nighantu

nighantu sanskrut ka praacheen shabdakosh hai. ismein vaidik saahitya mein praapt shabdon ka apoorv sangrah hai. vaidik sanhitaaon mein se chunakar yahaaain par shabd ekatr kiye gaye hain. yeh sambhavat: sansaar ke kosh saahitya ki sarvapratham rachana hai. vaidik saahitya ke vishisht shabdon ka sangrah bahut hi suvyavasthit roop se ismein kiya gaya hai.

nighantu shabd ka arth hai - naamasangrah. "ni" upasargak "ghati" dhaatu se "mrugavyaadayashch" una. 1.38 sootr se 'ku' pratyaya karne par nighantu shabd vyutpann hota hai.

praacheen kaal mein sambhavat: is nighantu ki tarah ke kuchh anya nighantu bhi rahe honge, kintu abhi tak unke astitv ka kuchh pramaan upalabdh naheen ho paaya hai. is nirghatu ke rachayita ke vishay mein yadyapi vidvaanon ke anek poorv paksh hain tathaapi vishisht evam praacheen vidvaanon ke dvaara yeh pramaanit ho chuka hai ki iske rachayita yaask hain. iska praarambh "go" shabd se hota hai aur samaapti "devapatni" shabd se dekhi jaati hai.

anukram

nighantu ki vishay-vastu

nighantu ke paaainch adhyaaya hain. praarambh ke teen adhyaayon mein "naighantuk" shabdon ka sangrah hai. chaturth adhyaaya mein "naigam" shabd aur pancham adhyaaya mein "daivat" shabd ekatrit kiye gaye hain. pratyek adhyaaya mein vibhaagadyotak khand hain. pehle teen adhyaayon mein sajaateeya shabdon ka chayan kiya gaya hai. yeh niyam chaturth aur pancham adhyaayon mein naheen hai.

pratham adhyaaya

pratham adhyaaya ke khandon mein naam aur dhaatu is prakaar hain :

1. pruthvi ke 21,

2. hirnya ke 15,

3. antariksh ke 16,

4. div aur aaditya ke samaan chhah

5. rashmi ke 15,

6. disha ke 8

7. raatri ke 23,

8. usha ke 16,

9. ah: (din) ke 13,

10. megh ke 30,

11. vaak ke 57,

12. udak ke 100,

13. nadi ke 37,

14. ashv ke 26,

15. vishisht ashv ke 10,

6 sukh ke 20,

7 roop ke 16,

8 prashansya (prashansaneeya) ke das,

9 prajnyaa ke 11,

10 satya ke chhah,

11 pashya (dekhna) dhaatu ke aath,

12 samast padasangrahaarth nau,

13 upama vaachak 12,

14 arch (poorjaarthak) dhaatu ke 44,

15 medhaavi ke 24,

16 stota ke 13,

17. yagya ke 15,

18. ritvik ke aath,

19. yaancha (maangana) dhaatu ke 17,

20. daan dhaatu ke das,

21. parisrav (vinmr praarthana) dhaatu ke chaar,

22. svap (sona) dhaatu ke do,

23. koop ke 14,

24. sten (chor) ke 14,

25. virneet aur antarhit ke chh:,

26. door ke paaainch,

27 puraan (praacheen) ke chh,

28 nav (naveen) ke chh,

29. do do karke arthavaale 26 aur

30 vein khand mein dyaavaapruthivi ke 24 na kahe hain.

uparyukt adhyaayon mein paryaayavaachak shabdon ka sangrah kiya hai. yahaaain naighantuk kaand samaapt hota hai. is adhyaaya mein padasankhya 410 hai. poore naighantuk kaand ke padon ki sankhya 1340 hai.

dviteeya adhyaaya

dviteeya adhyaaya ke khandon mein naam aur dhaatu nimnaankit roop mein hain. 1. karm ke 26,

2. apatya ke 15,

3. manushya ke 25,

4. baahu ke 12

5. anguli ke 22,

6. ichhaarthak dhaatu ke 18,

7. ann ke 28,

8. bhojanaarthak dhaatu ke 10,

9. bal ke 28,

10. go (maata) ke nau,

12. krodhavaachak dhaatu ke 10,

13. krodh ke 11,

14. gatyarthak dhaatu ke 122,

15. kshipr (sheegra) ke 26,

16. aantik (nikat) ke 11,

19. vadhaarthak dhaatu ke 33,

20. bajr ke 18,

21. aishvarya (unnati) vaachak dhaatu ke chaar aur

22. ishvar ke chaar naam kahe hain.

is adhyaaya ke padon ki sankhya 516 hai.

truteeya adhyaaya

truteeya adhyaaya ke khandon mein naam aur dhaatu is prakaar hain :

1. bahu (adhik) ke 12,

2. hrasv ke 11,

3. mahat ke 26,

4. gruh ke 22,

5. parichran (seva) vaachak dhaatu ke das.

in shabdon ke prakruti pratyaya gyaan ke padon ki sankhya 279 hai.

chaturth adhyaaya

chaturth adhyaaya ko 'naigam kaand' kaha hai. is adhyaaya mein ek shabd anekaarth vaachak hai. 16 jval dhaatu ke 11 aur 17 jvalan ke 11 naam kahe hai. is adhyaaya mein padasankhya 414 hai.

pancham adhyaaya

pancham adhyaaya mein mukhya roop se devataaon ka varnan hai. ise daivatakaand kehte hain. ismein chhah khand hain. in khandon mein kramash: 3, 13, 36, 32 aur 31 pad hain. ye sabhi pad devataavaachak hain. is adhyaaya ki padasankhya 151 hai.

paaainchon adhyaayon ke padon ki sankhya ka yog 1770 hota hai. pratyek adhyaaya ke ant mein khadon ke praarambhik shabdon ka sankalan kiya hai. is nighantu par yaask rachit nirvachan hai, jiska naam nirukt hai.

inhein bhi dekhein