nyaaya

anukram

nyaaya-vishyak raajaneetik vichaar

yeh tay karna maanav-jaati ke liye hamesha se ek samasya raha hai ki nyaaya ka theek-theek arth kya hona chaahiye aur lagbhag sadaiv usaki vyaakhya samay ke sandarbh mein ki gayi hai. mote taur par usaka arth yeh raha hai ki achha kya hai isi ke anusaar isse sambandhit maanyata mein fer-badal hota raha hai. jaisa ki di.di. raifal ka mat hai-

'nyaaya dvimukh hai, jo ek saath alag-alag chehare dikhlaata hai. vah vaidhik bhi hai aur naitik bhi. usaka sambandh saamaajik vyavastha se hai aur usaka sarokaar jitna vyaktigat adhikaaron se hai utana hi samaaj ke adhikaaron se bhi hai.... vah roodhivaadi (ateet ki or abhimukh) hai, lekin saath hi sudhaaravaadi (bhavishya ki or abhimukh) bhi hai.'[1]

nyaaya ke arth ka nirnaya karne ka prayatn sabse pehle yoonaaniyon aur romanon ne kiya (yaani jahaaain tak paashchaatya raajaneetik chintan ka sambandh hai). yoonaani daarshanik afalaatoon (pleto) ne nyaaya ki paribhaasha karte hue use sadgun kaha, jiske saath sanyam, buddhimaani aur saahas ka sanyog hona chaahiye. unka kehna tha ki nyaaya apne karttavya par aaroodh rahane, arthaat samaaj mein jiska jo sthaan hai usaka bhali-bhaaainti nirvaah karne mein niheet hai (yahaaain hamein praacheen Bhaarat ke varn-dharm ka smaran ho aata hai). unka mat tha ki nyaaya vah sadgun hai jo anya sabhi sadgunon ke beech saamanjasya sthaapit karta hai. unke anusaar, nyaaya vah sadgun hai jo kisi bhi samaaj mein santulan laata hai ya usaka parirkshan karta hai. unke shishya arastoo (eristotal) ne nyaaya ke arth mein sanshodhan karte hue kaha ki nyaaya ka abhipraaya aavashyak roop se ek khaas star ki samaanata hai. yeh samaanata (1) vyavahaar ki samaanata tatha (2) aanupaatikta ya tulyata par aadhaarit ho sakti hai. unhonne aage kaha ki vyavahaar ki samaanata se 'yogyataanusaari (kamyootetiv) nyaaya' utpann hota hai aur aanupaatikta se 'vitranaatmak nyaaya' pratiflit hota hai. ismein nyaayaalayon tatha nyaayaadheeshon ka kaam yogyataanusaar nyaaya ka vitran hota hai aur vidhaayika ka kaam vitranaatmak nyaaya ka vitran hota hai. do vyaktiyon ke beech ke kaanooni vivaadon mein dand ki vyavastha yogyataanusaari nyaaya ke siddhaanton ke anusaar hona chaahiye, jismein nyaayapaalika ko samaanata ke madhyavarti bindu par pahuainchane ka prayatn karna chaahiye aur raajaneetik adhikaaron, sammaan, sampatti tatha vastuon ke aavantan mein vitranaatmak nyaaya ke siddhaanton par chalana chaahiye. iske saath hi kisi bhi samaaj mein vitranaatmak aur yogyataanusaari nyaaya ke beech taalamel baithaana aavashyak hai. falat: arastoo ne kisi bhi samaaj mein nyaaya ki avadhaarana ko ek parivrtanadharmi santulan ke roop mein dekha, jo sada ek hi sthiti mein naheen rah sakti.

romanon tatha stoikon (samabuddhivaadiyon) ne nyaaya ki ek kinchit bhinn kalpana viksit ki. unka maanana tha ki nyaaya kaanoonon aur prathaaon se nisrut naheen hota balki use tark-buddhi se hi praapt kiya ja sakta hai. nyaaya daivi hoga aur sabke liye samaan. samaaj ke kaanoonon ko in kaanoonon ke anuroop hona chaahiye; tabhi unka koi matlab hoga, anyatha naheen. maanav-nirmit kaanoon vaastav mein kaanoon ho, iske liye yeh aavashyak hai ki vah is kaanoon aur praakrutik nyaaya ki kalpana se mel khaae. is praakrutik nyaaya ki kalpana ka vikaas sarvapratham stoikon ne kiya tha aur baad mein use roman Catholic isaai paadariyon ne apna liya. is nyaaya ki drushti mein sabhi manushya samaan the. apni kruti insteechyoots mein jastiniyn tark-buddhi dvaara viksit ya praapt kaanoon tatha aam logon ke kaanoon ya aam kaanoon ke beech bhed kiya.

fir dharm-sudhaar aandolan, punarjaagaran aur audyogik kraanti tak Europe mein is kshetr mein kuchh khaas naheen hua. lauk, rooso aur can't - jaise vichaarakon ki drushti mein nyaaya ka matlab svatantrata, samaanata aur kaanoon ka mishran tha. praarambhik udaaravaadiyon ko saamantavaad, nirankush raajatantr aur jaatigt visheshaadhikaar anyaayapoorn aur isliye gair-kaanooni prateet hue. unki drushti mein svatantrata aur samaanata ke bina nyaaya ka koi matlab naheen tha. unneesaveen sadi ke poorv tak nyaaya ki yahi abhidhaarana prachalit rahi aur tab udaaravaadi aur samaajavaadi athva maarksavaad chintan-dhaaraaon ke beech asahamati ka udaya hua. beintham aur mil ke upayogitaavaadi (yootiliteriyn) siddhaant ka bolabaala hua. is siddhaant ke anusaar, jo-kuchh maanav-jaati ke sukh ya upayogita ki adhiktam vruddhi mein sahaayak tha vahi nyaaya tha. unka maanana tha ki samast pratibandhon ki anupasthiti mein sukh samaahit hain, lekin tab samaajavaadi aur maarksavaadi yeh daleel lekar saamane aae ki poonjeevaadi saanpattik sambandhon se utpann gareebi aur asamaanata ke atirek anyaayapoorn hain aur unka samarthan naheen kiya ja sakta. jahaaain tak udaaravaadi chintan-dhaaraaon ka sambandh hai, praarambhik klaasiki udaaravaadiyon ka nyaaya-vishyak drushtikon hi beesaveen sadi ke madhya tak udaaravaadiyon ka mukhya drushtikon tha. parantu keins ki kalpana ke kalyaanakaari raajyon ke udaya ke saath udaaravaadi parampara mein nyaaya ki ek nai abhidhaarana ka vikaas karna aavashyak ho gaya. us abhidhaarana ki shaayad sabse achhi vyaakhya rauls-krut A thiori of Justice (1971) mein hui hai. beesaveen sadi ke antim dashakon mein nav-udaaravaad (niyo-librelijm) tatha jise amereeka mein librateriyenijm arthaat ichhaasvaatantrayavaad ki sanjnyaa di gayi hai uske udaya ke saath udaaravaadi parampara mein nyaaya ka ek aur siddhaant udbhoot hua. daraasal dekhein to ichhaasvaatantrayavaad ka matlab (vaishveekaran tatha antarraashtreeya mukt baajaar ke hak mein daleel jutaane ke liye kiye gaye upayukt parivrtanon ke saath) mukt baajaar, nyoonatam raajya aur svatantrata tatha sampatti ke avikl adhikaaron ke himaayati praarambhik klaasiki udaaravaadiyon ki nyaaya ki abhidhaarana ki or lautana tha. yeh hai 'nyaaya ka hakadaari siddhaant' ('inataaitalameint thiori of Justice'), jise Robert naujik ne apni kruti 'enaarki, state end yootopiya' mein lokapriya banaaya.

sandarbh

  1. di.di. raifel, praublams of paulitikl filausafi, maikamiln, nai Delhi, 1977, pru. 165.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

  • lokataantrik adhikaar (nyaaya ko samarpit adhikaaron ke prati gair paaramparik vichaaron ki janajaagruti ka ek abhiyaan)