nirvaan

nirvaan ka shaabdik arth hai - 'bujha hua' (deepak agni, aadi). kintu bauddh, jain dharm aur vaidik dharm mein iske vishesh arth hain. shraman vichaaradhaara mein (sanskrut: nirvaan;paali : nibbaan;) peeda ya du:kh se mukti paane ki sthiti hai. paali mein "nibbaan" ka arth hai "mukti paana"- yaani, laalach, ghruna aur bhram ki agni se mukti.[1] yeh bauddh dharm ka param satya hai aur jain dharm ka mukhya siddhaant.

yadyapi 'mukti' ke arth mein nirvaan shabd ka prayog geeta, Bhagwat, raghuvansh, shaareerak bhaashya ityaadi nae-puraane granthon mein milta hai, tathaapi yeh shabd bauddhon ka paaribhaashik hai. saankhya, nyaaya, vaisheshik, yog, meemaansa (poorv) aur vedaant mein kramash: moksh, apavarg, ni:shreyas, mukti ya svargapraapti tatha kaivalya shabdon ka vyavahaar hua hai par bauddh darshan mein baraabar nirvaan shabd hi aaya hai aur usaki vishesh roop se vyaakhya ki gayi hai.

bauddh dharm ki do pradhaan shaakhaaeain hain—aaheenayaan (ya utt- reeya) aur mahaayaan (ya dakshini). inmein se heenayaan shaakha ke sab granth paali bhaasha mein hain aur bauddh dharm ke mool roop ka pratipaadan karte hain. mahaayaan shaakha kuchh peechhe ki hai aur uske sab granth saskrut mein likhe gaye hain. mahaayaan shaakha mein hi anek aachaaryon dvaara bauddh siddhaanton ka niroopan goodh tarkapranaali dvaara daarshanik drushti se hua hai. praacheen kaal mein vaidik aachaaryon ka jin bauddh aachaaryon se shaastraarth hota tha ve praay: mahaayaan shaakha ke the. at: nirvaan shabd se kya abhipraaya hai iska nirnaya unheen ke vachanon dvaara ho sakta hai. bodhistv naagaarjun ne maadhyamik sootr mein likha hai ki 'bhavasantati ka uchhed hi nirvaan hai', arthaat apne sanskaaron dvaara ham baar baar janm ke bandhan mein padte hain isse unke uchhed dvaara bhavabandhan ka naash ho sakta hai. ratnakootasootr mein buddh ka yeh vachan hai: raag, dvesh aur moh ke kshaya se nirvaan hota hai. bajrachhedika mein buddh ne kaha hai ki nirvaan anupadhi hai, usamein koi sanskaar naheen rah jaata. maadhyamik sootrakaar chandrakeerti ne nirvaan ke sambandh mein kaha hai ki sarvaprapanchanivrtak shoonyata ko hi nirvaan kehte hain. yeh shoonyata ya nirvaan kya hai ! na ise bhaav kah sakte hain, na abhaav. kyonki bhaav aur abhaav donon ke gyaan ke kshap ka hi naam to nirvaan hai, jo asti aur naasti donon bhaavon ke pare aur anirvachaneeya hai.

maadhavaachaarya ne bhi apne sarvadarshanasangrah mein shoonyata ka yahi abhipraaya batalaaya hai—'asti, naasti, ubhaya aur anubhaya is chatushkoti se vinimuainkti hi shoonyatv hai'. maadhyamik sootr mein naagaarjun ne kaha hai ki astitv (hai) aur naastitv (nahin hai) ka anubhav alpabuddhi hi karte hain. buddhimaan log in donon ka apashamaroop kalyaan praapt karte hain. upayukt vaakyon se spasht hai ki nirvaan shabd jis shoonyata ka bodhak hai usase chitt ka graahyagraahakasanbandh hi naheen hai. mai bhi mithya, sansaar bhi mithya. ek baat dhyaan dene ki hai ki bauddh daarshanik jeev ya aatma ki bhi prakrut satta naheen maanate. ve ek mahaashoonya ke atirikt aur kuchh naheen maanate.

anukram

bauddh dharm mein nirvaan

bauddh dharm

ki shreni ka hissa

Dharma Wheel.svg
bauddh dharm ka itihaas
· bauddh dharm ka kaalakram
· bauddh sanskruti
buniyaadi manobhaav
chaar aarya satya ·
aarya ashtaang maarg ·
nirvaan · trirtn · painchasheel
aham vyakti
shaakyamuni budh ·
Gautam buddh · bodhistv
kshetraanusaar bauddh dharm
dakshin-poorvi bauddh dharm
· cheeni bauddh dharm
· tibbati bauddh dharm ·
pashchimi bauddh dharm
bauddh saampradaaya
theraavaad · mahaayaan
· vajrayaan
bauddh saahitya
triptak · paali granth sangrah
· vinaya
· paali sootr · mahaayaan sootr
· abhidhrm · bauddh tantr

buddh ne nirvaan ko man ki us param shaanti ke roop mein varnit kiya jo trushna, krodh aur doosari vishaadakaari man:sthitiyon (klesh) se pare hai. aisa praani jisne jeevan mein shaanti ko pa liya hai, jiske man mein sabhi ke liye daya ho aur jisne sabhi ichhaaon aur bandhanon ka tyaag kar diya ho. yeh shaanti tabhi praapt hoti hai jab sabhi vartamaan ichhaaon ke kaaran samaapt ho jaaen aur bhavishya mein paida ho sakane waali ichhaaon ka jad se naash ho jaae. nirvaan mein trushna aur dvesh ke kaaran jad se samaapt ho jaate hain, jisse manushya sabhi prakaar ke kashton (paali-du:kh) ya sansaar mein punarjanm ke chakr se chhoot jaata hai.

paali ke siddhaanton mein nirvaan ke doosare drushtikon bhi hain; ek ke anusaar ye usi tarah hai jaise kisi bhi tathya mein riktataako dhoondhana. saath hi ise chetna ki sampoorn punarvyavastha aur chetan ki paratein kholne ki tarah bhi dikhaaya jaata hai.[2] vidvaan harabart geentar ka kehna hai ki nirvaan se "aadarsh vyaktitv, sachcha insaan" vaastavikta ban jaata hai.[3]

dhammapad mein buddh kehte hain ki nirvaan hi "param aanand" hai. yeh aanand chirsthaai aur sarvopari hoti hai jo jnyaaanodaya ya bodhi se praapt hone waali shaanti ka ek abhinn ang hai. yeh aanand nashvar vastuon ki khushi se ekdam alag hoti hai. nirvaan se juda hua gyaan bodhi shabd ke maadhyam se vyakt hota hai.

buddh nirvaan ki vyaakhya ko "sahaj" (asankhata) man ke roop mein karte hain. aisa man jo ichhaaon ke ant ke kaaran poorn spashtata aur subodhagamyata ki sthiti mein pahunch gaya hai. buddh ne iska varnan "mrutyuheenata" (paali: amata ya amaraavati)) tatha param aadhyaatmik gyaan, jo vah sahaj parinaam hai jo sadaachaari jeevan vyateet karne aur shreshth aath-sootreeya aadarsh path par chalne par milta hai ke roop mein kiya hai. aise jeevan se karm (sanskrut; paali mein kamm par niyantran utpann hota hai. isse sakaaraatmak parinaam ke saath poornaroop se karm ka sanchaar hota hai aur ant mein karm ki utpatti ki samaapti hone lagti hai jisse nibbaan ki praapti hoti hai. anyatha, praani sadaiv ke liye ichhaaon, aakaar, niraakaar ke nashvar kshetr mein peedit ho sadaiv bhatakata rahata hai, jise ekatrit roop se sansaar kehte hain.

pratyek mukt vyakti koi naya karm naheen karta, balki apne poorv karmon ki dharohar se upaje apne khaas vyaktitv ko bachaae rakhata hai. arahant ke bache hue jeevanakaal mein ek manovaigyaanik-shaareerik bhaag shesh rahata hai, isi se karm ka nirantar prabhaav dikhta hai.[4]

jabki nirvaan "sahaj" hai, yeh "akaaran" ya "svatantr" naheen hai.[5] praacheen shaastr bhi yahi darshaate hain ki vartamaan ya bhavishya ke kisi janm mein nibbaan paana karm par nirbhar karta hai aur ye poorv-nirdhaarit naheen hota.[6] saath hi, paali nikaayon ke anusaar moksh pehle se sthit ya sadaiv se rahi poornata ko pehchaanana naheen hai, balki use paana hai jise ab tak praapt naheen kiya ja saka ho.[7] paaramparik yogakaara mat bhi yahi kehta hai, buddhaghosh ka bhi yahi vichaar hai.[8]

inhein bhi dekhein: Dependent arising#Dependent arising of enlightenment

'nirvaan' ki vyutpatti

nirvaan shabd ni: (nir) aur vaan ki sandhi se bana hai. nir ka arth hai "alag hona, door hona ya uske bina" aur vaan (paali: vaati) ka arth hai "mukti" jaise "bahti hava" aur "soonghana, ityaadi".[7]

abhidhrm-mahaavibhaasha-shaastr, jo ek sarvastavaadi vichaar hai, mein is shabd ke sanskrut se utpann sabhi sambhaavit arthon ka varnan hai:

  • vaan, ka taatparya hai punarjanm ka path, + nir, ka taatparya hai chhodna ya "punarjanm ke path se door hona."
  • vaan, arthaat 'durgandh', + nir, arthaat "mukti": "peedaadaayak karm ki durgandh se mukti."
  • vaan, arthaat "ghane van", + nir, arthaat "chhutakaara paana"="paanch skandhon ke ghane van se sthaai mukti" (panch skandh), ya "moh, dvesh tatha maaya" (raag, dvesh, avidya) ya "astitv ke teen lakshanon" (asthaayitv, anitya, asantosh, du:kh, aatmaviheenata, anaatman) se mukti.
  • vaan, arthaat "bunana", + nir, arthaat "gaanth"="karm ke peedaadaayi dhaage ki gaanth se mukti."

vivran

sootron mein nirvaan ko kabhi bhi ek sthaan ke roop mein naheen maana gaya hai (jaise svarg ko ek sthaan maana jaata hai), balki ise sansaar ka hi virodhaabhaas (neeche padhein) maana gaya hai, jo vaastav mein ajnyaaanata ka paryaaya hai. (avidya, paali avijja). kaha gaya hai:

"nibbaan ka arth hai vah mukt man (chitt) jiska judaav samaapt ho chuka ho" (majjhima nikaaya 2-Att. 4.68).

nirvaan ka sateek arth hai- gyaan ki praapti- jo man (chitt) ki pehchaan ko khatm karke mool tathya se judaav paida karta hai. saiddhaantik taur par nibbaan ek aise man ko kaha jaata hai jo "na aa raha hai (bhaav) aur na ja raha hai (vibhaav)" aur usane shaashvatata ki sthiti ko praapt kar liya hai, jisse "mukti" (vimukti) milti hai.

sthirta, sheetalata aur shaanti bhi iske arth hain. nirvaan ki praapti ki tulana avidya (ajnyaaanata) ke ant se ki jaati hai. jisse us man:sthiti ki ichha (chetna) jaagrut hoti hai jo jeevan chakr (sansaar) se mukti dilaati hai. sansaar moolat: trushna aur ajnyaaanata ki upaj hai (dekhein aashrit utpatti). vyakti bina mrutyu ke bhi nirvaan ki praapti kar sakta hai. jab nirvaan praapt kar chuke vyakti ki mrutyu hoti hai, to us mrutyu ko moksh [[|parinirvāaaṇaaa]](paali: parinibbaan) kehte hain, kyonki vah jeevan-maran aur punarjanm (sansaar) ke aakhiri judaav se poorn roop se chhoot jaata hai aur usaka fir se janm naheen hota. bauddh dharm saansaarik astitv (paida hone aur marne aur kabhi apni khojan kar paane) ke ant ko param lakshya maanata hai aur yahi nirvaan ki praapti hai; aise vyakti ki mrutyu ke pashchaat kya hota hai,parinirvāaaṇaaa ye samajhaaya naheen ja sakta, kyonki ye anubhav manushya ki samajh ki seema se pare hai. kai prashnon ki ek shrrunkhala ke maadhyam se shariputt ne ek bhikshu se manavaaya ki tathaagat ko apne vartamaan jeevan mein bhi satya ya vaastavikta naheen maana ja sakta, aise mein arahant ki mrutyu ke pashchaat ki sthiti par atkalein lagaana sahi naheen hoga.[9] dekhein tathaagat#inaskrootebal

ek star ka gyaan praapt karne ke baad vyakti nirvaan ko maanasik chetna ki tarah anubhav karta hai.[10][11] kuchh dhaaranaaon ke anusaar agar nibbaan ke raaste par chala jaae to ye arahant ko gyaan praapti aur samaadhi ki or le jaata hai.[12] ant:karan ke vikaas se is sthiti par pahunchane par yadi yogi ko ye pata chalta hai ki ye sthiti banaavati hai aur isliye nashvar hai, to sabhi bandhan khatm ho jaate hain, vyakti arahant ban jaata hai aur nibbaan ki praapti hoti hai.[13]

utkrusht gyaan

man jaagruk hai; yeh chetan hai. nirvaan se chetna khulati hai aur man is asahaj vishv ke sabhi bandhanon se mukt hokar jaagaruk hota hai. buddh ne is baat ka kai tarah se varnan kiya hai. inmein se ek is prakaar hai:

chetna niraakaar hai, iska koi ant naheen hai aur ye sabhi taraf se tejasvi hai.[14][15]

ajaan pasanno aur ajaan amaaro (Ajahn Pasanno and Ajahn Amaro) likhte hain ki vigyaan (paali: vinyanyaaan) shabd chetan ki gunavatta ke sandarbh mein dekha jaata hai. unke mutaabik "vinyanyaaan" ko uske shaabdik arth se kaheen adhik samjha jaana chaahiye: "buddh ne apne samakaksh kai daarshanikon ki tarah vidya ke aadanbar aur paakhand ke bajaay ek bade daayare mein aam logon ki samajh mein aane waali bhaasha ka prayog kiya, jisse unka sandesh adhik se adhik samjha ja sake. isliye 'vinyanyaaan' ko yahaan par 'jaanane' ke arth mein liya ja sakta hai, lekin aanshik toota-foota, bhedabhaavaparak (vi-) jaanana (-gyaan) naheen, jo aamtaur par iska arth lagaaya jaata hai. balki iska arth hona chaahiye praarambhik aur utkrusht gyaan, naheen to jis sandarbh mein iski baat ho rahi hai, vahaan virodhaabhaas dikhaai dega." fir unhonne aage bataaya ki in shabdon ke chayan ke peechhe kya kaaran raha hoga.[16] ye "aprakat chetna" chhah indriyon ki chetna se bhinn hai, baaki chetanaaon ki ek "satah" hoti hai, jinki vajah se pratikriya utpann hoti hai.[14] Peter haarve ke anusaar praacheen granthon mein is mudde par do rai hai ki "chetan" shabd sateek hai ya naheen.[17] ek mukt vyakti iska sahaj roop se anubhav karta hai.[14][18]

ek vyaakhya ke anusaar, "prakaashavaan chetan" nirvaan ke samaan hai.[19][20] doosare isse sahamat naheen hai, unke anusaar ye nirvaan naheen hai, balki ye ek prakaar ki chetna hai jo keval arahantako hi praapt hoti hai.[21][22] majjhima nikaaya mein ise rikt sthaan ki tarah bataaya gaya hai.[23] mukt vyaktiyon ke liye nibbaan se judi hui prakaashavaan sahaj chetna, maanasik chetna ke dhyaan ki aavashyakta naheen hoti aur ye maanasik chetna ke sabhi bhaagon se utkrusht hoti hai.[10][13] yeh buddh poorv ke upanishdaaur bhagavadgeetaake aatmajnyaaan ki avadhaarana se poornat: bhinn hai, jo vyakti ki antarman ki chetna ko jagaane ki baat karte hain, jabki ismein is pahaloo par jor naheen diya gaya hai aur ismein kisi bhi tarah "sv" se bhramit naheen hona chaahiye. iske alaava, buddh ke chhathe dhyaanake anusaar, ye aseemit chetna ke kshetr mein utkrusht hota hai, jo swayam "main" ke mithyaabhimaan par samaapt naheen hota.[24]

naagaarjun ne bhi dignikaaya mein chetna ke star par do sthaanon par sanket diye hain.[25] unhonne likha hai:

saadhu ne ghoshana ki ki pruthvi, jal, agni aur vaayu, lamba, chhota, maheen aur kada, achha ityaadi sabhi chetna mein bujh jaate hain... yahaan lamba aur chhota, maheen aur sakht, achha aur bura ye sabhi naam aur roop samaapt ho jaate hain.[26]

isi se juda vichaar, jise paali siddhaant aur samakaaleen theravaad mein samarthan mila hai, jabki theravaad bhaashya aur abhidhmm mein iska ullekh naheen dikhta, ye kehta hai ki arahant ka man hi nibbaan hai.[27]

inhein bhi dekhein: Luminous mind

nirvaan aur sansaar

mahaayaanabauddh dharm mein, nirvaan aur sansaar ko jab dharmakaayaki param prakruti ke taur par dekha jaata hai, to ye donon pruthak-pruthak naheen hain. ek vyakti bauddh path se nirvaan ki praapti kar sakta hai. agar ye donon ekdam alag hote to aisa sambhav naheen hota. yaani nirvaan aur sansaar ka dvaitavaad paaramparik taur par hi sateek hai. is nishkarsh par pahunchane ka ek aur raasta yeh vishleshan hai ki sabhi tathya ek aavashyak pehchaan se rikt hote hain, isliye peeda kisi bhi paristhiti mein janmajaat naheen hoti. isliye du:kh aur uske kaaranon se mukti koi abhautik prakriya naheen hai. is vichaar ki aur vyaakhya ke liye dvistya siddhaant ko dekhein.

theravaadamat sansaar aur nibbaan ke beech paraspar virodhaabhaas ko darshaata hai, jahaan se mukti ki khoj shuroo hoti hai. saath hi, yahi virodhaabhaas param lakshya ki or bhi le jaata hai, jo vaastav mein sansaar mein utkrusht hona aur nibbaan ke raaste mukti ki praapti hai. theravaadakai maayanon mein mahaayaan mat se bhinn hai, jo khud bhi sansaar aur nirvaan ke dvaitavaad se shuroo hota hai, is dhruveekaran ko yeh sirf ek aaranbhik paath ke taur par naheen dikhaata hai, balki aage jaakar ye advaitavaad ke vruhad anubhav ki or le jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] paali sootr ke drushtikon se buddh aur arahant ki peedaaen aur thaharaav, yaani sansaar aur nibbaan pruthak-pruthak hain.

donon hi mat is baat par sahamat hai ki shaakya muni buddh isi sansaar mein rahate hue nirvaan ko praapt hue, kyonki unhein sabhi ne sansaar se mukt hote hue dekha tha.

paali siddhaant mein nirvaan ke path

vishuddhimaarg Ch. I, v. 6 (buddhaghoshÑaaāaaṇaaamoli, 1999, pp. 6–7), buddhaghosh ne nirvaan[28] ke path ke liye paali siddhaant mein kai vikalp dikhaae hain, jinmein shaamil hain:

  1. antaradrushti (vipssana) se hi (dekhein Dh.277)[29]
  2. gyaan evam samajh se (see deeech. (Dh.) 372)[30]
  3. karm, darshan aur saadhuta ke dvaara (dekhein emaen (MN) iii.262)sandarbh truti: <ref> taig ke liye samaapti </ref> taig naheen mila
  4. punya, chetna aur samajh (7esaen (SN) i.13)[31]
  5. punya, samajh, ekaagrata aur prayaas se (dekhein esaen (SN) i.53)[32]
  6. poorn man ki sthiti ke chaar stambh dvaara (satiptthaana sutt, ii.290 deeen (DN))[33]

kisi ke vishleshan ke aadhaar par, ye sabhi vikalp buddh ke bataae gunon, maanasik vikaas[34] aur gyaan ke teen sootreeya shiksha ko hi nae sire se dikhlaata hai.

nirvaan par mahaayaan drushtikon

nirvaan ko vishuddh, gair dvaitavaadi 'utkrusht man' ki tarah dikhaane ka vichaar mahaayaan/taantrik granthon mein bhi milta hai. sanput (Samputa), udaaharan ke liye, yeh varnan karta hai:

'vaasana aur bhaavanaatmak dosh se rikt, jis par dvaitavaadi drushtikon ke baadal na hon, aisa utkrusht man hi vaastav mein param nirvaan hai.'[35]

kuchh mahaayaan paranparaaon ke anusaar buddh ko mareechika (docetic prakaar) mein dekhte hain, jismein pratyaksh dikhne vaale ko nirvaan ki sthiti se oopar uthane ki tarah dikhaaya hai. professor etiyn lamote (Éaatienne Lamotte) ke anusaar, buddh hamesha aur har samay nirvaan mein rahate hain aur unka bhautik shareer aur dharati par roop vaastav mein chhadm hai. lamote buddh ke baare mein likhte hain: 'unka janm hua, vo sanbodhi ko praapt hue, unhonne dharm chakr ko chalaaya aur nirvaan ki praapti ki. haalaanki ye sab bhram hai: buddh ke praakatya mein aane, thaharane aur jaane ki avasthaaon ka lop hai; unke nirvaan ye darshaate hain ki vo hamesha aur har samay nirvaan ki sthiti mein rahate hain.'[36]

kuchh mahaayaan sootr aage jaakar nirvaan ki prakruti ki visheshataaen bataane ka prayatn karte hain. mahaayaan mahaaparinirvaan sootr, ke mukhya vishyon mein moolat: nirvaan ki seema ya dhaatu hi hai, ismein buddh chaar aavashyak ghatakon ki charcha karte hain jisse nirvaan ka nirmaan hota hai. jinmein se ek hai 'sv' (aatman), jise buddh ke sthaayi swayam ke roop mein vishleshit kiya jaata hai. mahaayaan ke aadhaar par nirvaan ko samajhaate hue William Edward soothilaur lui hodas kehte hain:

'nirvaan sootr ye daava karte hain ki praacheen vichaar jaise sthaayitv, paramaanand, vyaktitv, shuddhata hi utkrusht nirvaan ki or le jaate hain. mahaayaan ye ghoshana karta hai ki heenayaan, ye nakaarate hue ki utkrusht kshetr mein koi vyaktitv hi naheen hota, daraasal buddh ke astitv ko hi nakaarate hain. mahaayaan mein, antim nirvaan utkrusht hai aur ise paramaki sanjnyaa di gayi hai.'[37]

jab ye shaastr likha gaya, tab pehle se hi nirvaan aur buddh ke baare mein kaafi sakaaraatmak baatein kahi ja chuki theen.[38] bauddh dharm ke shuruaati vichaar ke anusaar, nirvaan ko sthaayitv, harsh aur shuddhata se darshaaya gaya hai. use "main hoon" ki mudra ka pratikaar karte hue dikhaaya gaya hai aur ye svabhraanti ki sabhi sambhaavnaaon se pare hai.[8][39] mahaaparinirvaan sootr, jo mahaayaan ka lamba aur vruhad shaastr hai[40], buddh ko gair-bauddh logon par vijay ke liye "swayam" ka prayog karte hue dikhaaya hai.[41] isi se aage kaha gaya hai: "buddh ki prakruti swayam ki naheen hai. samvedansheel praaniyon ke maargadarshan ke liye swayam ka prayog kiya gaya hai."[42]

isi se juda shaastr ratnagotr vibhaag, kehta hai ki tathaagatagarbh ki shikshaaen samvedansheel praaniyon ko jeetne ki drushti se aur "swayam se judaav" ko samaapt karne ke liye hai - gair bauddh shiksha ki paanch mein se ek kami. lankaavataar sootr mein yoroo vaing ne bhi aisi hi bhaasha ka prayog paaya hai, fir likhte hain: "ye dekhte hue ki ye sandarbh aavashyak hai. ye hamein is nishkarsh par pahunchane se rokega ki tathaagatagarbh ke vichaar se ye sirf ek paaralaukik kalpana bhar thi."[42] haalaanki, kuchh[kaun?] logon ne mahaaparinirvaan sootr se jude is nishkarsh par aapatti ki hai aur daava kiya hai ki buddh ne in panktiyon mein swayam ki vaastavikta par bal dete hue ghoshana ki hai ki vo hi swayam hain:

'kai kaaranon aur paristhitiyon ke chalte mainne bhi ye shiksha di ki swayam hi swayam se pare hai. jabki vaastav mein swayam hai, mainne ye sikhaaya ki koi swayam naheen hai lekin ismein kuchh galat bhi naheen hai. buddh-dhaatu sravayan rahit hai. jab tathaagat ye shiksha dete hain ki koi swayam naheen hai, to vo aisa anaadi ke kaaran karte hain. tathaagat swayam hain aur vo swayam naheen hone ki shiksha dete hain kyonki unhonne samprabhuta (aishvarya) ki praapti kar li hai.'[43]

nirvaan sootr mein buddh ne kaha hai ki ab vah ab tak gopaneeya rakhe gaye siddhaanton (nirvaan samet) ki shiksha deinge aur gair-swayam par unki pehle di gayi shiksha auchitya ke aadhaar par hi thi. Dr kosho yamamoto likhte hain:

'vah kehte hain ki gair-swayam jo unhonne pehle sikhaaya tha vo kuchh aur naheen balki us paripekshya mein auchitya bhar hai...unhonne ye bhi bataaya ki ab vo gopaneeya gyaan ke baare mein baat karne ke liye taiyaar hain. vyakti sire se ulat vichaaron ka bhi paalan karta hai. to ab vah nirvaan ke sakaaraatmak gunon ki baat kareinge, jo kuchh aur naheen balki shaashvat, harsh aur shuddh hi hain.'[44]

kuchh vidvaanon ke anusaar, tathaagatagarbh prakruti ke sootron mein jis bhaasha ka prayog kiya gaya hai unamein sakaaraatmak bhaasha mein aashrit utpatti se bauddh shiksha par jor dikhta hai jisse log bauddh dharm se door na hone lag jaaen aur is shiksha ko nihilijm (nihilism) ke samaan na samajh baithein. udaaharan ke liye, kuchh sootron mein gair-swayam ke poorn gyaan ko hi sachcha swayam kaha gaya hai; is path ke param lakshya ko fir kaafi sakaaraatmak bhaasha se samajhaaya gaya hai jo Bhaarat ke darshan shaastr mein upayog ki jaati rahi hai, lekin ab ise nai bauddh shabdaavali ka hissa bana liya gaya jisse us vyakti ke baare mein samajhaaya ja sake jisne bauddh path ko safalataapoorvak poorn kar liya ho.[45]

dau॰ yamamoto bataate hain ki nirvaan ka 'sakaaraatmak' chitran asal mein ek uchch koti ke nirvaan se juda hua hai - jise 'mahaanirvaan' kehte hain. nirvaan sootr ke 'bodhistv mahaan paramaatma raaja' paath ke baare mein baat karte hue yamamoto khud hi dharmagranth ka sahaara lete hain: 'nirvaan kya hai? ...ye kuchh isi prakaar hai ki bhookhe vyakti ko vo shaanti aur harsh mil jaae jaise uske pet mein kuchh bhojan chala gaya ho.' [46] yamamoto uddharan jaari rakhate hain, saath hi apni tippani bhi jodte hain:

"lekin, aise nirvaan ko "mahaanirvaan" naheen kaha ja sakta". aur vo [yaani buddh ke nirvaan ke sambandh mein nae rahasyoddhaatan] "maha swayam", "maha harsh" aur "maha shuddhata" par bhi chintan karte hain jo sabhi sanaatan ki tarah hi maha nirvaan ke chaar gun hain.'[47]

kuchh vidvaanon ke anusaar, "swayam" ki yahaan aur sambandhit sootron mein vyaakhya asal mein paryaapt swayam ka pratinidhitv naheen karti hai. daraasal, yeh ek sakaaraatmak bhaasha mein riktata ki abhivyakti hai aur bauddh prathaaon ke maadhyam se buddhatv ki praapti ka soochak hai. is drushtikon mein 'tathaagatagarbh'/buddh ki shiksha ka dhyeya mukti-shaastravaadi hai na ki saiddhaantik.[48]

baharahaal, ye vyaakhya vivaadaaspad hai. sabhi vidvaanon ka yeh mat naheen hai. nirvaan sootr aur sambandhit shaastron mein tathaagatagarbh siddhaant ke vividh gyaan par likhte hue, dau॰ Jamie habard kehte hain ki kis tarah kuchh viddhaan tathaagatagarbh mein param tatvavaad aur advaitavaad ki prakruti ki taraf jhukaav paate hain [vo prakruti jise Japani vidvaan maatsumoto ne gair-bauddh kehkar dandaneeya karaar diya]. dau॰ habard ki tippaniyaan:

'maatsumoto [ne paaya] ki behad sakaaraatmak bhaasha aur tathaagatagarbh shaastr mein gyaan ke prerak tareeke mein kai samaanataaen hain. saath hi unhein aatman/braahman parampara mein paryaapt advaitavaad dikha. jaahir hai, maatsumoto ne hi sirf is samaanata ka ullekh kiya hai, aisa naheen hai. udaaharan ke liye, taakaasaaki jikido jo tathaagatagarbh parampara ke prakaand vidvaan maane jaate hain, unhonne tathaagatagarbh aur mahaayaan ke siddhaaton mein advaitavaad ko dekha...obaramilr ne apne anuvaad mein advait param siddhaant ki dhaarana ko tathaagatagarbh parampara se jodkar dekha aur unhonne ratnagotr par tippani ki, jiska unhonne bade hi sateek tareeke se "bauddh advaitavaad ki niyam pustika" ke taur par naamakaran kiya...lamote aur frauvaulanar ne tathaagatagarbh siddhaant ko madhyamika se theek ulat bataaya aur unhonne use aatman/braahman ke advaitavaad se juda hua bataaya, jabki nagaao, seefort rauyag aur jaunastan (ratnagotr ke sampaadak) jaise kuchh logon ne sirf apne sandeh jaahir kiye aur kaha ki ye vedon ke samay ke baad ke advaitavaad se mel khaata hai. ek aur mat jiska pratinidhitv yaamaagoochi susumoo aur unke chhaatr ogaava ichijo karte hain, unhonne tathaagatagarbh ko vaidik vichaaron ke bina hi samajhne mein safalta pai aur unhonne use riktata aur kaaranatv ki bauddh parampara mein hi paaya jo kisi bhi tarah ke advaitavaad ko sire se nakaarate hain. jaahir hai, tathaagatagarbh aur bauddh parampara ki advaitavaad ya shaashvat prakruti se jude prashn jatil hain.[49]

dau॰ habard in shabdon ke saath tathaagatagarbh ke siddhaanton par apne shodh ka saar rakhate hain:

'tathaagatagarbh ka gyaan hamesha se hi bahas ka mudda hai, kyonki vah satya aur gyaan ke liye behad maulik sakaaraatmak drushtikon rakhata hai, vaastavikta ka varnan nakaaraatmak sandarbh mein naheen yaani jo usamein kami hai ya riktata hai uske sandarbh mein naheen (apofaitik ya nakaaraatmak varnan, jaisa parafekshan of visdam kaurpas aur maadhyamika parampara mein hai), balki sakaaraatmak varnan jaisa (kaitaafaitik varnan yaani ishvar ko param satya bataana, jo bhakti, taantrik, mahaaparinirvaan aur lotus sootr parampara aur paaramparik braahman pranaali ke advaitavaad mein bhi dikhta hai)'[50]

paul Williams ke anusaar, aatman/braahman vichaar ke advaitavaad mein ekaroopata samajhaai ja sakti hai. jab nirvaan sootr gair bauddh saadhuon ko jeetne ke liye apni shiksha saamane rakhe:

is samay bauddh dharm par hindu prabhaav ke baare mein bada rochak lagta hai. lekin sirf prabhaavon ki baat karna behad aasaan hai... ye kehte hue mahaaparinirvaan sootr khud hi ek prakaar se hindu prabhaav ki baat maanata hai, jab vo buddh ko 'swayam' ka istemaal karte hue gair-bauddh saadhuon ko jeetne ki baat karta hai. fir bhi, ye sochana galat hoga ki advait vedaant ke utkrusht swayam braahman is samay bauddh dharm ko prabhaavit karte hain. ye kaheen bhi spasht naheen hai ki swayam jiska mahaaparinirvaan sootr mein arth hai svayanrahit ki kaheen bhi advait braahman se tulana ki ja sakti hai aur vaise bhi ye tathaagatagarbh sootr gaud pad (satrahaveen shataabdi), jise hindu advait mat ka sansthaapak kaha jaata hai, usase bhi puraana hai.[38]

sootr ye bhi kehta hai ki buddh ki prakruti vaastav mein svarahit hai, lekin baatcheet ke aadhaar par ye swayam kahalaati hai.[51] isi sootr ke doosare khand mein, yeh kaha gaya hai ki teen tareeke hain, jinse vyakti kuchh "pa" sakta hai; poorv mein paana, vartamaan mein paana aur bhavishya mein paana. usamein kaha gaya hai ki "sabhi mein buddh ki prakruti hai" ka aashay hai ki sabhi bhavishya mein ja kar buddh ban jaaenge.[52]. haalaanki, dojan ne saaf kaha hai ki buddh ki prakruti kuchh sandarbhon mein vartamaan mein bhi maujood hai yahaan tak ki gair-bauddh mein bhi: asal mein vaastavikta ko vartamaan se tulana karna (athva "jo nirantar na ho") ise buddh prakruti se joda gaya, jismein ghaas, ped, man aur shareer sabhi ko shaamil kiya gaya. dojan ke liye kisi bhi vastu ko dekhna athva buddh ki prakruti ko dekhna hai. jabki chinul ka mat hai ki ye shareer mein soonghane aur dekhne ki kshamata ki tarah vidyamaan hai. mahatvapoorn lankaavataar sootr mein kaha gaya hai ki sabhi kaarya buddh ki prakruti ke kaaran hain, har karm ki niyti yahi kaaran aur jad hai.

jaisa ki oopar sujhaaya gaya hai Japani jen guru dojan ne buddh prakruti ki bilkul alag vyaakhya ki hai, jismein 'sampoorn svaroop' ko buddh prakruti ke taur par dekha jaata hai aur kuchh bhi (yahaan tak sthir vastuen bhi) isse alag naheen. buddh ki prakruti sirf 'buddh hone ki kshamata' bhar naheen hai, balki sansaar ki har vastu ki prakruti yahi hai. sabhi vastuen apne asthaayitv mein buddh prakruti ki tarah dekhi gayi hain[53] aur vo kisi buddh prakruti ke liye 'kshamata' ka pramaan naheen hai. dau॰ masaao aabe is samajh par likhte hain:

'... dojan ki samajh mein, buddh prakruti kisi kshamata ka pramaan naheen, vo koi beej naheen hai jo har samvedansheel vyakti ke paas ho. balki har samvedansheel vyakti, ya kahein har vastu, jeevit ya mrut asal mein buddh prakruti hi hai. ye koi kshamata naheen hai jo bhavishya mein roop dikhaaegi, har vastu ki mool prakruti yahi hai.[54]

dojan ne is tarah buddh prakruti aur 'samvedansheel vyaktiyon' ke vichaar ke daayare ko badhaate hue, lagbhag saari cheejon ko samet liya, vo saari cheejein jo jeevit hain, jinmein buddhi hai aur jo buddh prakruti hi hain. dau॰ masaao aabeisaki vyaakhya karte hain:

'... dojan ne na sirf buddh prakruti ke arth ka daayara badhaaya hai, balki samvedansheel vyaktiyon (shoojo) ko bhi vruhadata pradaan ki hai. " boosho (Bussho)" mein, "sampoorn vyaktitv hi buddh ki prakruti hai." ye kehne ke fauran baad vo kehte hain, "main sampoorn vyakti ki 'samvedansheel praaniyon' ki ikaai ko avibhaajya maanata hoon"... yaani dojan ne shoojo (samvedansheel praaniyon) ka daayara badha diya hai, jo paaramparik roop se keval jeevit ya sanvedashanasheel vyaktiyon ke liye upayog mein laaya jaata tha, ab ismein mrut aur asamvedansheel vastuen bhi shaamil hain. doosare shabdon mein, unhonne mrut vastuon mein jeevan dekar asamvedansheel vastuon mein bhaavanaaen dekar aur ant mein sabhi mein buddh aur buddh prakruti dene ki baat kahi hai.'[55].

uddharan

  • Gautam buddh:
    • "nirvaan hi param aanand hai." [DP (Dp) 204]
    • "jahaan kuchh bhi naheen hai, jahaan kuchh bhi samjha naheen ja sakta, jahaan ek taapoo ke alaava kuchh bhi naheen hai. use hi main nirvaan kehta hoon-- jahaan boodha hona aur marana vilupt ho jaata hai."
    • "jahaan, bhikshu hain, jo ajanme - jo kabhi hue bhi naheen - jinrhein kabhi banaaya bhi naheen gaya - na jinhein gadha gaya ho. agar vo aise jo ajanme - jo kabhi hue bhi naheen - jinrhein kabhi banaaya bhi naheen gaya - na jinhein gadha gaya ho, na hote to janm- hone- banane - gadhne se mukti ke baare mein socha naheen ja sakta. lekin, asal mein kyonki ek ajanma- bina hua- bina bana- bina gadha koi hai, iseeliye janme- hue - bane aur gadhe gaye ke baare mein socha ja sakta hai." [udaan VIII.3]
    • yeh kaha gaya: 'mukt man/ichha (chitt) jismein judaav naheen hai, usi ka arth nibbaan hai" [emaena2-eteeti. (MN2-Att.) 4.68]
    • "hone par hi vijay ka arth nirvaan hai; iska matlab hua ki paanch mool par vijay hi nirvaan hai." [esaen-eteeti. (SN-Att.) 2.123]
    • aggi vachhagott sutt mein buddh ne nibbaan ko aisi agni ko bujhaane wala bataaya hai jahaan se jeevika ke sabhi saadhan hata diye jaate hain: " gahan, vachh, is kriya ko dekhna, samajhna bahut mushkil hai, ye shaant hai, nirmal hai, iska anumaan lagaaya jaana naamumkin hai, sookshm hai aur keval buddhimaan hi iska anubhav karte hain."
    • "unhonne kaha ki vo aayaam jahaan na to pruthvi hai, na jal, na hi agni aur na hi hava hai, na antariksh ki anantata ke aayaam aur na hi chetna ki anantata ke aayaam aur na hi shoonyata ke aayaam aur na hi dhaarana aur na hi dhaarana naheen hone se jude aayaam; na to is duniya mein, na hi agali duniya mein, na hi sooraj aur na hi chaand. aur vahaan, main kehta hooain, na to koi aa raha hai aur na hi koi ja raha hai, na hi tandra; na to door jaana aur na hi utpann hona, jo niruddeshya ho, jiski koi neenv na ho aur na hi usako koi sahaara ho [kisi maanasik vastu ka]. yahi tanaav ka ant hai."
  • Gautam buddh ki saansaarik mrutyu ke theek baad kaha gaya, jab unka man (chitt) =parinirvāaaṇaaa=moksh ka saar hai:
    • [deeen (DN) 2.157] "na ab jeevan yaapan ke liye saans lene ki aavashyakta hai na baahar chhodne ki, yaani ab vahi hain (Gautam) jo man (chitt) se drudh hain, us mahaan saadhu ne sabhi ichhaaon par vijay praapt kar li hai aur sabko peechhe chhod diya hai. man (chitt) ke sabhi seemaaon se pare ho jaane ke baad ab unhein koi samvedna naheen hoti; aalaukik aur bandhanon se mukt (nibbaan), unka man (chitt) nishchaya hi (ahu) mukt hai."
  • sutt nipaat, tr. roon johaanasan:
    • accī yathā vāaatavegena khitto
      atthaṁ paleti na upeti sankhaṁ
      evaṁ muni nāaamakāaayā kimutto
      atthaṁ paleti na upeti sankhaṁ
    • atthan gatassa na pamāaaṇaaam atthi
      ynea naṁ vajju taṁ tassan atthi
      sabbesu dhammesu samūaahatesu
      samūaahatā vāaadapathāaapi sabbe
    • jis tarah tej hava ka jhonka lau ko bujha deta hai aur fir lau is prakaar shaant pad jaati hai jise paribhaashit naheen kiya ja sakta, isi tarah saadhu bhi naam aur shareer ke bandhan se mukt ho jaata hai aur aisi aaraam ki sthiti ko praapt karta hai jise paribhaashit naheen kiya ja sakta.
      vo jo vishraam ke liye chale gaye hain, aisa koi paimaana naheen hai jisse unka varnan kiya ja sake, vo in sab se pare hain. jab sab (dharm) chale gaye hain, to pehchaan ke sabhi lakshan bhi chale gaye hain.[56]
  • aadaraneeya sareeputt:
    • laalach, ghruna aur bhram ka naash hi nirvaan hai.

jain dharm mein nirvaan

jain dharm mein iska arth hai karm ke aakhiri bandhan khol dena. jab ek prabuddh maanav jaise ki ek arihant (jinhonne 4 prakaar ke ghaatiya karmon ko nasht kiya hai) ya teerthankar apne shesh aghaatiya karmon / aghatya karm ko nasht kar dete hain is tarah apne saansaarik astitv ko samaapt karte hain, tab is avastha ko nirvaan kaha jaata hai. takaneeki taur par, ek arihant ke shareer ko tyaag dene ko athva unke shareer ki mrutyu ko nirvaan kaha jaata hai, kyonki unhonne sansaar mein apne astitv ko samaapt karke mukti ko pa liya hai. moksh yaani, mukti ke baad nirvaan ki praapti hoti hai. nirvaan ki praapti ke baad ek arihant siddh ban jaate hain, ek mukt vyakti.

jain dharm mein nirvaan ka arth hai:

  1. ek arihant ke saansaarik astitv ki samaapti jo baad mein mukt ho jaata hai aur
  2. moksh (jain dharm)

teerthankar ke nirvaan ka jain granthon mein varnan

jain dharm ko maanane vaale deevaali ko 24vein teerthankar mahaaveer Bhagwan ke nirvaan kalyaanak diwas ke roop mein manaate hain. nirvaan diwas ko jainaagam mein 'nirvaan kalyaanak diwas ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya hai.

shvetaambar maanyata anusaar kalpasootr mein mahaaveer ke nirvaan par vistrut jaankaari hai.[57]

moksh ke roop mein nirvaan

shvetaambar maanyata anusaar uttaradhyaan sootr mein bataaya gaya hai ki kis tarah Gautam ne KC ko, jo paarshv ke shishya the, nirvaan ka arth samajhaaya.[58]

yeh bhi dekhein

tippani

  1. richrd gomabrich, theravaad buddhijm: a social history fraum enashiyent banaaras too maudarn Colombo (Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo). raautalej aur keegan paul, 1988, prushth 63: "nibbaan ka arth hai 'uda dena.' jise uda diya jaana chaahiye vo hai laalach, ghruna aur bhram ki teen guni agni. "
  2. Peter haarve, kaunshiysanes mistisijm in the diskors of the buddh (Consciousness mysticism in the discourses of the Buddha). kairel varnar ki, the yogi end the mistik; stadeej in Indian end kanpeyaretiv mistisijm (The Yogi and the Mystic; Studies in Indian and Comparative Mysticism)."raautalej, 1995, pej 82; books.google.com
  3. geentar, the praublam of the sol in arli buddhijm, kart velar veralag, kaunsataanj, 1949, pp. 156-157.
  4. steven kaulins, selfales parsans: imejari end thaut in theravaad buddhijm (Selfless Persons: Imagery and Thought in Theravada Buddhism). Cambridge university press, 1982, prushth 207.
  5. David kalupahaana, mulaamadhyamaakaakarika of naagaarjun (Mulamadhyamakakarika of Nagarjuna). Motilal banaaraseedaas, 2006, prushth 41.
  6. Peter haarve, "the selfales maaind" ("The Selfless Mind"). karjan press 1995, prushth 87.
  7. kaasheenaath upaadhyaaya, arli buddhijm end the bhagavadageeta (Early Buddhism and the Bhagavadgita). Motilal banaaraseedaas pablikeshans, 1998, prushth 352.
  8. a aa daan lusathaus, buddhist finaumenolauji (Buddhist Phenomenology). raautalej, 2002, prushth 126 aur not 7, prushth 154.
  9. yamak sutt, esaen (SN) 22.85.
  10. a aa thaaneessaro bhikkhoo ki brahm-nimantantika sutt par tippani, Access to Insight: Readings in Theravada Buddhism.
  11. udaaharan ke liye dhyaan sutt dekhein, Access to Insight: Readings in Theravada Buddhism.
  12. Peter haarve, kaunshiysanes mistisijm in the diskorsej of the buddh (Consciousness Mysticism in the Discourses of the Buddha). kairel varnar mein, ed., the yogi end the mistik (The Yogi and the Mystic). karjan press 1989, prushth 91.
  13. a aa Peter haarve, kaunshiysanes mistisijm in the diskorsej of the buddh (Consciousness Mysticism in the Discourses of the Buddha). kairel varnar mein, ed., the yogi end the mistik (The Yogi and the Mystic). karjan press 1989, prushth 93.
  14. a aa i thaneessaro bhikkhoo, Access to Insight: Readings in Theravada Buddhism.
  15. Peter haarve, kaunshiysanes mistisijm in the diskorsej of the buddh (Consciousness mysticism in the discourses of the Buddha). kairel varnar mein, the yogi end the mistik; stadeej in Indian end kanpeyaretiv mistisijm (The Yogi and the Mystic; Studies in Indian and Comparative Mysticism)."raautalej, 1995, prushth 82, [1]
  16. ajaan pasanno aur ajaan amaaro (Ajahn Pasanno and Ajahn Amaro), the aayalaind: N entholauji of the buddhaaj teechings on nibbaan (The Island: An Anthology of the Buddha's Teachings on Nibbāana), pej 131.[2] par online upalabdh.
  17. Peter haarve, kaunshiysanes mistisijm in the diskorsej of the buddh (Consciousness mysticism in the discourses of the Buddha).kairel varnar mein, ed., the yogi end the mistik (The Yogi and the Mystic).karjan press 1989, pej 87, 90.
  18. thaneessaro bhikkhoo ki brahm-nimantantika sutt par tippani, Access to Insight: Readings in Theravada Buddhism.
  19. thaneessaro bhikkhoo, Access to Insight: Readings in Theravada Buddhism, Access to Insight: Readings in Theravada Buddhism.
  20. Peter haarve, the selfales maaind (The Selfless Mind) bhi dekhein.
  21. ajaan brahmaali,[3] .
  22. roopart gethin haarve ke kuchh tarkon par asahamati jataate hain; [4]
  23. Peter haarve, kaunshiysanes mistisijm in the diskorsej of the buddh (Consciousness Mysticism in the Discourses of the Buddha). kairel varnar mein, ed., the yogi end the mistik (The Yogi and the Mystic). karjan press 1989, prushth 88. pankti hai emaen (MN) I, 127-128.
  24. kaasheenaath upaadhyaaya, arli buddhijm end the bhagavadageeta (Early Buddhism and the Bhagavadgita) Motilal banaaraseedaas pablikeshans, 1998, prushth 354-356. [5]
  25. dekhein, Access to Insight: Readings in Theravada Buddhism, DN 11
  26. krischiyn lindanar, master of visdam (Master of Wisdom). dharma pablishing, 1997, prushth 322. lindanar ka kehna hai ki naagaarjun deeen (DN) ka sandarbh dete hain.
  27. Peter haarve, kaunshiysanes mistisijm in the diskorsej of the buddh (Consciousness Mysticism in the Discourses of the Buddha). kairel varnar mein, ed., the yogi end the mistik (The Yogi and the Mystic). karjan press 1989, prushth 100.
  28. neeche sandarbhit kai sutt mein aur buddhaghosh ne bhi kabhi seedhe taur par nirvaan ka sandarbh naheen liya balki "shuddhi ke maarg" (paali: vishuddhimgg) ki baat ki. vishuddhimgg, Ch. I, v. 5, buddhaghosh ne kaha: "yahaan, vishuddhikran ko nibbaan samajhna chaahiye, jis par koi daag naheen hote aur jo behad pavitra hota hai" (buddhaghosh aur Ñaaāaaṇaaamoli, 1999, p. 6).
  29. dekhein Access to Insight: Readings in Theravada Buddhism, Buddharakkhita (1996a). paramata-manjoosha (vishuddhimaarg vyaakhya), vv. 9-10, mein "keval antaradrushti se hi" ke vikalp par ye chetaavani di gayi hai:
    'keval antaradrushti se hi' shabdon ka arth hai sabko chhodna, punya naheen ityaadi, lekin shaantachittata (yaani dhyaan), ... [jaisa parilkshit hota hai] jode mein, shaantachittata aur antaradrushti... 'keval' shabd asal mein mahaj vishishtata ke saath dhyaan ko chhodna hai [dhyaan ka samaavesh]; kyonki dhyaan ko donon shreniyon, abhigm [ya kshanik] aur samaavesh mein dekha jaata hai.... agar in panktiyon ko un logon ke liye ek seekh ki tarah dekhein jo antaradrushti ka raasta apnaate hain to iska arth ye naheen hai ki dhyaan hai hi naheen; kyonki bina kshanik dhyaan ke antaradrushti aa hi naheen sakti. aur fir, antaradrushti ko asthaayitv, peeda aur swayam naheen [tilkkhana dekhein] ke abhipraaya mein samjha jaana chaahiye; na ki keval asthaayitv ke pariprekshya mein (buddhaghosh & Ñaaāaaṇaaamoli, 1999, p. 750, n . 3).
  30. dekhein, Access to Insight: Readings in Theravada Buddhism, Buddharakkhita (1996b).
  31. esaen (SN) i.13 ne vishuddhimgg vyaakhya ke aadhaar par jo vikalp sujhaaya hai. yeh vishuddhimgg ka pehla anuchhed hi hai jo kehta hai:
    1. jab koi buddhimaan vyakti, jo punya mein achhi tarah maanya ho,
      chetna aur samajh viksit karta hai,
      tab ek dooradarshi aur utsaahi bhikkhoo ki tarah
      vah is ulajhan ko sulajhaane mein safal hota hai. buddhaghosh aur Ñaaāaaṇaaamoli 1999, p. 1) vishuddhimgg mein, Ch. I, padya 2, buddhaghosh tippani karte hain hai ki is ulajhan ka arth hai "trushna ka jaal." padya 7 mein, buddhaghosh kehte hain ki chetna aur samajh viksit karne ka matlab hai "ekaagrata aur antardrushti donon viksit hona." buddhaghosh aur Ñaaāaaṇaaamoli 1999, pp. 1, 7)
  32. buddhaghosh aur Ñaaāaaṇaaamoli (1999), prushth. 7, esaen (SN) i.53 ko is prakaar anuvaad karein:
    vah jo hamesha punya mein laga hai,
    jismein samajh hai aur dhyaan mein hai,
    jo utsaah se paripoorn aur parishrami bhi hai,
    jo kathin se kathin baadh se bhi paar pa sakta hai.
  33. dekhein Thanissaro (2000). is sootr ki 290veen pankti ko thanissaaro ne is roop mein anuvaad kiya hai:
    pavitra aatma ne kaha: "ye shuddheekaran ka seedha path hai, du:kh aur vilaap se ubarane ka raasta hai, kasht aur vyatha ki samaapti ka, sahi path ki praapti ka aur
    bandhan kholne ke anubhooti ka — doosare shabdon mein sandarbh ke chaar stambh....
  34. nikaayon mein maanasik vikaas ka aamtaur par arth hai dhyaan avashoshan ki praapti hona, haalaanki jaisa ki oopar "keval antardrushti" ke sandarbh mein kaha gaya hai; kuchh paripekshya mein ise poorn avashoshan ke bina "shuruaati" ya "kshanik" dhyaan ke liye bhi upayog kiya ja sakta hai.
  35. taakapo taashi naamagyaal, mahaamudra shanbhaala (Mahamudra Shambhala), Boston aur London, 1986, p.219
  36. professor etiyn lamote, tr. saara boin-web, suramagamasamaadhisootr (Suramgamasamadhisutra), karjan, London, 1998, p.4
  37. William Edward soothil, luis hodas, a dikshanari of chaaineej buddhist tarms (A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms), Motilal banaaraseedaas, Delhi, 1997, p. 328
  38. a aa paul Williams, mahaayaan buddhijm: the dauktraainal faaundeshans (Mahāayāana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations).Taylor aur Francis, 1989, prushth 100.
  39. Peter haarve, the selfales maaind (The Selfless Mind). karjan press, 1995, prushth 53
  40. paul Williams, mahaayaan buddhijm: the dauktrinl foundation Mahāayāana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations Taylor end Francis, 1989, prushth 98, 99 pej bhi dekhein
  41. paul Williams, mahaayaan buddhijm: dauktrinl foundation (Mahāayāana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations) Taylor end Francis, 1989, prushth 100. "... buddh ko "sv" shabd ka prayog gair bauddh saadhuon ko jeetne ke liye karte dikhaaya gaya hai."
  42. a aa yoroo vaing, lingvistik straitejeej in daaoist juaangaji end chaan buddhijm: the adar ve of speeking (Linguistic Strategies in Daoist Zhuangzi and Chan Buddhism: The Other Way of Speaking) Routledge, 2003, prushth 58.
  43. kosho yamamoto, 3 khand, vaulyoom-3, prushth 660, mahaayaan mahaaparinirvaan sootr, karinbunko, ube city, Japan, 1975
  44. dau॰ kosho yamamoto, mahaayaanijm: A kritikl eksapojishn of the mahaayaan mahaaparinirvaan sootr (Mahayanism: A Critical Exposition of the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra) karibunko, ube city, Japan, 1975, pap. 141, 142
  45. saili bi King, the drauktraain of buddh-nechar ij inpekaibili buddhist. (Sallie B. King, The Doctrine of Buddha-Nature is impeccably Buddhist)[6] prushth 1-6.
  46. yamamoto, mahaayaanijm (Mahayanism) prushth- 165
  47. yamamoto, mahaayaanijm (Mahayanism) ibid
  48. heing-ching shi, "The Significance Of 'Tathagatagarbha' -- A Positive Expression Of 'Sunyata.'" jen (ZEN) computer sistams par
  49. dau॰ Jamie habard, ebsolyoot delyoojan, parafekt buddhahud (Absolute Delusion, Perfect Buddhahood), university of havaai press, honolooloo, 2001, pp. 99-100
  50. dau॰ Jamie habard, op. cit., pp. 120-121
  51. paul Williams, mahaayaan buddhijm: the dauktraainal faaundeshans (Mahāayāana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations). Taylor aur Francis, 1989, prushth 99. "yahaan buddh-prakruti vaastav mein sv naheen hai, par bolne ke tareeke mein yeh sv ho sakta hai."
  52. heing-ching shi, "The Significance Of 'Tathagatagarbha', A Positive Expression Of 'Sunyata'"., jen (ZEN) computer sistams par
  53. masaao aabe ki a stadi of daujan: his filosaufi end rilijn (A Study of Dogen: His Philosophy and Religion), sanpaadan - steven hiyen, suni (SUNY) albaani, 1992, p. 57
  54. masaao aabe ki a stadi of daujan: his filosaufi end rilijn (A Study of Dogen: His Philosophy and Religion), sanpaadan - steven hiyen, suni (SUNY), albaani, 1992, p. 42
  55. masaao aabe ki a stadi of daujan: his filosaufi end rilijn (A Study of Dogen: His Philosophy and Religion), sanpaadan - steven hiyen, suni (SUNY), albaani, 1992, p. 54
  56. buddh ke bujhi hui lau ke roopak ko ved ke sandarbh mein naheen liya jaana chaahiye jahaan agni amar hai, ya fir aadhunik sandarbh mein bhi naheen, jahaan bujhi hui agni ka astitv hi samaapt ho jaata hai. iske vipreet vo ek aisi sthiti ka varnan karte hain jo hone aur naheen hone se jude sabhi prashnon se pare hai. dekhein Access to Insight: Readings in Theravada Buddhism.
  57. Jacobi, Hermann; Ed. F. Max Müaller (1884). Kalpa Sutra, Jain Sutras Part I, Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 22. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. http://www.sacred-texts.com/jai/sbe22/index.htm.
  58. Jacobi, Hermann; Ed. F. Max Müaller (1895). Uttaradhyayana Sutra, Jain Sutras Part II, Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 45. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. http://www.sacred-texts.com/jai/sbe45/index.htm.

^ kaavaamoora (Kawamura), bauddh dharm mein bodhistv siddhaant, vilfrid lauriyr university press, 1981, pp. 11.

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