svat: na hokar doshaatmak kaaran ki sahaayata se hoti hai. isi prakaar gyaan ke pramaatv evam bhramatv ka gyaan bhi svat: arthaat gyaan ke svaroopagraahak kaaran maatr se na hokar anya kaaran ke sannidhaan se hota hai, jaise pramaatv ka gyaan "safal pravruttihetuk anumaan" aur bhramatv ka gyaan "viflapravruttihetuk anumaan" se hota hai. jis gyaan se honevaali pravrutti safal arthaat gyaat vishay ki praapika hoti hai, use prama samjha jaata hai aur jis gyaan se honevaali pravrutti vifal arthaat gyaat vishay ki praapika naheen hoti, use bhram kaha jaata hai.

vaad, jalp aur vitanda

nyaayashaastr ke jnyaaatavya vishyon me vaad, jalp aur vitanda ka bhi mahatvapoorn sthaan hai. in teenon ko vaatsyaayan ne apne nyaayabhaashya mein "katha" shabd se vyavahrut kiya hai.

"tisr: katha bhavanti vaado jalpo vitanda cheti" (nyaayabhaashya 1.2.1 sootr)

katha ka arth hai kisi vishay par vidvaanon ka vah paarasparik vichaar jo vaad, jalp aur vitanda ke roop mein upalabdh hota hai. tatv nirnaya ke uddeshya se kiye jaanevaale vichaar ko "vaad" evam pratidvandvi par vijay praapt karne ke uddeshya se kiye jaanevaale vichaar ko "jalp" tatha "vitanda" kaha jaata hai. vaadaatmak vichaar mein "chhal" aur "jaati" ka prayog tatha "apasiddhaant" "nyoon", adhik" aur "hetvaabhaas" se atirikt nigrah sthaanon ka udbhaavan vajrya maana gaya hai. is vichaar mein sabha, madhyasth evam raaja ya raajapratinidhi ki aavashyakta naheen hoti. ismein bhaag lenevaale vidvaan avineetavanchak, asooyaavaan ya duraagrahi naheen hote. shuddh nyaaya se tatvanirnaya par pahuainchana hi usaka lakshya hota hai. ismein vichaarakon ke beech jayaparaajaya ki koi bhaavana naheen hoti.

jalp aur vitanda ka svabhaav vaad se paryaapt bhinn hai. in vichaaron mein bhaag lene vaale vidvaanon ka uddeshya tatvanirnaya naheen, apitu jis kisi prakaar apne pratidvandvi ko mook banaakar apne aapko vijayi siddh karna hota hai. iseeliye in vichaaron mein chhal aur jaati ke prayog tatha sabhi prakaar ke nigrah sthaanon ke udbhaavana ki kaat rahati hai, saath hi vichaar ke nirvighn sanchaalan ke liye sabha, madhyasth aur raajakeeya niyantran ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

jalp aur vitanda ke uddeshya mein aikya hone par bhi unki prakruti mein bahut antar hai. jaise jalp mein vaadi aur prativaadi donon apne apne paksh ka saadhan aur parapaksh ka khandan karte hain, par vitanda mein keval vaadi hi apne paksh ke saadhan ka prayaas karta hai, prativaadi vaadi ke paksh ka khandan karne mein hi apni krutaarthata maankar apne paksh ki sthaapana tatha uske saadhan ke prayaas se virt rahata hai.

tatv nirnaya ke liye "vaad" tatha nirneet tatv ki raksha ke liye "jalp" aur vitanda ki upayogita maani jaati hai.

chhal, jaati aur nigrah sthaan

ye vishay bhi nyaayashaastr ke pramukh vishyon mein hain. prativaadi ke chhalapoorvak aakraman se apne paksh ki raksha ke liye chhal ka gyaan aavashyak hai. vaadi ke paksh ka khandan karne ke liye uske vachan mein uske anabhimt arth ki kalpana ko "chhal" kaha jaata hai. (nya. the. 1. 2. 10)

chhal ke teen bhed hote hain- vaakhal, saamaanyachhal aur upachaarachhal.

swayam "jaati" ke prayog se bachane ke liye tatha prativaadi dvaara "jaati" ka prayog hone par usaka asaduttaratv ghoshit karne ki kshamata praapt karne ke liye "jaati" ka gyaan aavashyak hai. vyaapti ke abhaav mein keval saadhamrya ya vaidharmya se vaadi ke paksh mein dosh-pradarshan karne ka naam "jaati" hai :

saadharmya vaidharmyaabhyaan pratyavasthaanan jaati; (nya.the. 1. 2. 18)

jaati ke chaubees bhed hain - saadharmyasama, vaidharmyasama, utkarshasama, apakarshasama, vanryasama, viklpasama, saadhyasama, praaptisma, apraaptism, prasangasama, pratidrushtaantasama, anutpattisma, sanshayasama, prakaranasama, ahetusama, arthaapattisma, avisheshasama, upalabdhisma, anupalabdhisma, nityasama, anityasama aur kaaryasama.

apne aapko nigrahasthaan mein padne se bachaane ke liye tatha prativaadi ke nigrahasthaan mein pahuainchane par vigrahasthaan ka nirdesh kar prativaadi ko nigruheet karne ki arhata praapt karne ke liye nigrahasthaan ka gyaan aavashyak hai. iske baais bhed hain- pratijnyaaahaani, pratijnyaaantar, pratijnyaaavirodh, pratijnyaaasannyaas, hetvantar, arthaantar, nirrthak, avijnyaaataarth, apaarthak, apraaptakaal, nyoon, adhik, punarukt, ananubhaashan, ajnyaaan, apratibha, vikshep, mataanujnyaa, paryanuyojyopekshan, nirnuyojyaanuyog, apasiddhaant aur hetvaabhaas.

chhal, jaati aur nigrahasthaan ke ukt bhedon ke lakshan aur udaaharan ki jaankaari ke liye nyaayadarshan ke pratham adhyaaya ke dviteeya aahrik tatha pancham adhyaaya aur unapar vaatsyaayan ke nyaayabhaashya ka avlokan karna chaahiye.

anya

aatma - jo davya chaitanya (gyaan) aashray hota hai, use aatma kaha jaata hai. uske do bhed hain- jeevaatma aur paramaatma.

paramaatma- paramaatma ka hi naam ishvar hai. vah ek aur vyaapak hai. gyaan, ichha aur prayatn uske vishesh gun hain aur ve sabhi nitya titha sarvavishyak hain. ishvar hi jeevon ke poorvaarjit shubh, ashubh karmon ke anusaar jagat ki rachana karta hai. srushti ke aarambh mein jeevon ke hitaarth vedon ka nirmaan karta hai. braahman, kshatriya, vaishya aur shoodr in chaar varnon tatha brahmacharya, gaarhasthya, vaanaprasth aur sannyaas in chaar aashramon ki vyavastha kar manushyon ko varnaashram dharm ki tatha anya prakaar ke vividh lokavyavahaar ki shiksha pradaan karta hai. vahi jagat ka srashta hone se brahma, paalak hone se vishnu tatha sanharta hone se rudr naam se vyavahrut hota hai. vah anumaan aur shaastr se gamya hai. kadaachit usaka pratyaksh bhi hota hai, par vah keval siddh yogi ko hi.

jeevaatma- jeevaatma ki sankhya anant hai. pratyek jeev vyaapak tatha gyaan, ichha, prayatn aadi vishesh gunon ka aashray aur un gunon ke saath man dvaara pratyaksh vedya hai. pratyek jeev shubhaashubh karmon ki punya paaparoop vaasana tatha vividh prakaar ke anubhavon ki vaasana dvaara anaadi kaal se baddh hota hai. Dave, daanav, yaksh, gandharv, manushya, pashu, pakshi, saaainp, bichhoo, keede, makode, lata, vanaspati aadi vividh char-achar yoniyon mein usaka janm hota rahata hai. ukt bandhan tatha tanmoolak du:khayantrana se use chhutakaara naheen milta jab tab use paramaatma auair svaatma ka tatvasaakshaatkaar naheen ho jaata.

moksh - nyaayashaastr mein ikkees prakaar ke du:kh maane gaye hain. ghraan rasana, chakshu, tvak, shrotr aur man ye chh: indriyaaain; gandh, ras, roop, sparsh, shabd aur raagadveshamohaatmak dosh ye chh: vishay; vishyendriyon ke sampark se hone vaale chh: vishyaanubhav, shareer sukh aur du:kh- inmein antim "du:kh" svabhaavat: dveshya hone ke kaaran mukhya du:kh hai, kintu sukh mukhya du:kh se anubiddh hone ke kaaran tatha anya unnees mukhya du:kh ke janak hone ke kaaran gaun du:kh hain- in ikkees prakaar ke du:khon se sarvada ke liye poorn roop se chhutakaara paane ka hi naam hai "moksh"hai

mokshasaadhan - saddharm ke anushthaan se "chitt ka shodhan" "padaarthon ka tatv gyaan" tatha "aatma ke vaastavik svaroop ka pratyaksh bodh" ye teen moksh ke saadhan hain. nitya, naimittik aur nishkaam karm ke shraddha evam niymapoorvak chir anushthaan se jab manushya apne chitt ka shodhan kar leta hai, sansaar ke vishyon se use virkti ho jaati hai, jiske falasvaroop use jagat ke padaarthon visheshat: paramaatma aur svaatma ki tatvajijnyaaasa hoti hai. us jijnyaaasa se prerit hokar vah sadguru ke charanon mein pahuainch, usase shaasr ka adhyayan kar pramaan,. prameya aadi solah padaarthon ka - jinka nyaaya - vaisheshik ke marmajnya vidvaanon ne dravya, gun, karm, saamaanya, vishesh, samavaaya aur abhaav in saat padaarthon mein antarbhaav kar liya hai - tatvajnyaaan arjit karta hai. anantar manan, nididhyaasan evam aadarapoorvak deerghakaalavyaapi avichhinn abhyaas se paramaatma ka alaukik maanas tatha visheshagunamukt aatma ka laukik maanas tatv saakshaatkaar praapt kar nyaaya darshan ke dviteeya sootr mein kahe gaye kram se pehle jeevanamukti praapt karta hai, arthaat jeevan kaal mein hi sab bandhanon se mukt ho jaata hai aur uske baad praarabdh karmon ka bhog dvaara avsaan ho jaane par vartamaan shareer se sambandh todkar videhamukti ko praapt karta hai. pun: kabhi kisi bhi roop mein usaka janm naheen hota aur vah ishvar ke samaan nitaant nirdu:kh ho apne nisrgasiddh shuddh shaashvat roop mein sada ke liye pratishthit ho jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain