nyaaya (bauddh)

bauddhanyaaya, avaidik bhaarateeya nyaaya ki shreni mein aata hai. (jainanyaaya bhi avaidik nyaaya hai.)

bauddhanyaaya chaar sanpradaayon mein vibhkt hai- vaibhaashik, sautraantik, yogaachaar aur maadhyamik. inmein pratham do heenayaan ke tatha antim do mahaayaan ke antargat hain. heenayaan ka sambandh sthavirvaadi sangh se aur mahaayaan ka sambandh mahaasaanghik sangh se hai. pehla sangh buddhavishyon ko parivrtanaarh tatha doosra sangh use aparirvanaarh maanata hai.

anukram

vaibhaashik

vaibhaashik nyaaya mein padaarth ke "vishyi" aur vishay ke roop mein do bhed maankar donon ka pruthak astitv maana gaya hai. "vishyi" mein roop, vedana, sanjnyaa, sanskaar aur vigyaan in paaainch skandhon ka; chakshu aadi chh: indriyon tatha roop aadi inke chh: vishyon, in baarah aayatanon ka tatha indriya, vishay aur vigyaan in teen dhaatuon ka samaavesh hota hai. "vishay" mein roopadharm, chittadharm, chaittadharm aur roopachittaviprayuktadharm in chaar "sanskrut" hetupratyayajanya dharmon ka samaavesh hota hai. is nyaaya mein jagat ko traidhaatuk, sanskrut tatha asanskrut dharmon ka samashti roop, satya, pratyakshavedya tatha kshanabhangur maankar "arhat" pad ki praapti aur du:khaabhaav roop nirvaan ko maanav jeevan ka charam lakshya maana gaya hai.

vaibhaashik nyaaya ki vishesh jaankaari ke liye kaatyaayaneeputr, vasubandhu, sthirmati, diङanaag, yashomitr tatha sanghabhadr aadi bauddh vidvaanon ke granthon ka avlokan karna chaahiye.

sautraantik

"sautraantik nyaaya" mein buddh ke sootraatmak vachanon ke yathaashrut arth ko vishesh mahatva diya jaata hai. iski padaarth kalpana vaibhaashik ke samaan hi hai, antar keval itna hai ki vaibhaashik nyaaya mein "jnyaeya" aur "gyaan" donon ko pratyaksh maana jaata hai aur sautraantik nyaaya mein gyaan ko pratyaksh tatha jnyaeya ko ateendriya evam jnyaaanaanumeya maana jaata hai.

sautaantrik nyaaya ka samuchit parichay praapt karne ke liye kumaaralaat, shreelaabh, dharmatraat, buddhadev aur yashomitr aadi bauddh panditon ke granthon ka anusheelan karna chaahiye.

yogaachaar

"yogaachaar nyaaya" mein "vijnyaaanavaad" ko daarshanik siddhaant ke roop mein sveekrut kiya gaya hai. vijnyaaanavaad ke anusaar "vigyaan" hi ekamaatr satya vastu hai. chitt, man aur vigyapti usi ke naam hai. vigyaan ke do bhed hain- pravruttivijnyaaan aur aalayavijnyaaan. sansaar ke samast vyavahaar pravruttivijnyaaan se sampann hote hain. "aham" aakaar ka gyaan aalayavijnyaaan hai. aalayavijnyaaan hi is nyaaya ke anusaar aatma hai. donon hi vigyaan svaprakaash evam kshanik hai. jagat ki koi svatantr satta naheen hai. vah vigyaan ka vivrt maatr hai. usaki satta keval vyaavahaarik hai. paramaarth satta keval vigyaan ki hi hai. is nyaaya ke anusaar aatmabhoot jnyaaanapravaah ko nitaant nirmal banaana hi manushya ka antim dhyeya hai.

yogaachaar nyaaya ko poornataya avagat karne ke liye maitreyanaath, asang, vasubandhu, sthirmati, diङanaag, shankar svaami, dharmapaal tatha dharmakeerti aadi bauddh maneeshiyon ke granthon ka adhyayan karna chaahiye.

maadhyamik

"maadhyamik nyaaya" ne "shoonyavaad" ko daarshanik siddhaant ke roop mein angeekrut kiya hai. iske anusaar jnyaeya aur gyaan donon hi kalpit hain. paaramaarthik tatv ekamaatr "shoonya" hi hai. "shoonya" saar, asat, sadasat aur sadasadvilkshan, in chaar kotiyon se alag hai. jagat is "shoonya" ka hi vivrt hai. vivrt ka mool hai sanvruti, jo avidya aur vaasana ke naam se bhi abhihit hoti hai. is mat ke anusaar karmakleshon ki nivrutti hone par manushya nirvaan praapt kar usi prakaar shaant ho jaata hai jaise tel aur batti samaapt hone par pradeep.

maadhyamik nyaaya ke vistrut aur vishd gyaan ke liye naagaarjun, aaryadev, buddhapaalit, bhaavavivek, chandrakeerti, shaantidev aur shaantirankshit aadi bauddh vipshchiton ke granthon ka parisheelan apekshit hai.

chaaron sanpradaayon ki kuchh samaan maanyataaeain

pramaan

bauddh nyaaya mein do pramaan maane gaye hain - pratyaksh aur anumaan. pratyaksh ke do bhed hain -nirviklpak aur saviklpak. unamein svalakshan vastumaatr ka graahak hone ke kaaran "nirviklpak" pratyaksh hi pramaan hai. "saviklpak jaati" aadi kalpit padaarthon ka graahak hone ke kaaran apramaan hi hai.

vyaapti

bauddh nyaaya mein vyaapti ka kshetr vaidik nyaaya ki apeksha seemit maana gaya hai. uske anusaar tadutpatti aur tatadaatmya hi vyaapti ke upajeevya hain. arthaat jin padaarthon mein paraspar kaaryakaaran bhaav ya taadaatmya hota hai, unheen mein vyaapya-vyaapak-bhaav hota hai.

nyaaya

bauddh nyaaya mein nyaaya (anumaanavaakya) ke do hi avayav maane gaye hain- udaaharan aur upanaya. is avayavadvayaatmak nyaaya se hi vishv ki kshanikta, vijnyaaanamaatrata, pudgalanairaatmya tatha dharmanairaatmya aadi ka saadhan kar sarvashoonyata siddhaat ki pratishtha ki gayi hai.

satta

bauddh nyaaya mein arthakriyaakaaritv ko ""satta"" ka lakshan maankar tatha sthir padaarth mein use asambhav kehkar bhaavaatmak padaarthon ko kshanik maana gaya hai.

saddhetu

bauddh nyaaya mein kisi hetu ko saddhetu hone ke liye teen anumaapak roopon se sampann hona aavashyak maana gaya hai. ve teen roop pakshasatv, sapakshasatv evam vipkshasatv hain. gautameeya nyaaya mein sveekrut "asatpratipkshatv" tatha "abaadhittv" ko anaavashyak kaha gaya hai.

hetvaabhaas

bauddh nyaaya mein vaisheshik ki bhaaainti teen hi hetvaabhaansaviruddh asiddh aur vyabhichaari- maane gaye hain.

katha

bauddh nyaaya mein bhi katha ke baad, jalp evam vitanda- bhedon ka varnan kiya jaata hai, kintu ant mein siddhaantat: vaadakatha ko hi graahya maankar jalp aur vitanda ko hep bataaya gaya hai. kathaaniroopan ke sandarbh mein chhal, jaati tatha nigrahasthaan ka pratipaadan aur vivechan kiya gaya hai. in vishyon ke sambandh mein bauddh nyaaya ke drushtikon ko uchit roop mein samajhne ke liye upaayahrudaya, pramaanasamuchchaya, nyaayavindu aur vaadanyaaya aadi granth drashtavya hain.

aaryasatya

bauddh nyaaya ke sabhi sanpradaayon mein chaar aaryasatya maane gaye hain - du:kh, du:khasamudaya, du:khanirodh aur du:khanirodh ka maarg. inmein du:khasamudaya ka arth hai - du:khakaaran. bhavachakr hi du:kh ka kaaran hai. usaka doosra saampradaayik naam hai - "prateetyasamutpaad". iska arth hai- "kisi chetan karta ki apeksha na kar kaaran ke svaabhaavik sannidhaan se kaarya ka utpann hona."

"bhavachakr" ke 12 ang hote hain.

1. avidya, 2. sanskaar, 3. vigyaan, 4. naamaroop, 5. aayatan 6. sparsh,

7. vedana, 8 trushna, 9. upaadaan, 10. bhav, 11. jaatijnm, 12. jaraamaran.

inmein pratham do poorvajanm se, madhya ke aath vartamaan janm se aur ant ke do bhaav janm se sambaddh hote hain. chauthe aaryasatya ko ashtaangayog ke yap mein varnit kiya gaya hai. unke naam hain- samyagjanm, samyaksankalp, samyagvachan, samyakkarmaant, samyagaajeev, samyagvyaayaam, samyaksmruti, tatha samyaksamaadhi. in yogaangon ke sevan se yathaarth prajnyaa ka aavirbhaav hota hai aur usase bhavachakr ka vinaash hokar moksh ki praapti hoti hai.

chaar bhaavanaaeain

mokshamaarg par aaroodh hone ke liye chaar bhaavanaaon ko aavashyak maana gaya hai. ve hain- sab kuchh du:khamaya hai, sab kshanik hai, sab svalakshan hai tatha sab shoonya hai. in bhaavanaaon ke abhyaas se saansaarik aasaakti ka kshaya hota hai aur uske falasvaroop manushya moksh maarg ka pathik ban apne charam lakshya nirvaan ki or agrasar hota hai.

trirtn

buddh, sangh aur dharm ye teen ratn maane jaate hain. in teenon ka aashrayan manushya ki sarvaavidh unnati visheshat: aadhyaatmik utthaan ka mool hai. buddh ke svaroop par chitt ko keindrit karne se manushya ke man mein vitrushnata aur sthirta aati hai, "sangh ke prabhaav se saadhak mein vishvaas aur utsaah ka udaya hota hai, dharm ke sevan se uske aatmik bal ki vruddhi hoti hai."

bauddh nyaaya maagadhi, paali aur sanskrut in teen bhaashaaon mein pallavit aur viksit hua hai. at: vikaasakram se unke vishd aur vistrut gyaan ke liye in teenon bhaashaaon ka adhyayan aavashyak hai.

inhein bhi dekhein