nukta

nukta devanaagari, guramukhi aur anya braahmi parivaar ki lipiyon mein kisi vyanjan akshar ke neeche lagaae jaane vaale bindu ko kehte hain. is se us akshar ka uchchaaran parivrtit hokar kisi anya vyanjan ka ho jaata hai. masalan 'j' ke neeche nukta lagaane se 'za' ban jaata hai aur 'd' ke neeche nukta lagaane se 'd' ban jaata hai. nukte aise vyanjanon ko banaane ke liye prayog hote hain jo pehle se mool lipi mein na hon, jaise ki 'dh' mool devanaagari varnamaala mein naheen tha aur na hi yeh sanskrut mein paaya jaata hai. arabi-faarasi lipi mein bhi aksharon mein nukton ka prayog hota hai, udaaharanaarth 'ر' ka uchchaaran 'r' hai jabki isi akshar mein nukta lagaakar 'ز' likhne se iska uchchaaran 'za' ho jaata hai.

mool roop se 'nukta' arabi bhaasha ka shabd hai aur iska matlab 'bindu' hota hai. saadhaaran hindi-urdoo mein iska arth 'bindu' hi hota hai.[1]

anukram

nukta vaale akshar

hindi mein prayog hone vaale nuktedaar akshar aur unke bina nukte vaale roop neeche ki taalika diye gaye hain. unke hanteriyn lipyantaran aur antarraashtreeya dhvanyaatmak varnamaala chinh bhi diye gaye hain. jahaaain upalabdh hai unke liye ek bajaai ja sakane vaale dhvani bhi di gayi hai.

nukta-rahit nukta-sahit
k k
/k/
k q
/q/
kh kh
/kʰ/
kh k͟aah
/x/
g g
/g/
g g͟aah
/ɣ/
j j
/dʒ/
za z
/z/
jh jh
/jʰ/
jh zh
/ʒ/
d
/ɖ/
d
/ɽ/
dh ḍah
/ɖaaʱ/
dh ṛah
/ɽaaʱ/
f ph
/pʰ/
f f
/f/

hindi mein nukte ke prayog ke vishay mein maanak

nukta lambe samay se hindi vidvaanon ke beech vimarsh ka vishay raha hai. kishoreedaas Vajpayee (hindi shabdaanushaasan, naagari prachaarini sabha) jaise vyaakaran ke vidvaan hindi lekhan mein nukta lagaane ke paksh mein naheen hain. unka kehna hai ki ye sab shabd ab hindi ke apne ho gaye hain aur hindi bhaashi in shabdon ka uchchaaran aise hi karte hain jaise unamein nukta naheen laga ho. bahut kam logon ko urdoo ke nukte vaale sahi uchchaaran ka gyaan hai.

keindreeya hindi nideshaalaya dvaara jaari maanak hindi vartani ke anusaar urdoo se aae arabi-faarasi moolak ve shabd jo hindi ke ang ban chuke hain aur jinki videshi dhvaniyon ka hindi dhvaniyon mein roopaantar ho chuka hai, hindi roop mein hi sveekaar kiye ja sakte hain. jaise :– kalam, kila, daag aadi (klam, kila, daag naheen). par jahaaain unka shud‍aadh videshi roop mein prayog abheesht ho athva uchchaaranagat bhed bataana aavash‍aayak ho (jaise urdoo kavita ko mool roop mein uddrut karte samay) , vahaaain unke hindi mein prachalit roopon mein yathaasthaan nuk‍aate lagaae jaaeain. jaise :– khaana : khaana, raaj : raaj, fan : haaifn aadi.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. A Dictionary Of Urdu, Classical Hindi And English, John T. Platts, pp. 1146, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-0-7661-9231-7, ... to mark (a letter) with (the diacritical) points ... A point, a dot ...

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