nirukt

nirukt mein paryaayavaachi shabdon ki soochi - is bhaag ko nighntu kehte hain . iske anya adhyaayon mein anekaarthi shabd, shabd udgam aur shabdamoolon ka samaas aadi likha hai

nirukt vaidik saahitya ke shabd-vyutpatti (etymology) ka vivechan hai . yeh hindu dharm ke chh: vedaangon mein se ek hai - iska arth: vyaakhya, vyutpatti sambandhi vyaakhya. ismein mukhyat: vedon mein aaye hue shabdon ki puraani vyutpatti ka vivechan hai. nirukt mein shabdon ke arth nikaalne ke liye chhote-chhote sootr diye hue hain. iske saath hi ismein kathin evam kam prayukt vaidik shabdon ka sankalan (glossary) bhi hai. paramparaagat roop se sanskrut ke praacheen vaiyaakaran (grammarian) yaask ko iska janak maana jaata hai.

rigvedabhaashya bhoomika mein saayan ne kaha hai arthaavabodhe nirpekshataya padajaatan yatroktan tanniruktam arthaat arth ki jaankaari ki drushti se svatantraroop se jahaaain padon ka sangrah kiya jaata hai vahi nirukt hai. vaidik shabdon ke durooh arth ko spasht karna hi nirukt ka prayojan hai. shiksha prabhrutti chhah vedaangon mein nirukt ki ganana hai. paanini shiksha mein "nirukt shrotramuchayate" is vaakya se nirukt ko ved ka kaan batalaaya hai. yadyapi is shiksha mein nirukt ka kramapraapt chaturth sthaan hai tathaapi upayog ki drushti se evam aabhyantar tatha baahya visheshataaon ke kaaran vedon mein yeh pratham sthaan rakhata hai. nirukt ki jaankaari ke bina bhed ved ke durgam arth ka gyaan sambhav naheen hai.

kaashikaavrutti ke anusaar nirookt paaainch prakaar ka hota hai— varnaagam (akshar badhaana) varnavipryaya (aksharon ko aage peechhe karna), varnaadhikaar (aksharon ko vadalana), naash (aksharon ko chhodna) aur dhaatu ke kisi ek arth ko sidb karna.

anukram

nirukt ki teekaaeain

vartamaan upalabdh nirukt, nighantu ki vyaakhya (commentary) hai aur vah yaask rachit hai. yaask ka yogadaan itna mahaan hai ki unhein niruktakaar ya niruktakrut ("Maker of Nirukta") evam niruktavat ("Author of Nirukta") bhi kaha jaata hai. yaask ne apne nirukt mein poorvavarti niruktakaar ke roop mein aupamanyav, autunbaraayan, vaashryaamani; gaagrya, aagraayan, shaakapooni aurnanaabh, teteeki, gaalav, sthaulaashtheevi, kaunshtuki aur kaatthakya ke naam uddhrut kiye hain (tathaapi unke granth ab praapt naheen hai). isse siddh hai ki 12 niruktakaaron ko yaask jaante the. 13vein niruktakaar swayam yaask hain. 14vaaain niruktakaar atharvaparishishton mein se 48vein parishisht ka rachayita hai. yeh parishisht nirukt nighantu svaroop hai.

iski visheshataaon se aakrusht hokar anek vidvaanon ne is par teeka likhi hai. is samay upalabdh teekaaon mein skandasvaami ki teeka sabse praacheen hai. shuklayajurvedeeya shatapath braahman ke bhaashya mein harisvaami ne skandasvaami ko apna guru kaha hai. devaraaj yajva dvaara rachit ek vyaakhya ka prakaashan gurumandal granthamaala, Calcutta se 1952 mein hua hai. granth ke praarambh mein inhonne ek vistrut bhoomika likhi hai. nirukt par vyaakhya roop ek vrutti durgaachaarya rachit upalabdh hai. inhonne apni vrutti mein nirukt ke praaya: sabhi shabdon ka vivchan kiya hai. iska prakaashan aanandaashram sanskrut granthamaala, poona se 1926 mein aur khemaraaj shreekrushnadaas, Mumbai se 1982 vai., mein hua hai.

satyavrat saamashrami ne is vishay par lekhanakaarya kiya hai. iska prakaashan biblaothika, Calcutta se 1911 mein hua hai. pro॰ raajavaade ka is vishay par mahatvapoorn kaarya nirukt ka maraathi anuvaad hai jo 1935 mein prakaashit hai. dau॰ siddheshvar varma ka yaask nirvachan naamak granth vishveshvaraanand vaidik shodh sansthaan, hoshayaarapur se 1953 mein prakaashit hai. ispar kukund jha bakhshi ki sanskrut teeka nirnayasaagar press, Mumbai se 1930 mein prakaashit hai. ispar mihirchandr pushkarana ne ek teeka likhi hai jo purushaarth pustakamaala kaaryaalaya, amrutasar se 1945 mein prakaashit hai.

nirukt ki sanrachana

nirukt ke teen kaand hain - is granth ke samast adhyaayon ki sankhya 12 hai.

  1. naighantuk kaand,
  2. naigam kaand, aur
  3. daivat kaand

iske sivaaya parishisht ke roop mein antim do adhyaaya aur bhi saath mein sanlagn hain. is prakaar kul 14 adhyaaya hain. in adhyaayon mein praarambh se dviteeya adhyaaya ke pratham paad paryant upodghaat varnit hai. ismein nighantu ka lakshan, pad ka prakaar, bhaav ka vikaar, shabdon ka dhaatuj siddhaant, nirukt ka prayojan aur etatsanbandhi anya aavashyak niyamon ke aadhaar pari vistaar ke saath vivechan kiya gaya hai. is samast bhaag ka naighantuk kaand kehte hain. isi ka 'poorvashatk' naamaantar hai. chauthe adhyaaya mein ekapadi aakhyaan ka sundar vivechan kiya gaya hai. ise naigamakaand kehte hain. antim chhah adhyaayon mein devataaon ka varnan kiya gaya hai. ise daivat kaand batalaaya hai. iske anantar devastuti ke aadhaar par aatmatatvon ka upadesh kiya gaya hai.

nirukt ke baarah adhyaaya hai. pratham mein vyaakaran aur shabdashaastr par sookshm vichaar hain. itne praacheen kaal mein shabdashaastr par aisa goodh vichaar aur kaheen naheen dekha jaata. shabdashaastr par anek mat prachalit the iska pata yaask ke nirookt se lagta hai. kuchh logon ka mat tha ki sabhi shabd dhaatumoolak hain aur dhaatu kriyaapad maatr hain jinmein pratyaya aadi lagaakar bhinn shabd bante haiain. yaask ne isi mat ka khandan kiya hai. is mat ke virodhiyon ka kehna tha ki kuchh shabd dhaaturup kriyaapadon se bante hai par sab naheen, kyonki yadi 'ansh' se ashv maana jaaya to pratyek chalne ya aage badhnevaala padaarth ashv kahalaaega. yaask muni ne iske uttar mein kaha hai ki jab ek kriya se ek padaarth ka naam pad jaata hai tab vahi kriya karanevaale aur padaarth ko vah naam naheen diya jaata. doosare paksh ka ek aur virodh yeh tha ki yadi naam isi prakaar diye gaye hai to kisi padaarth mein jitne-jitne gun hon utane hi usaka naam bhi hone chaahiye. yaask ispar kehte hai ki ek padaarth kisi ek gun ya karm se ek naam ko dhaaran karta hai. isi prakaar aur bhi samajhiye. doosare aur teesare adhyaaya mein teen nidhantuon ke shabdon ke arth praay: vyakhya sahit hai. chauthe se chhathein adhyaaya tak chauthe nighantu ki vyaakhya hai. saatavein se baarahavein tak paaainchavein nighantu ke vaidik devataaon ki vyaakhya hai.

nirukt ka mahatva

nirukt ki upaadeyata ko dekhkar anek paashchaatya vidvaan is par mugdh hue hain. unhonne bhi ispar lekhanakaarya kiya hai. sarvapratham rauth ne jarman bhaasha mein nirukt ki bhoomika ka anuvaad prakaashit kiya hai. jarman bhaasha mein likhit is anuvaad ka pro॰ maikeeshaan ne aangl anuvaad kiya hai. yeh Mumbai vishvavidyaalaya dvaara prakaashit hai. skold ne jarman desh mein rahakar is vishay par adhyayan kiya hai aur isi vishay par prabandh likhkar prakaashit kiya hai.

svaami dayaanand sarasvati ne apne vaidik bhaashyon aur [[satyaarth prakaash] mein vaidik mantron ke arth karne ke liye is granth ka bahut sahaara liya hai . maharshi aurobindo ne bhi vedon ko samajhne mein nirookt ki mahatvapoorn bhoomika ka zikr kiya hai .

nirookt aur vyaakaran mein antar

vaidik sanskrut ki bhaasha samajhne ke liye vyaakaran ka bhi paathan hota hai aur ashtaadhyaayi ko iska mahattam granth maana jaata hai . nirookt mein shabdon ke mool ka varnan hai, yaani kis bhaavana ke kaaran ghode ko ashv kaha jaata hai (aashu yaani tej gati se jaane ke kaaran) iska varnan hai . jabki vyaakaran mein ashvaaroodh (ashv par aarohit, ghode par savaar) ke mool shabdon se utpann bhaavana ka varnan hai . nirookt mein chooainki moolon ka varnan hai, at: jin shabdon ka varnan hai vah chhote (2-3 varn) hain, jabki vyaakaran mein lambe shabdon aur vaakyon ka bhi varnan hai, kyonki vyaakaran sandhi-samaas-alankaar aadi ka vivechan karta hai .

bhaashanakala mein nirukt ka upayog

nirukt se hi sambandhit sanjnyaa nirukti: hai jiska arth vyutpaadan (derivation) hai. bhaashan kala mein ise kisi shabd ka krutrim vyaakhya maan sakte hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain