nuk‍aakad naatak

Pune ke ek park mein nukkad-naatak ka drushya

nuk‍aakad naatak ek aisi naatya vidha hai, jo paramparaagat rangamancheeya naatakon se bhin‍aan hai. yeh rangamanch par naheen khela jaata tatha aamtaur par iski rachana kisi ek lekhak dvaara naheen ki jaati, balki saamaajik paristhitiyon aur sandarbhon se upaje vishyon ko inke dvaara utha liya jaata hai. jaisa ki naam se jaahir hai ise kisi sadak, gali, chauraahe ya kisi sans‍aathaan ke gate athva kisi bhi saarvajanik s‍aathal par khela jaata hai. iski tulana sadak ke kinaare majama laga kar tamaasha dikhaane vaale madaari ke khel se bhi ki ja sakti hai. antar yeh hai ki yeh majama buddhijeeviyon dvaara kisi uddesh‍aaya ko saamane rakh kar lagaaya jaata hai.[1] Bhaarat mein aadhunik nukkad naatak ko lokapriya banaane ka shreya safdar Hashmi ko jaata hai. unke janm diwas 12 April ko deshbhar mein raashtreeya nukkad naatak diwas ke roop mein manaaya jaata hai.[2]

anukram

nukkad-naatak ka itihaas

yon to naatak aur rangamanch ki shuruaat hi khule mein hui arthaat nukkad hi vah pehla sthaan tha jo naatakon ke khelne mein istemaal hua. aadim yug mein sab log din bhar kaam se thak jaane ke baad manoranjan ke liye kahi khule mein ek ghera banaakar baith jaate the aur us ghere ke beechon-beech hi unka bhojan pakata rahata, Khan-paan hota aur vahi baad mein naachana-gaana hota. is prakaar shuroo se hi nukkad naatakon se jude teen zaroori tatvon ki upasthiti is prakriya mein bhi shaamil thi - pradarshan sthal ke roop mein ek ghera, darshakon aur abhinetaaon ka antarang sambandh aur seedhe-seedhe darshakon ki rojmarra ki jindgi se jude kathaanakon, ghatnaaon aur naatakon ka manchan.[3] madhyakaal mein sahi roop mein nukkad naatakon se milti-julati naatya-shaili ka janm aur vikaas Bhaarat ke vibhinn praanton, kshetron aur boliyon-bhaashaaon mein lok naatakon ke roop mein hua. usi ke samaantar pashchim mein bhi church athva dhaarmik naatakon ke roop mein England, France, Germany aur Spain aadi deshon mein aise naatakon ka prachalan shuroo hua jo baaibil ki ghatnaaon par aadhaarit hote the. aadhunik yug mein jis roop mein ham nukkad naatakon ko jaante hai, unka itihaas Bhaarat ke svaadheenata sangraam ke dauraan kaumi taraanon, prabhaat feriyon aur virodh ke julooson ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai.[4] isi ka ek vidhivt roop ipta jaisi sanstha ke janm ke roop mein saamane aaya, jab poore Bhaarat mein alag-alag kala maadhyamon ke log ek saath aakar mile aur kraantikaari geeton, naatakon va nrutyon ke manchanon aur pradarshanon se videshi shaasan evam satta ka virodh aarambh hua.

nukkad naatakon ke lokapriya vishay

jan saamaanya se judi samasyaaeain aur unka niraakaran nukkad naatakon ke lokapriya vishay hain. ye raajaneetik, saamaajik ya saaskrutik ho sakte hain. galat vyavastha ka virodh aur uske samaantar ek aadarsh vyavastha kya ho sakti hai - yahi vah sanrachana hai, jis par nukkad naatak ki dhuri tiki hui hai. kabhi vah kisse-kahaaniyon ka prachaar tha, kabhi dharm aur kabhi raajanaitik vichaaradhaara. kisi bhi yug aur kaal mein is tathya ko rekhaankit kar sakte hain. aaj badi-badi vyaavasaayik-vyaaparik companiyaan apne utpaadanon ke prachaar ke liye nukkad naatakon ka prayog kar rahi hain, sarkaari tantr apni neetiyon-nirdeshon ke prachaar ke liye nukkad naatak jaise maadhyam ka sahaara leta hai aur raajaneetik dal chunaav ke dinon mein apne dal ke prachaar-prasaar ke liye is vidha ki or aakarshit hote hain. aise mein nukkad naatakon ke bahuvidh roop aur rang dikhaai padte hai.

shaastreeya va saanskrutik sthiti

naatak ke kshetr mein nuk‍aakad naatak ko ek saanskrutik vidha ke roop mein sthaapit honein mein samay laga. aarambh mein saahit‍aaya aur naatakon ke vidvaanon ne nuk‍aakad naatak ko shaastreeya naatya-vidha ke roop mein s‍aaveekaar karne sankoch prakat kiya. ise lok-naatya ki shreni mein rakha gaya lekin pichhle teen dashakon ke dauraan nuk‍aakad naatak kaafi lokapriya hote chale gaye aur kai naamacheen naatakakaar aur rangakarmi isse jud gaye. sach to yeh hai ki nuk‍aakad naatakon ne paaramparik rangamancheeya naatakon ko bhi kaafi prabhaavit kar diya hai. naatya pras‍aatuti ka yeh roop janta se seedha samvaad s‍aathaapit karne mein sahaayata karta hai. ismein drush‍aaya parivartan naheen hota aur kalaakaar vibhin‍aan sanketon ke maadh‍aayam se iski soochana dete hain, jise darshak aasaani se samajh jaate hain. nuk‍aakad naatak aamtaur par behad sateek aur sankship‍aat hote hain k‍aayonki sadak ke kinaare s‍aavayan ruk kar naatak dekhne vaale darshakon ko j‍aayaada der tak baandhakar rakhana sambhav naheen hota. s‍aavargeeya safadar Hashmi ek vikh‍aayaat rangakarmi the, jin‍aahonne nuk‍aakad naatakon ko ek deshav‍aayaapi pehchaan dilaane mein sabse mahat‍aavapoorn bhoomika nibhaai. kuchh varsh poorv unki hat‍aaya kar di gayi thi. un‍aahonne nuk‍aakad naatakon ke maadh‍aayam se anek j‍aavalant muddon ko prabhaavi tareeke se aam janta ke saamane laane ka kaam bakhoobi kiya. nuk‍aakad naatakon ki lokapriyta aur unke vikaas ka pata is baat se chalta hai ki ab se koi teen dashak poorv 'jan naatya manch' ki naatak mandali dvaara khele gaye nuk‍aakad naatak 'aurat' ko hindi bhaashi kshetr mein kaafi kh‍aayaati mil chuki thi. 1980 i0 ke pehle hi is naatak ke saikadon pradarshan ho chuke the. kaalaantar mein iske hajaaron pradarshan hue aur padosi desh Sri Lanka, Bangladesh aur Pakistan mein bhi iski anek pras‍aatutiyaan huin.

aaj nukkad naatak lokapriyta ki us paraakaashtha par hai jahaaain filmein bhi apne prachaar ke liye nukkad naatak ka sahayog le rahi hain. Rajkumar santoshi ki film halla bol ke prachaar-prasaar ke liye vishesh rananeeti banaai gaye hai. is fil‍aam ko aam logon tak pahunchaane ke liye nuk‍aakad naatakon ka sahaara liya jaaega. yeh film prasiddh nukkad rangakarmi safdar Hashmi ke jeevan se prerit hai.[5]

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh