nikita khrushchev

nikita khrushcheva​

nikita sarageyevich khrushcheva​ (roosi: Нaaиaaкaaиaaтaaа Сaaеaaрaaгaaеaaеaaвaaиaaч Хaaрaaуaaщaaёaaв, angreji: Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, janm : 15 April 1894, dehaant:11 sitmbar 1971) sheet yuddh ke dauraan soviyt sangh ke sarvochch neta the. 1953 se 1964 mein vah soviyt saamyavaadi party ke pratham sachiv rahe aur fir 1958 se 1964 tak soviyt sangh ke pradhaan mantri rahe. unke kaal mein bhootapoorv soviyt taanaashaah josef staalin ki kuchh neetiyaaain hataai gayi, raajanaitik aur aarthik maamalon kuchh khulaapan laaya gaya aur soviyt antariksh kaaryakram ko badhaava diya gaya.[1] unhi ke shaasanakaal mein sanyukt raajya America aur soviyt sangh ke beech kyoobaai misaail sankat naamak ghatna bhi hui jo kuchh sameekshakon ke anusaar sheet yuddh ka sabse khtaranaak mod tha.[2] saadhaaran naagrikon ka jeevan behtar banaane ke liye unhone bahut si neetiyaaain apnaai lekin vah jyaadaatar vifal raheen, masalan krushi utpaadan badhaane ke liye chalaaya gaya nai bhoomi abhiyaan.[3] 1964 mein unke saamyavaadi party ke saathiyon ne unhein adhyakshata se hata diya aur unke sthaan par liyonid brejhnev mahaasachiv ki kursi par aur alikseya kosigin pradhaan mantri ki jagah baithe. uske baad unki koi raajanaitik bhoomika naheen rahi aur 1971 ko unka dil ke daure se dehaant ho gaya.[4][5]

parichay

khrushchev (baaen) tatha staalin (daaeain), 1936 mein

nikita sergyeyevich khrushchev soviyt sangh ke saamyavaadi dal evam aantarjaatik kraanti aandolan ke kaaryakarta, soviyt sangh ke saamyavaadi dal ki keindreeya samiti ke pratham sachiv tatha soviyt sangheeya mantrimandal ke adhyaksh the. inka janm 17 January 1894 ko kurski praant ke kaaleenovok sthaan mein ek saamaanya Khan majadoor parivaar mein hua tha. baalyaavastha se hi inka jeevan shramasheel raha. sarvapratham inhonne charavaahe ke roop mein, tadanantar kuchh dinon tak vibhinn sansthaaon-jaise machine nirmaanashaala (workshop), masheeni purajon ka marammati kaarkhaana tatha donetsk aur Ukraine ke koyala kshetr, kok ke raasaayanik kaarkhaane aadi mein - kaam seekha aur kiya.

1918 E. mein saamyavaadi dal mein sammilit hue. tab se 1920 tak gruhayuddh mein dakshini morche par sakriya bhaag liya. yuddh ke pashchaat‌ danabas ki Khan mein sahaayak vyavasthaapak ke pad par rahe. pun: donetsk ke audyogik shikshan sansthaan mein shram vibhaag ka kaarya seekhate rahe. is beech ve anek baar dal ke sachiv nirvaachit hue. shramik vibhaag ka kaaryasamaapan karne ke pashchaat unhonne dal ki kalinski jila samiti ke petravaasik shaakha ke sachiv roop mein kaarya kiya tatha yoojajh‌aka (aajkal donetsk) nagar ki daleeya jila samiti ke sanchaalak bane. tatpashchaat‌ kiyve ke daleeya kaarya ka netrutv kiya. san‌ 1929 mein maskar ki audyogik vigyaan parishad mein shiksha li. vahaaain ye daleeya samiti ke sachiv bhi chune gaye. January, 1931 se Moscow mein dal ka netrutv karte rahe. 1935 se 1938 tak Moscow kshetr tatha nagar dal samiti ke pratham sachiv banaae gaye. 1934 mein dal ki keindreeya samiti ke sadasya bane. January, 1938 mein Ukraine saamyavaadi dal ki keindreeya samiti ke pratham sachiv niyukt hue. 1938 mein keindreeya samiti ke polit bureau ke ummeedavaar sadasya chune gaye tatha 1939 mein soviyt sangh ki keindreeya samiti ke polit bureau ke sadasya. san‌ 1941 se 45 tak chalanevaale mahaan‌ deshabhaktipoorn yuddh mein dakshini pashchimi kshetr, staalingraad, dakshini kshetr tatha Ukraine ke mukhya morache ke liye gathit yuddhaparishd ke vishisht sadasya niyukt hue. shatru paksh se chaturdik, ghire hue soviyt Ukraine kshetr ke gurilla yuddh ka sanchaalan kiya tatha jarman faasist aakraamakon se Ukraine ko mukt karaane mein bade jeevat ka parichay diya. February, 1944 mein ye lieutenant general banaae gaye. 1947 mein March se December tak soviyt Ukraine ki mantriprishd ke adhyaksh hue. December, 1947 se December, 1949 tak pun: Ukraine ki saamyavaadi dal ki keindreeya samiti ke pradhaan sachiv rahe. December, 1949 se March, 1952 tak saamyavaadi dal ki keindreeya tatha maaskokshetreeya samiti ke sachiv niyukt hue. 1952 mein soviyt sangh ke saamyavaadi dal ki keindreeya samiti ke sachiv tatha sabhaapati mandal ke sadasya chune gaye. sintabar, 1953 mein ye soviyt sangh ki communist party ki keindreeya samiti ke pradhaan sachiv banaae gaye. March, 1958 mein ye soviym sangh ke pradhaan hue.

nikita khrushchev ke dikhlaae path par soviyt saamyavaadi dal tatha sarkaar ne san‌ 1951 mein sarvapratham mahaan raajaneetik tatha arthaneetik disha mein vaidhaanik yojanaaeain banaani praarambh ki, soviyt samaaj ko saamyavaad ki disha mein teevr gati se sanchaalit kiya aur staalin ke kaal mein desh mein jo kuchh avaidh hota tha use samaapt kar lenin ke mahaan aadesh tatha maanak par raashtreeya aur daleeya janatantravaad ka pun:sthaapan kiya. soviyt arthavyavastha ko majaboot karne ke pashchaat aage chalakar audyogeekaran tatha graameen arthavyavastha se janatantreekaran ka prabandh kar soviyt sansthaaon mein sahi kadam uthaaya. khrushchev ne achhooti tatha parati dharati par ann utpaadan ke liye logon ko sarvapratham anuprerit kiya. desh ki janta ke aarthik vikaas tatha gruhanirmaan mein mahaan safalta praapt ki. shramajeevi varg ke jeevan ke bhautik tatha saanskrutik star ki pragati hui. desh ke mahatvapoorn aarthik kshetron, milon, raajakeeya soviyt faarmon mein swayam jaakar niyamit roop se milte the. is prakaar inhonne nagaron tatha graamon ke shramajeeviyon se ghanishthatam sambandh sthaapit kiya. asaadhaaran pratibhaashaali neta lenin ke samaan inka bhi maanavajeevan ke vishay mein gambhir gyaan tha.

khrushchev saamyavaadi dal ke mahaan prachaarak tatha vichaarak the. maarksavaadi tatha leninvaadi siddhaanton ke mahatvapoorn vishyon par inhonne rachanaatmak vikaas kiya. khrushchev vishvashaanti ke liye, vishv ke vibhinn deshon ki samaajavaadi vyavastha ke shaantipoorn sahaastitv tatha janamaitri ke liye mahaan prayaas karte rahe. ye vibhinn mahatvapoorn antararaashtreeya vaartaaon mein sakriya bhaag lete rahe. July, 1955 mein chaar bade raashtron ke pradhaanon ke sammelan mein nikita khrushchev ne bhi bhaag liya tha. vishvashaanti karne, janamaitri badhaane tatha videshon ke raajaneetijnyaon se vyaktigat sampark sthaapit karne ke mahaan uddeshya se prerit hokar khrushchev ne san 1954 se 1962 tak Europe, Asia tatha amareeka aadi ke vibhinn deshon ki kai baar yaatraaeain keen.

1959 tatha 1960 mein khrushchev ne New York mein sanyukt raashtrasangh ke saadhaaran adhiveshan mein bhaashan diya. vahaaain inhonne vishvashaanti par soviyt sangh ke saadhaaran adhiveshan mein bhaashan diya. vishvashaanti ke hetu soviyt sangh ki videshaneeti par prakaash daala. 18 September 1959 ko khrushchev ne sanyukt raashtrasangh ke saadhaaran adhiveshan ki 14veen baithak mein aam tatha poorn nirstreekaran par praaroop upasthit kiya. ek varsh mein hi inhonne pun: 13 September 1960 ko, sanyukt raashtrasangh ke saadhaaran adhiveshan ki 15veen baithak mein aupaniveshak deshon tatha janta ke svaadheenataadaan ki ghoshana mein nirstreekaran ke sambandh mein soviyt sarkaar ka vaktavya tatha aam aur poorn nirstreekaran par maulik sthiti ki sandhi par apna vichaar prakat kiya.

kamyoonist party tatha soviyt janajeevan par asaadhaaran sveekrutiyon ke kaaran inko teen baar 1954, 1957, 1961 mein samaajavaadi shramaveer ki upaadhi pradaan ki gayi. vishvashaanti ki raksha ke liye inki asaadhaaran pratibha par maanavajaati mein shaanti drudh karne ke liye antararaashtreeya lenin puraskaar pradaan kiya gaya.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. How to Make Our Own News: A Primer for Journalists and Environmentalists, John Maxwell, pp. 813, Canoe Press, University of the West Indies, 2000, ISBN 978-976-8125-64-4, ... Nikita Khrushchev (1894–1971), courageously began de-Stalinization in 1956 with a secret speech to party leaders critical of Stalin's dictatorial ruling style and crimes ...
  2. Cuban Missile Crisis: The Essential Reference Guide, Priscilla Roberts, pp. 53, ABC-CLIO, 2012, ISBN 978-1-61069-065-2, ... U.S. intelligence quickly discovered them, however, provoking the Cuban Missile Crisis, the most dangerous confrontation between the two Cold War superpowers ...
  3. Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, William Taubman, pp. 262, W. W. Norton & Company, 2004, ISBN 978-0-393-32484-6, ... So Khrushchev's next proposal, a dramatic innovation uniquely his own, called for a crash program to develop the so-called Virgin Lands of Kazakhstan and western Siberia ...
  4. An Introduction to Modern Western Civilization, Edmund Clingan, pp. 304, iUniverse, 2011, ISBN 978-1-4620-5438-1, ... In 1964, the conservatives in the Politburo, alarmed by Khrushchev's reforms, deposed Khrushchev and put in Brezhnev as General Secretary. Brezhnev began to reverse Khrushchev's reforms ...
  5. World Politics: The Menu for Choice, Bruce Russett, Harvey Starr, David Kinsella, pp. 515, Cengage Learning, 2009, ISBN 978-0-495-41068-3, ... 1964 October: Nikita Khrushchev deposed by Leonid Brezhnev and Aleksei Kosygin ...