nirvaachan pranaaliyaaain

vishv ke vibhinn deshon ke nichle sadan ke pratinidhiyon ke chunaav ki pranaaliyaaain
bahumat pranaali █a█ pehli baar mein hi sarvaadhik matapraapt vyakti ki vijay █a█ dviteeya gupt matadaan █a█ vaikalpik mat █a█ mota bahumat (pluraaliti-ait-laarj) █a█ 'general ticket' ardh-aanupaatik pranaali █a█ ekal ahastaantaraneeya mat █a█ sanbhoot matadaan (kyoomooletiv vote) █a█ Scrutin binominal aanupaatik pranaali █a█ aanupaatik plureenaumial █a█ ekal hastaantaraneeya mat mishrit pranaali

pratinidhiyon ke chunaav ke anek tareeke ho sakte hain. laatari ke ticket nikaal kar bina samajhe boojhe pratinidhiyon ka chunaav kar lena to ek aisa tareeka hai jiski lokatantr mein koi gunjaaish naheen hai. doosare tareeke saamaanyat: nirvaachan ki matadaan pranaali par hi aadhrut hain,. yadyapi ye tareeke bhi poornat: nirdosh hi hon yeh aavashyak naheen; padapraapti ke ichhuk pratyaashi praaya: matadaataaon ko ghoom dekar athva daraaghamakaar kar jorajabardasti se unka mat praapt kar lete hain. vibhinn prakaar ke alpasankhyak varg uchit pratinidhitv se vanchit rah jaate hain. raajaneetik tatha anya prakaar ke dal kabhi kabhi chunaav ke liye kisi ayogya ummeedavaar ko khada kar dete hain. aisi haalat mein us dal ke logon ko chaahe-anachaahe usi ko apna mat dena padta hai. in doshon ko door athva kam karne aur matadaan ko svatantr evam nishpaksh banaane ke liye samay-samay par nirvaachan ki vibhinn pranaaliyon ka vikaas kiya gaya hai.

anukram

bhoomika

yoonaani nagar-raajya pratyaksh lokatantr ka udaaharan tha. raajya ki vimrshakaarini sanstha (pratinidhi sabha) mein pratyek naagrik swayam apna pratinidhi hota tha. aadhunik vishaalakaaya raashtrik-raajya mein pratyaksh lokatantr vyavahaarya naheen hai. aadhunik raajya ki janasankhya nagararaajya ki apeksha bahut adhik badi hoti hai, at: unki aabaadiyon ki paraspar koi tulana naheen ho sakti. yadi aadhunik raajya ki pratyek naagrik swayam apna pratinidhitv karne lage to vimrshamoolak vidhaan sabha avyavastha aur kolaahal ka sthal ban kar rah jaaegi; usamein na to kisi prakaar ka vichaaravimrsh ho sakega aur na kisi kaarya ka sanchaalan hi sambhav hoga. raajya ka shaasan yantr sheegra hi thap pad jaaega. isliye aajkal pratinidhik lokatantr chalta hain. ab raajya ke naagrik (praja) vidhaanamandal ke liye apne pratinidhiyon ka chunaav saamoohik roop se karte hain. kuchh deshon ke naagrik to isi tarah kaaryapaalika (egjeekyootiv) evam nyaayapaalika naagrik to isi tarah kaaryapaalika (egjeekyootiv) ev nyaayapaalika (joodeeshiyri) ke liye bhi apne pratinidhi chunate hain. ye pratinidhi hi unki aur se aur unke hit mein raajya ka sanchaalan karte hain.

nirvaachan pranaali ke ang

kisi bhi nirvaachan pranaali ke vastut: paaainch ang hote hain :

(1) nirvaachanakshetron ke nirdhaaran se sanbanddh niyam;

(2) matadaataaon ki arhata se sanbanddh niyam;

(3) ummeedavaaron ki arhata aur manonayan sambandhi niyam

(4) matadaan ki vidhi aur matapatr ganana sambandhi niyam; aur

(5) nirvaachan sambandhi vivaadon ke nibtaare ke liye kisi na kisi tarah ki vyavastha kintu prachalit bhaasha mein nivchin pranaali ko uparyukt keval chauthe ang tak hi seemit maana jaata hai, at: yahaaain isi ang par vichaar kiya jaaega.

sarvaadhik matapraapt vyakti ki vijay (first paast the post)

"first paast the post" (sarvaadhik matapraapt vyakti ki vijay) pranaali sabse praacheen hai. yeh pranaali Britain mein terahaveen shataabdi se hi prachalit rahi hai. raashtramandal ke deshon aur America mein matadaan ki yahi sarvasaamaanya pranaali hai. Bhaarat mein Loksabha evam vidhaan sabhaaon ke chunaavon mein isi pranaali ka prayog kiya jaata hai. ise "saral bahutamat pranaali" bhi kehte hain. jis ummeedavaar ko sabse adhik mat praapt hote hain vahi chun liya jaata hai.

yeh pranaali saamaanyat: ek sadasyeeya nirvaachan kshetr pranaali se sambaddh hoti hai. is pranaali ki aalochna mein teen baatein kahi jaati hain. pehli yeh ki iske antargat sarvaadhik mat praapt karne wala ummeedavaar nirvaachit ho jaata hai, bhale hi nirvaachak mandal ke kaafi bade samudaaya ne uske viruddh mat diye hon. alpasankhyak samudaaya dvaara nirvaachit hone par bhi vah viruddh mat rakhane vaale bahusankhyak samudaaya ka bhi pratinidhi ban jaata hai. Bhaarat ke 1952 ke pratham nirvaachan mein anek vijayi ummeedavaaron ke maamale mein yahi hua tha. doosari baat yeh hai ki yeh pranaali Britain ke samaan dvidleeya parampara ke hi anukool hoti hai kintu usase durbal aur alpasankhyak dalon ka safaaya ho jaata hain. usamein vibhinn prakaar ke alpasankhyak samudaayon ko paryaapt pratinidhitv hi naheen mil paata. teesari baat yeh hai ki yeh pranaali praaya: matadaataaon ke aise samudaayon ko jinhein thoda hi adhik bahumat praapt hai, sadan mein bahut badha chadhaakar dikhaane mein sahaayak ban jaati hai. sampoorn matadaan ke anupaat mein kisi dal ko milne vaale kul maton dvaara us dal ke jitne sadasya nyaayat: chune jaane chaahiye usase kaheen adhik chun liye ja sakte hain. 1952 ke Bhaarat ke pratham aam chunaav mein yahi hua tha.

kuchh raajaneetik vichaarakon evam raajanetaaon ne yeh sujhaav diya hai ki jis dal ki sanmati se sarkaar chalne waali ho use kam se kam kul matadaataaon ki bahusankhya ka samarthan to praapt hona hi chaahiye. isi lakshya ko dhyaan mein rakhakar nirvaachan pranaali mein kuchh sudhaar sujhaaye gaye hai. punaraavartit gupt matadaan-pranaali in sudhaaron mein se ek hai. sabse saral tareeka vah hai jiska prayog vidhaan sabhaaon dvaara kiye jaane vaale chunaav mein udaaharanaarth, America ke daleeya sammelan dvaara raashtrapati evam uparaashtrapati pad ke liye khade hone vaale ummeedavaaron ke chunaav mein, kiya jaata hai. shalaaka paddhati dvaara gupt matadaanon ki shrunkhala tab tak chalti rahati hai jab tak koi ummeedavaar pade hue samast maton mein se ekaantat: sarvaadhik mat praapt naheen kar leta.

'sarvaadhik matapraapt vyakti ki vijay ki pranaali' praaya: sadaiv hi sabse bade dalon ke hi anukool aur durbal evam alpasankhyak dalon ke pratikool hoti hai. aanuyaatik pratinidhitv ka sahaara liye bina hi is pravrutti ko door karne ke liye kuchh tareeke sujhaae gaye hain kintu in saari pranaaliyon ke prayog ke liye bahusadasyeeya nirvaachak kshetr apekshit hote hain.

dviteeya gupt matadaan

iske antargat pratham gupt matadaan mein koi ummeedavaar tabhi chuna ja sakta hai jab vah pade hue samast maton me se ekaantata sarvaadhik mat praapt kar le. aisa sambhav na hone par naamavaapasi ke liye kuchh samay diya jaata hai. France mein iske liye ek saptaah ya pandrah din ka samay diya jaata tha. iske baad doosra gupt matadaan hota hai. is matadaan mein jis ummeedavaar ko sarvaadhik mat praapt hote hain vah vijayi ho jaata hai. is tarah chunaav ka parinaam atant: sarvaadhak mat praapt vyakti ki vijay ki paddhati (first paast the post system), (arthaat dviteeya matadaan s sanpusht pratham parinaam ki paddhati) se hi nishchit hota hai. France ke truteeya ganatantr ke samay yahi pranaali vyavahrut hoti thi. spashtat: Bhaarat mein vidhaan sabha ke nirvaachan jaise bade paimaane par hone vaale chunaavon mein is pranaali ka prayog naheen kiya ja sakta.

vaikalpik mat

pratyek nirvaachak ummeedavaaron ke naamon ke saamane matapatr par 1, 2, 3, aadi ank likhkar apni vareeyata ke kram ka sanket kar deta hai. pratham vareeyataaon ki ganana pehle kar li jaati hai. yadi is ganana mein do se adhik ummeedavaar aaye to jis ummeedavaar ko pratham vareeyata ke mat nyoonatam mile hote hain usaka naam chunaav pratiyogita se hata diya jaata hai. iske baad matadaataaon ki dviteeya vareeyataaon ko bache hue upayukt ummeedavaar ya ummeedavaaron mein baaaint diya jaata hai. is prakaar nirsan aur kramik vareeyataaon ke antaran ki prakriya tab tak chalti rahati hai jab tak koi ummeedavaar pade hue kul maton mein se sarvaadhik mat praapt naheen kar leta.

kintu jaisa ki punaraavartit gupt matadaan ya dviteeya gupt matadaan pranaali mein hota hai utpann hone waali pratyek nayi sthiti ke sambandh mein vichaar vimarsh ke liye samay lete hue baar-baar vote dena ek baat hai aur ek aise chayan parinaam ke sambandh mein jise pehle se theekatheek naheen jaana ja sakta matapatr par ank likh kar ek kaalpanik nirnaya vyakt kar dena bilkul doosari baat hai. ismein poora sandeh bana rah jaata hai ki koi matadaata antim pratiyogita mein pratyaksh chayan ki sthiti aane par bhi isi tarah "k" ke mukaabale mein "kh" ko hi vareeyata deta.

is pranaali ko bareeyataamoolak mat pranaali bhi kehte hain. ise sambhavat: sarvapratham 1770 mein chevaliyr di borda ne prastaavit kiya tha. 1930 mein livral party ne Britain mein ise sarvaadhik roop mein sveekaar kar lene ka aagrah kiya tha. Australia mein bhi kuchh sangheeya evam raajyeeya chunaavon mein iska prayog kiya jaata hai.

ekal ahastaantaraneeya mat

iski saralatam vidhi yeh hai ki pratyek nirvaachak ko keval ek hi matapatr diya jaata hai. maan lijiye ki kisi nirvaachan kshetr ko chaar sadasya chunane hain aur kul 12 hajaar matadaata vote dete hain. aisi sthiti mein yadi kisi ummeedavaar ko 2401 matadaataaon ka samarthan praapt ho gaya to usaki vijay nishchit hai. vijay dilaane waali sankhya ka pata is sootr se laga liya jaata hai-

1+ { pade hue mat / (chune jaane vaale padon ki sankhya + 1) }

is sootr ka aavishkaar drup ne kiya tha isliye ise drup kota kehte hain. vyavahaar mein sthiti yeh hai ki drupakota se kam mat praapt karne wala ummeedavaar bhi chun liya ja sakta hai.

Japan mein yeh pranaali 1900 se hi prayog mein aa rahi hain.

seemit matadaan

ise 1831 mein pred ne prastaavit kiya tha. Britain mein 1867 mein sudhaar adhiniyam (rifaarm aikt) ke banane ke baad kuchh samay tak iska prayog hua tha, tab ukt adhiniyam dvaara bade nagaron mein kai trisdasyeeya nirvaachak kshetr bana diye gaye the. pratyek matadaata ko teen jagahon ke liye keval do vote diye gaye the. is pranaali ka vyaavahaarik prabhaav yeh pada tha ki pratinidhitv ko vibhaajit kar dene ke liye paartiyon mein saudebaji hone lagi aur aise ummeedavaar chhatane lage, jinki vijay ki koi sambhaavana naheen thi.

sanbhoot matadaan (kyoomooletiv vote)

yeh pranaali 1953 mein prakaash mein aayi. ismein matadaata ko chunaav kshetr mein jitni jagahein hoti hain utane vote de diye jaate hain aur use iski svatantrata hoti hai ki vah chaahe to apne saare voton ko kisi ek ummeedavaar ke paksh mein daal de athva apni ichhaanusaar anya ummeedavaaron ko baaaint de. is pranaali mein matadaataaon ko adhik mahatva praapt ho jaata hai.

kabhi kabhi alpasankhyakon ka pratinidhitv pruthak nirvaachan pranaali dvaara praapt kiya jaata hai. angreji shaasanakaal mein Bhaarat mein yahi kiya gaya tha. musalmaan log hinduon se alag apne pratinidhi chunate the. yeh bhi ho sakta hai. ki alpasankhyakon ke liye kuchh jagahein surakshit kar di jaaain jaisa ki Bhaarat mein parignit jaatiyon evam kabeelo ke liye kiya gaya hai.

aanupaatak pratinidhitv

sarvaadhik mat praapt vyakti ki vijay pranaali ka anusaran saamaanyat: ek sadasyeeya nirvaachan kshetr mein hi hota hai jab ki aanupaatik pratinidhitv pranaali ke liye bahu sadasyeeya nirvaachan kshetr apekshit hote hain. ek hi jagah aanupaatik roop mein vibhaajit naheen ki ja sakti. kisi nirvaachanakshetr mein pratyek ummeedavaar ke liye athva ummeedavaaron ko khada karne waali party ke liye pade vote ke anupaat mein hi jagahein nirdhaarit ki jaati hain.

aanupaatak pratinidhitv mukhyat: do prakaar ke hote hain :

  • (1) ekal hastaantaraneeya vote aur
  • (2) soochi pranaali.

in donon prakaar ke bhi anek roop hote hain. inhein ek doosare se bhi mila diya ja sakta hai athva "fasrt paast the post pranaali mein bhi inka mishran kiya ja sakta hai."

ekal hastaantaraneeya vote

is pranaali ka aavishkaar Europe mein aadhunik daleeya sanghatan ke vikaas ke poorv hi ho chuka tha. 19veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein hi saarvabhaum mataadhikaar ki maang joron se hone lagi thi. is maang ka pratirodh naheen kiya ja sakta tha. kintu raajaneta "bahusankhyakon ke atyaachaar" ke prati sanshak the. ve alpasankhyakon ki tatha unke hiton ki raksha karna chaahate the. isi uddeshya se 1857 mein udaaradaleeya denish raajaneetijnya si. ji. aandraas aur London ke bairistar taamas her ne is pranaali ka aavishkaar kiya. is pranaali ko khyaati mili kyonki british udaarataavaad ke bauddhik neta John stuart mil ne is pranaali ko sveekaar kar liya aur 1861 mein prakaashit apne prasiddh granth "riprejeintetiv gavarnameint" (praatinidhik shaasan) mein ispar vichaar kiya.

is pranaali ke antargat chaahe jitni bhi seatein ho matadaata ko keval ek hi vote praapt hota hai. vah ummeedavaar ke naam ke aage 1, 2, 3, 4 aadi ank likhkar vibhinn ummeedavaaron ke prati apni vareeyata ka sanket karta hua apna vote de sakta hai. ise ek udaaharan se spasht kar dena theek hoga. maan leejiye ki ek chaar sadasyon wala nirvaachanakshetr hai. ismein kul 12 hajaar vote pade. drup kota ke anusaar jise kam se kam 2401 pratham vareeyataaon ke vote praapt ho jaaain usaka nirvaachit ho jaana nishchit hai. ab maan leejiye ki maidaan mein 9 ummeedavaar hain aur inmein se keval do ko hi drup kota se adhik mat milte hain- ek ko 2451 aur doosare ko 2481; bache hue vote shesh ummeedavaaron mein baint jaate hain. pratham ganana mein ukt donon ummeedavaar nirvaachit ghoshit kar diye jaate hain. iske baad doosari ganana hogi. dviteeya ganana mein nyoonatam vote praapt karanevaale ummeedavaar ko maidaan se hata diya ja sakta hai aur nirast pratyaashi ki dviteeya vareeyataaeain tatha donon vijayi pratyaashiyon ke atirikt matapatr shesh ummeedavaaron ko hastaantanrit kiye ja sakte hain. doosra tareeka yeh hai ki unke sabhi matadaataaon ki dviteeya vareeyataaeain dekh li jaaain, shesh ummeedavaaron mein se pratyek ko praapt kul vote gin liye jaaain aur pratyek ko mile kul vote ka bhaag de diya jaae. (atirikt vote shr vijayi ummeedavaar ko mile kul vote) is prakaar donon ummeedavaaron mein se jise bhi drup kota mil jaae use nirvaachit ghoshit kar diya jaae. voton ki ganana isi tarah tab tak chalti jaaegi jab tak sabhi seaton ke liye drup kota praapt karne vaale ummeedavaar na mil jaaain.

iska uddeshya pratyek vote ko ek moolya pradaan karna hai.

Ireland aur tasamaaniya ke ganatantron mein mukhya praatinidhik sabha ke chunaavon ke liye isi pranaali ka upayog kiya gaya hai. Australia aur new South-Wales ke dviteeya sadanon (second chainbars) ke chunaav mein bhi iska upayog hota hai. Bhaarat mein bhi vidhaan parishdon (uchch sadanon) ke sadasyon ke chunaav mein yahi pranaali apanaayi jaati hai.

soochi pranaali

aanupaartik pratinidhitv ka yeh doosra prakaar hai. iske antargat pratyek matadaata se kaha jaata hai ki vah vyaktigat ummeedavaaron mein chunaav na karke ummeedavaaron ki un soochiyon mein chunaav kare jo vibhinn dalon ya sanghatanon dvaara prastut ki gayi hain.

Belgium mein 1899 mein yahi tareeka apnaaya gaya tha. Holland denmaark, naarvein, sveedan, Finland, France, pashchimi Germany aur Italy mein bhi yahi tareeka prachalit hai.

is pranaali ke vibhinn roop hote hain. yahaaain do pramukh roopon par vichaar kiya ja raha hai. inmein se ek ko "sarvochch ausat dvaara aanupaatik pratinidhitv" kehte hain. belajiym ke di" haant ne iska udbhaavan kiya tha, iseeliye ise di, haant ka niyam bhi kehte hain.

seaton ka batavaara ek-ek karke hota hai. yadi kisi ummeedavaar ko sambandhit seat mil gayi to pratyek seat ke liye praapt sarvaadhik ausat matapatr paanevaala pratyek ummeedavaar soochi mein sthaan pa jaata hai. is parinaam ko praapt karne ka sootr yeh hai ki pratyek vinidhaan ke avsar par pratyek soochi ke kul aaranbhik vote tab tak praapt seaton ki sankhya se ek adhik dvaara vibhkt kar diye jaate hain. pratham vinidhaan (bantavaara) ke samay pratyek soochi ke liye vibhaajak, hota hai. aur isi kaaran soochiyon ke aaranbhik vote hi ausat hote hain. dviteeya vinidhaan ke samay vijayi soochi ka vibhaajak 2 hoga jab ki shesh ka vibhaajak 1 hi rah jaata hai. isi tarah teesare aur chauthe vinidhaan ke samay bhi seaton ka baintavaara kiya jaata hai.

doosari vidhi "mahattam shesh" dvaara aanupaatik pratinidhitv kehte hain. ismein nirvaachanalabdhi ka hisaab pade hue kul voton ki sankhya ko niyat seaton ki sankhya se vibhaajit karke laga liya jaata hai. fir pratyek soochi ko utane hi sthaan de diye jaate hain jitni baar ukt labdh sankhya pratyek soochi mein aayi hoti hai. yadi iske baad bhi kuchh seatein bach jaati hon to unka vinidhaan pratyek soochi ke aanrabhik voton se un voton ko, jinka labdhi dvaara kisi ek ya anek seaton ko praapt karne mein vah upayog kar chuki hai, nikaalkar bache hue voton ki sankhya ke vistaar ke anusaar aanukramik gati se kar diya jaata hai.

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