nigam

nigam ek visheshaadhikaar praapt svatantr kaanooni ikaai ke roop mein pahachaani jaane waali alag sanstha hai jiske paas apne sadasyon se pruthak apne adhikaar aur daayitv hain.[1] nigmon ke kai prakaar hain, jinme se adhiktar ka upayog vyaapaar karne ke liye kiya jaata hai.

nigam kaurporet kaanoon ka ek utpaad hain aur inke niyam un prabandhakon ke hiton ko santulit karte hain jo nigam, lenadaaron, sheyaradhaarakon tatha shram ka yogadaan karne vaale karmachaariyon ka sanchaalan karte hain.[2] aadhunik samay mein, nigam teji se aarthik jeevan ka ek pramukh hissa ban gaye hain.

nigam ki ek mahatvapoorn suvidha seemit deyata hai. agar ek nigam vifal hota hai, to sheyaradhaarak saamaanya roop se keval apne nivesh ko khote hain aur karmachaari keval apni naukri kho deinge, kintu un mein se koi bhi nigam ke lenadaaron ke rinon ke prati uttaradaayi naheen hoga.

baavajood iske ki nigam praakrutik vyakti naheen hain, kaanoon dvaara nigmon ko samaan adhikaaron tatha jimmedaariyon ke saath vaastavik logo ke roop mein maanyata di jaati hai. nigam vaastavik vyakti tatha raajya ke khilaaf maanav adhikaaron ka prayog kar sakte hain[3] aur ve maanav adhikaaron ke ullanghan ke liye jimmedaar ho sakte hain.[4] jis tarah ve apne sadasyon dvaara sanyojan ka pramaanapatr lene ke baad "janm" lete hain, divaaliya hone par paise khone ke kaaran ve "mar" sakte hain. nigam dhokhaadhadi tatha hatya jaise aparaadhon ke bhi doshi ho sakte hain.[5]

haalaanki alag alag adhikaar kshetron mein nigam ke kaanoon mein bhinnata hoti hai, ek vyaapaar nigam ki chaar mukhya visheshataaen hain:[6]

  • kaanooni vyaktitv
  • seemit deyata
  • hastaantaraneeya share
  • board sanrachana ke tahat ek keindreekrut prabandhan

anukram

itihaas

store koparbarg mein ka 1/8 bhaag, dinaankit 16 June 1288.

"kaurporeshan" shabd korpas (corpus) se bana hai, jo shareer ya "logon ke samooh" ke liye ke liye laitin shabd hai." aisi sansthaaen jo vyaapaar karti theen aur kaanooni adhikaaron ka vishay theen, ko praacheen rom tatha praacheen Bhaarat ke maurya saamraajya mein paaya gaya hai.[7] madhyayugeen Europe mein, sthaaneeya sarkaaron ki tarah church bhi nigmit ho gaye jaise Pope tatha city of London kaurporeshan. aisa karne ke peechhe yeh aadhaar tha ki nigman kisi bhi vishesh sadasya, jo abhi shaashvat maujood hai, ke jeevan se adhik samay tak astitv mein rahega. kathit taur par duniya ke sabse puraane vaanijyik nigam, faalun, sveedan mein stora kauparabarg maaining kamyuniti ne raaja megnas eriksan se 1347 mein visheshaadhikaar praapt kiya. kai Europeeya deshon ne aupaniveshik abhiyaanon ka netrutv karne ke liye nigmon ka prayog kiya, jaise dach East India company ya hadasan be company, tatha nigmit upaniveshavaad ke itihaas mein ek badi bhoomika nibhaai.

satrahaveen sadi mein aupaniveshik vistaar ki avadhi ke dauraan, aadhunik nigam ke asli poorvaj "chaartard company" ke roop mein ubhare. dach samraat dvaara adhikrut visheshaadhikaar ke tahat, dach East India company (VOC) ne purtagaali sena ko haraaya tatha masaalon ki Europeeya maang se laabh kamaane ke liye swayam ko molukkan dweep mein sthaapit kiya. veeosi (VOC) ke niveshakon ko share ke svaami ke roop mein kaagaj ke pramaanapatr jaari kiye gaye the tatha ve mool emstardam stock eksachej par apne sheyaron ka vyaapaar karne mein saksham the. sheyaradhaarakon ko company ke shaahi visheshaadhikaar mein spasht roop se seemit deyata bhi di gayi thi.[8] athaarahaveen sadi ke ant mein, angreji mein nigam kaanoonon par aalekh likhne vaale pehle lekhak, steevard kid ke anusaar nigam ki paribhaasha hai,

a collection of many individuals united into one body, under a special denomination, having perpetual succession under an artificial form, and vested, by policy of the law, with the capacity of acting, in several respects, as an individual, particularly of taking and granting property, of contracting obligations, and of suing and being sued, of enjoying privileges and immunities in common, and of exercising a variety of political rights, more or less extensive, according to the design of its institution, or the powers conferred upon it, either at the time of its creation, or at any subsequent period of its existence.
[9]

vanikvaad

inhein bhi dekhein: Mercantilism evam South Sea Bubble
dach East India company dvaara ek baund nirgamit, 2400 florins ke liye 1623 se dinaankit

samakaaleen tatha itihaasakaaron, donon dvaara "brahmaand mein vyaapaariyon ki shreshthatam sanstha"[krupaya uddharan jodein] kahalaai gayi british East India company ne nigam ke chakaachaundh poorn bharpoor kshamata ko nai pehchaan dene ke saath saath vyaapaar ke aise tareeke viksit kiye jo kroor tatha shoshan karne vaale the.[10] 31 December 1600 mein angreji raajashaahi ne East Indies aur Africa se pandrah saal tak vyaapaar karne ke liye ekaadhikaar diya. 1611 tak, East India company ke sheyaradhaarak apne nivesh par 150% laabh kama rahe the. baad ke share pradarshanon ne darshaaya ki company kitni aakarshak ban gayi thi. 1613-1616 mein iski pehli share peshakash ne 418000 pound aur 1617-1622 mein iski pehli share peshakash ne 1.6 million pound ikatthe kiye.[11]

sanyukt raajya America mein, 1800 ke madhya mein sarkaari visheshaadhikaaron ki shoharat mein giraavat aane lagi. us samay ke kaurporet kaanoon kaurporet sheyaradhaarakon ki bajaae saarvajanik hiton par kendrit the. corporate chaartar raajyon dvaara viniymit kiye jaate the. ek nigam ka gathan karne ke liye aamtaur par vidhaayika ke ek adhiniyam ki aavashyakta hoti thi. company prashaasan mein niveshakon ko aam taur par company mein samaan sthaan diya jaata tha aur nigmon ko adhikaar paatr mein vyakt uddeshyon ka anupaalan karna aavashyak tha. inheen kaaranon se 19 veen sadi mein kai niji companiyon ne is nigam pranaali ko naheen apnaaya.(Andrew kaarnegi ne apne ispaat nigam ko limited saajhedaari ke roop mein gathit kiya tatha John di.raukafelar ne steindard aayal ki shuruaat ek trast ke roop mein ki. antat:, raajya sarkaaron ne adhik riyaayati nigam kaanoon pradaan kar ke jyaada nigam panjeekaran shulk jutaane ki aavashyakta anubhav ki. new jersey "samarth" nigam kaanoon banaane wala pehla raajya tha, jiska lakshya raajya mein adhik se adhik vyaapaaron ko aakarshit karna tha.[12] delaaveyar ne bhi aisa hi kiya, tatha new jersey dvaara nigmon par kar badhaane ki vajah se baahar ho jaane ke kaaran yeh desh mein sarvaadhik nigam ke anukool raajya ke roop mein jaana jaane laga. is galati ka ehsaas hone ke baad new jersey ne in karon ko kam karne ki koshish ki, lekin tab tak bahut der ho chuki thi; vartamaan mein bhi, adhikaansh pramukh saarvajanik nigam delaaveyar kaanoon ke tahat gathit hain.

19 veen sadi ki shuruaat se, atalaantik ke donon kinaaron par sarkaar ki neeti badalani shuroo hui, jisse is prastaav ki lokapriyta badhi ki nigam bhavishya ki aarthik lahar par savaar the. 1819 mein, America ke Supreme court ne nigmon ko bahutaayat mein ve adhikaar diye jo ab tak pahachaane ya pradaan naheen kiye gaye the.[13] nigam visheshaadhikaaron ko "akaatya" samjha jaata tha aur raajya sarkaarein manamaane dhang se inhein sanshodhit ya samaapt naheen kar sakti theen.[14] sampoorn nigam ko ek "krutrim vyakti" samjha jaata tha, jisme vyaktitv aur amarata thi.[15]

lagbhag isi samay ke aaspaas, british kaanoon bhi nigmon ko aitihaasik pratibandhon ke bandhan se mukt kar raha tha. 1844 mein british sansad ne sanyukt stock company adhiniyam paarit kiya jisne companiyon ko shaahi visheshaadhikaar ya sansad adhiniyam ke bina nigmit karne ki anumati di.[16] das saal baad, seemit deyata, jo aadhunik company kaanoon ka mahatvapoorn praavadhaan tha, angreji kaanoon mein paarit hua: nai ubharati hui rajdhani ke dabaav mein,1855 mein sansad ne seemit deyata adhiniyam paarit kiya, jisme yeh siddhaant sthaapit kiya ki koi bhi nigam keval upayukt sarkaari agency ke saath ek "limited" company ke roop mein panjeekrut ho kar anubandh tatha muaavaje ke daavon, donon ki suvidha praapt kar sakta tha.[17]

isne 1855 mein angreji saamayik patrika the ikonomist ko yeh likhne ke liye prerit kiya "is badlaav ki itne jordaar dhang tatha aam taur maang shaayad kabhi naheen ki gayi, jisme mahatva par itna adhik jor diya gaya ho."[18] is faisale ke doosare bhaag ki spasht ashuddhi ko 75 se adhik varshon ke baad patrika dvaara hi pahachaana gaya, jab isne daava kiya ki, "bhavishya ke aarthik itihaasakaar...seemit deyata ke siddhaant ke benaam aavishkaarak ko yeh bataane ke ichhuk ho sakte hain, vaat aur steefeinsan tatha audyogik kraanti ke anya agradooton ke saath sammaan ka ek sthaan, vyaapaarik nigmon ke roop mein hota hai."[19]

aadhunik nigam

19 veen sadi ke ant tak, new jersey ke sheramen adhiniyam ne companiyon ke svaamitv ko anumati di tatha vilay ke parinaamasvaroop chhitre hue sheyaradhaarakon ke saath bade nigam bane. (dekhein aadhunik nigam aur niji sampatti[20] prasiddh Santa klaara County banaam dakshini prashaant relamaarg nirnaya ne neeti banaane ki pranaali par prabhaav daala aur aadhunik nigam ka yug shuroo hua.

20 veen mein saksham kaanoon ka duniya bhar mein prasaar hua, jisse pratham vishvayuddh se pehle tatha baad mein kai deshon mein aarthik sudhaaron ki shuruaat mein madad mili. 1980 mein shuroo kar ke raajya-svaamitv ke saath nigmon vaale kai bade deshon mein nijeekaran shuroo hua, jisme niji sevaaon aur udyogon ko nigmon ko becha gaya. avinyaman (nigam kaaryon ka vinyaman kam karna) aksar hastakshep na karne ki neeti ke ek bhaag ke tahat nijeekaran ke saath hota hai. yuddh ke baad ek aur pramukh badlaav samoohon ka vikaas tha, jisme bade nigmon ne apna audyogik aadhaar badhaane ke liye chhote nigmon ko khareed liya. Japani companiyon ne kshaitij samooh model, kiretsu (keiretsu) viksit kiya, jise baad mein anya deshon mein bhi doharaaya gaya.

company kaanoon

ek nigam ke astitv ke liye vishesh kaanooni sanrachana tatha kaanoon ki aavashyakta hoti hai jo vishesh roop se nigam ko kaanooni vyaktitv pradaan kare, tatha saamaanya taur par nigam ko ek kaalpanik vyakti, ek kaanooni vyakti, ya ek naitik vyakti ke roop mein dekhe. (praakrutik vyakti ke vipreet) kaurporet kaanoon aam taur par nigmon ko sampatti ko khareedne, baadhyakaari anubandhon par hastaakshar karne aur uske sheyaradhaarakon (jinhein kai baar "sadasya" kaha jaata hai) ke atirikt kar ka bhugataan karne ki kshamata pradaan karte hain. Lord chaansalar haalden ke anusaar,

...a corporation is an abstraction. It has no mind of its own any more than it has a body of its own; its active and directing will must consequently be sought in the person of somebody who is really the directing mind and will of the corporation, the very ego and centre of the personality of the corporation.
[21]

kaanooni vyaktitv ke do aarthik nihitaarth hain. sarvapratham divaaliyepan ki sthiti mein, yeh lenadaaron ko (sheyaradhaarakon ya karmachaari ke vipreet) nigam ki sampattiyon haasil karne ki praathamikta deta hai. doosare, company parisampattiyon ko sheyaradhaarakon dvaara naheen nikla ja sakta aur na hi company ki parisampattiyon ka prayog iske sheyaradhaarakon ke maadhyam se niji lenadaaron dvaara kiya ja sakta hai. doosari suvidha mein vishesh kaanoon aur vishesh kaanooni dhaanche ki aavashyakta hai, kyonki ise maanak kaanoon ke maadhyam se pun: pesh naheen kiya ja sakta.[22]

nigman ke liye sabse anukool niyamon mein shaamil hain:

niyam vivran
seemit deyata saajhedaari ya ekal svaamitv ke vipreet, aadhunik vyaapaar nigam ke sheyaradhaarakon ke paas nigam ke rinon tatha daayitvon ki "seemit" deyata hoti hai.[23] parinaamasvaroop, unki haaniyaan unke dvaara bakaaya ya bhugataan ke roop mein nigam ke liye di gayi raashi se adhik naheen ho sakti. sheyaradhaarakon ke praathamik laabh ke liye yeh nigmon ko "unki laagat ka saamooheekaran" karne mein saksham banta hai; saamooheekaran ka arth hai aam taur par samaaj mein iska prasaar karne ki laagat.[24] is ke liye aarthik tark hai ki is prakaar ke lenaden mein, yeh nigam ke sheyaron mein, hitdhaarak ke roop mein nigam ke lenadaaron ko hata kar anaam lenaden ki anumati deta hai. seemit deyata ke bina, ek lenadaar shaayad kisi bhi khareedaar ko koi bhi share bechne ki anumati naheen dega jab tak ki vah vikreta jitna bharosemand na ho. seemit deyata nigmon ko apne udyogon ke liye share ke kai maalikon ke sanyojit dhan dvaara badi raashi jutaane ki anumati deti hai. seemit deyata ek sheyaradhaarak dvaara company mein khoi ja sakane waali raashi ko kam karti hai. isse sambhaavit sheyaradhaarakon mein iske prati aakarshan badhta hai aur isse ichhuk sheyaradhaarakon ki sankhya tatha unke dvaara nivesh ki jaane waali raashi, donon mein vruddhi hoti hai. haalaanki kuchh kshetraadhikaar doosare prakaar ke nigmon ke liye bhi anumati dete hain, jisme sheyaradhaarakon ka daayitv aseemit hota hai, udaaharan ke liye Canada ke do praanton mein aseemit deyata vaale nigam tatha Britain mein analimited company.
satat jeevanakaal ek aur laabh yeh hai ki nigam ki sampatti aur sanrachana iske sheyaradhaarakon va pratijnyaaapatradhaarakon ke jeevan ke baad bhi bane rahate hain. isse sthirta aati hai aur poonji sanchaya hota hai, jo kaurporet sampattiyon ke vitran aur vightan ki tulana mein badi aur sthaai pariyojanaaon ke liye upalabdh hota hai. madhyayugeen kaal mein yeh bhi mahatvapoorn tha, jab church ko daan mein di gayi jameen se, bhoomidhaarak ki mrutyu ke baad, koi saamanti fees naheen di jaati thi. is sambandh mein, mortamain ka vidhaan dekhein.(haalaanki ek nigam ko kaanooni ikaai ke roop mein iske astitv ko samaapt kar ke ek sarkaari adhikaari dvaara bhang kiya ja sakta hai. lekin yeh aamtaur par sirf tabhi hota hai jab company kaanoon ko bhang karti hai, udaaharan ke liye vaarshik faailing aavashyakataaon ko poora karne mein vifal rahane par, ya kuchh paristhiyon mein jab company vightan ke liye anurodh karti hai)

svaamitv aur niyantran

vyaktiyon tatha vyaktiyon se bani kaanooni sansthaaon (jaise trast va anya nigam) ke paas vote dene ya board dvaara ghoshana karne ke baad laabhaansh praapt karne ka adhikaar hota hai. laabh kamaane vaale nigmon ke liye, ye matadaata stock ke share rakhate hain tatha isliye inhein sheyaradhaarak ya staukadhaarak kaha jaata hai. jab koi staukadhaarak maujood naheen hota, to nigam ek gair-share nigam ke roop mein bana rah sakta hai tatha staukadhaarakon ki bajaae nigam mein sadasya hote hain, jinhein iski prakriyaaon par vote dene ka adhikaar hota hai. ek "nigam" ke keval matadaata sadasya naheen hote. gair-stock nigmon ke sadasyon ko nigman ke aalekhon dvaara pahachaana jaata hai (british samakaksh: aartikls of association) aur sadasya vargon ke sheershakon mein "trasti", "sakriya", "esosiyet" tatha/ya "maanad". haalaanki, iname se nigman ke aalekh mein soocheebaddh pratyek vyakti nigam ka sadasya hai. nigman ka allekh "nigam" ko anya naam se paribhaashit kar sakta hai, jaise "the ABC club ink" tatha aise maamale mein, "nigam" aur "the ABC club ink" ya sirf "the club" ko paraspar ek samaan tatha aapas mein parivartan karne yogya maana jaata hai kyonki ve nigman ke lekh ya upaniymon mein anya jagahon mein prakat ho sakte hain. agar gair share nigam laabh ke liye sanchaalit naheen kiye jaate, to inhein gair laabhakaari nigam kaha jaata hai. kisi bhi shreni mein, nigam vyaktiyon ke samooh ke saath vishisht kaanooni darje tatha tatha vishesh suvidhaaon se mil kar bana hota hai jo saamaanya avinyamit vyaapaaron, svaichhik sangathanon ya vyaktiyon ke samooh ko pradaan naheen ki jaateen.

vishv mein company prashaasan praaroopon ke do vyaapak varg hain. adhikaansh vishv mein, nigmon ka niyantran nideshak mandal dvaara nirdhaarit hota hai, jise sheyaradhaarakon dvaara chuna jaata hai. kuchh kshetraadhikaaron, jaise Germany mein, nigam ke niyantran ko paryavekshi board ki sahaayata do shreniyon mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai jo prabandhan board ko chunata hai. Germany drudh sankalp naamak adviteeya pranaali ke kaaran bhi vishisht hai jiske anusaar aadhe paryavekshi board mein karmachaariyon ke pratinidhi hote hain. CEO, adhyaksh, koshaadhyaksh aur anya adhikaariyon ko aksar nigam ke maamalon ka prabandhan karne ke liye board dvaara chuna jaata hai.

sheyaradhaarakon ke seemit prabhaav ke alaava, nigam bank jaise lenadaaron ke maadhyam se bhi (hisson mein) niyantrit ho sakte hain. nigam ko udhaar di gayi raashi ke badle mein, lenadaar sadasya ke samaan niyantrak hit ki maang kar sakte hain, jisme board ke nirdeshak ki ek ya adhik seatein shaamil hain. Germany aur Japan jaise kuchh kshetron mein, bankon ke liye nigam ke share lena saamaanya baat hai jabki kuchh anya kshetron jaise sanyukt raajya America mein, 1933 ke glaas-steegal adhiniyam aur Britain mein bank of inglaind ke tahat, bankon ko baahari nigmon ke share lene ki manaahi hai. haalaanki, America mein 1999 ke baad se, vaanijyik bankon ko aadhunikeekaran adhuniym ya graamm-leech-bili adhiniyam ke tahat sahaayak ikaaiyon ke maadhyam se nivesh banking ki anumati hai. 1997 ke baad se, Britain ke bankon ke nigraani vitteeya seva praadhikran dvaara ki jaati hai; iske niyam gair-pratibandhak hain jo iski sabhi aarthik sansthaaon ke sanchaalan ke liye, jinme beema, vaanijyik aur vitteeya banking shaamil hai, mein videshi aur ghareloo poonji ki anumati dete hain.[25]

board dvaara laabhakaari nigam ko bhang karne ke nirnaya ke pashchaat, sheyaradhaarakon ko lenadaaron tatha anya vyaktiyon jinke nigam mein hit hain, ko dene ke baad bacha hua praapt hota hai. haalaanki sheyaradhaarak seemit deyata ka laabh praapt karte hain, isliye ve utani hi raashi ke liye jimmedaar hain jiska unhonein yogadaan diya hai.

gathan

aitihaasik roop se, nigmon ko sarkaar dvaara diye gaye ek visheshaadhikaar dvaara banaaya gaya tha. aaj, nigmon aamtaur par raajya, praant ya raashtreeya sarkaar ke saath panjeekrut hote hain aur us sarkaar ke kaanoon dvaara viniymit hote hain. seemit deyata nigam ki dhaarana ke liye panjeekaran mukhya shart hai. kaanoon ke anusaar kabhi kabhi nigam ko apna pramukh pata, saath hi ek panjeekrut agent (ek vyakti ya company jo kaanooni prakriya ke liye naamit hai) naamit karne ki aavashyakta hoti hai. nigam ke pratinidhi ya anya kaanooni agent ko bhi naamit karne ki aavashyakta ho sakti hai.

saamaanyataya, ek nigam sarkaar ke saath nigman ka aalekh file karta hai, jisme nigam ki saamaanya prakruti, iske dvaara jaari kiye jaane vaale sheyaron ki sankhya tatha nidehkon ke naam aur paaton ki jaankaari hoti hai. ek baar aalekh ke anumodit hone ke baad, nigam ke nidesh upaniym banaane ke liye baithak karte hain jo nigam ki aantarik prakriyaaon, jaise prakriyaaon ka paalan tatha adhikaariyon ki sthitiyon, ka sanchaalan karte hain.

adhikaar kshetr ke kaanoon jinme ek nigam sanchaalit hota hai, adhiktar iski aantarik gatividhiyon ke saath iske vitt ko niyantrit kareinge. agar ek nigam apne ghareloo raajya ke baahar sanchaalit hota hai, to ise videshi nigam ke roop mein doosari sarkaaron ke saath panjeekaran ki aavashyakta hoti hai, tatha rojgaar, aparaadh, anubandh, naagrik kaaryavaahi aur milte julate maamalon mein yeh hamesha mejabaan raajya ke prati javaabadeh hota hai.

naamakaran

nigmon ka aam taur par ek alag naam hota hai. aitihaasik roop se, kuchh nigmon ka naam apne sadasyon par tha: udaaharan ke liye, "the prejideint end feloj of Harvard college" (The President and Fellows of Harvard College). aajkal, sabse jyaadaatar nyaaya seemaaon mein nigmon ko ek alag naam rakhane ke liye apni sadasyata ke sandarbh ki jaroorat naheen hai. Canada mein, yeh sambhaavana apne taarkik charam par pahuainch gayi: kai chhote Canadai nigmon ka koi naam naheen hai, keval praanteeya bikri kar panjeekaran sankhya par aadhaarit hain (udaaharan ke liye "12345678 onteriyo limited").

adhikaansh deshon mein, company naamon mein "nigam" shabd, ya ek sanshiptaakshar shaamil hota hai jo ikaai ke nigam darje ko (jaise "sanyukt raajya America mein "inakaurporeted" ya "ink"), ya uske sadasyon seemit deyata ko darshaata hai. (jaise "limited" (Limited) ya "elateedi" (Ltd.)). ye shabd adhikaar kshetr aur bhaasha ke anusaar alag alag hain. kuchh adhikaar kshetron mein, ye anivaarya hain aur kuchh mein naheen hain.[26] inka upayog pratyek ko yeh rachanaatmak soochana deta hai ki ve ek aisi ikaai ke saath kaam kar rahe hain jiski deyata seemit hai aur ikaai ke svaamitv vaale logon tak naheen pahuainchati: yadi koi iske khilaaf nirnaya praapt karta hai to vah keval ikaai dvaara niyantrit ki jaane waali sampatti se hi kuchh praapt kar sakta hai.

kuchh adhikaar kshetr sirf "company shabd ko nigman ka darja darshaane ki anumati naheen dete, kyonki "company" saajhedaari ya ekal svaamitv (American vyavahaar mein, kintu british vyavahaar mein naheen), yahaan tak ki praacheen roop se, bina sambandhit vyaktiyon ke samooh ko sandarbhit kar sakta hai (udaaharan ke liye ve log jo ek saraaya mein rah rahe hain).

vitteeya prakateekaran

kai nyaaya seemaaon mein, ve nigam jinke sheyaradhaarakon ko seemit deyata se laabh hua hai, ko vaarshik aarthik vaktavyon aur anya aankadon ko prakaashit karne ki aavashyakta hoti hai, taaki nigam ke saath vyaapaar karne vaale lenadaar nigam ki saakh ka moolyaankan kar sakein aur sheyaradhaarakon ke viruddh daava naheen kar sakein.[27]. isliye seemit deyata ki evaj mein sheyaradhaarak kuchh gopaneeyata ke nuksaan ka balidaan kar dete hain. yeh aavashyakta aam taur par Europe mein laagoo hoti hai, lekin sanyukt raajya America mein saarvajanik roop se kaarobaar karne vaale nigmon ko chhod kar, jahaan niveshak sanrakshan ke liye vitteeya prakateekaran aavashyak hai, shesh mein laagoo naheen hoti.

anasulajhe mudde

nai sthitiyon ki pratikriya ke kaaran nigmon ki prakruti viksit hoti rahati hai kyonki vartamaan nigam naye sujhaavon aur sanrachanaaon ko badhaava dete hain, adaalatein pratikriya karti hain aur sarkaarein naye niyam jaari karti hain. lambe samay tak bane rahane ke liye banti huyi jimmedaari aavashyak hai. udaaharan ke liye, yadi ek nigam ek maut ke liye jimmedaar paaya jaata hai, to sheyaradhaarakon, nirdeshakon, prabandhan aur staaf aur nigam ke staaf mein dosh tatha saja kis prakaar se aabantit ki ja sakti hai? dekhne kaurporet daayitv aur vishesh roop se, kaurporet hatya.

nyaayaalaya tatha raajya ke kaanoon mein vibhinnata hai. kuchh logon ka tark hai ki aisi paristhitiyon mein ant mein sheyaradhaarakon ko jimmedaar hona chaahiye, jo unhein nivesh ke samay laabh ke alaava doosare muddyon par sochane ke liye vivsh karte hain, lekin nigam mein laakhon chhote sheyaradhaarak ho sakte hain jo iski vyaavasaayik gatividhiyon ke baare mein kuchh naheen jaante. iske alaava, tredars - khaaskar bachaav nidhiyaan - ek din mein nigam ke kai sheyaron ka kaarobaar kar sakte hain.[28] barbar aparaadhiyon ko doharaae jaane ka mudda tatha kathit "nigmon ke liye maut ki saja" par savaaliya nishaan lagta hai. (dekhein H.glaasabeek, "velth bye stelth: kaurporet crime, kaurporet law, end the parvarjn of demokresi" bitvin the line press: Toronto 2002).[29]

prakaar

nigmon ke prakaaron aur deshon ke anusaar anya vyaapaar prakaaron ke liye, vyaapaar sansthaaon ke prakaar dekhein.

adhikaansh nigam sthaaneeya nyaaya seema ke saath ek share nigam ya ek gair share nigam ke roop mein panjeekrut hote hain. share nigam poonji utpann karne ke liye share bechate hain. ek share nigam aam taur par ek laabhakaari nigam hai. ek gair share nigam mein sheyaradhaarak naheen hote, kintu aise sadasya ho sakte hain jinke paas matadaan ka adhikaar hota hai.

kuchh nyaayaalaya, udaaharan ke liye, (Washington, deesi,)-share ya gair share mein baantane ki bajaae nigmon ko laabhakaari aur gair-laabhakaari roopon mein baantate hain.

kai raajya peshevaron ke istemaal ke liye nigam mein vibhinnata ki anumati dete hain (arthaat un logon ko peshevar kaha jaata hai jinhein vyaapaar ka sanchaalan karne ke liye raajya se ek license ki aavashyakta hoti hai). kuchh raajyon, jaise jaurjiya mein, in nigmon ko "peshevar nigam" kaha jaata hai.

laabhakaari aur gair-laabhakaari

aadhunik aarthik pranaaliyon mein, kaarporet gavarneins ki parampara vyaapak roop se vyaapaar aur gair-laabhakaari gatividhiyon mein dikhaai deti hai. haalaanki in praaniyon se sambandhit vidhaan aksar alag hai, adaalatein aksar kaanoon ke praavadhaanon ki vyaakhya is prakaar se karti hain jo laabh kamaane waali companiyon par bhi usi tarah se laagoo hota hai jis prakaar (ya usi dhang se) se gair-laabhakaari sansthaaon par laagoo hota hai - choonki in donon prakaaron ki antarnihit sanrachana aksar ek doosare se milti hai.

niji nigam aur saarvajanik kaarobaar nigam

ve sansthaaen jinhein aam taur par "nigam" kaha jaata hai saarvajanik roop se kaarobaar karne waali ya saarvajanik roop se kaarobaar karne vaale nigam hain (udaaharan ke liye sanyukt raajya America mein New York stock exchange ya naasdaak), jahaaain nigmon ke share saamaanya janta dvaara khareede aur beche jaate hain. duniya mein sabse bade vyaapaar adhiktar saarvajanik kaarobaar nigam kar rahe hain. haalaanki, adhiktar nigmon ko niji, niji taur par ya band nigam kaha jaata hai, jiska arth hai ki sheyaron ke kaarobaar ke liye ye koi baajaar upalabdh naheen karaate. aise kai nigmon ka svaamitv aur prabandhan vyaapaarik logon ke chhote samoohon ya companiyon dvaara kiya jaata hai, haalaanki is tarah ke ek nigam ke aakaar sabse bade saarvajanik nigmon jitna vishaal ho sakta hai.

saarvajanik kaarobaar nigmon ki apeksha niji nigmon ke kuchh faayde hain. ek chhoti, niji company aksar company mein badlaav len vaale nirnaya, ek saarvajanik roop kaarobaar karne waali company ki tulana mein adhik teji se le sakti hai. ek saarvajanik roop kaarobaar company baajaar ki daya par bhi nirbhar hai, company mein poonji aana ya jaana na keval company ke kaam par nirbhar karta hai apitu baajaar tatha pratiyogiyon dvaara kiye jaane vaale kaaryon par bhi aadhaarit hai. saarvajanik roop se kaarobaar karne waali companiyaan apne niji samakakshon ki tulana mein laabhakaari hai. saarvajanik roop se kaarobaar karne waali companiyon mein aksar jyaada kaaryasheel pooainji hoti hai aur ye sabhi sheyaradhaarakon se rin baant sakti hai. iska matlab yeh hai ki saarvajanik roop kaarobaar waali company mein nivesh karne vaale logon ki poonji ka niji nigmon mein shaamil logon ki tulana mein kam nuksaan hoga. saarvajanik roop se kaarobaar waali companiyaan haalaanki is sateek laabh se peedit hain. ek niji nigam aksar svechha se kam ya bina nateejon ke bhi laabh praapt kar sakta hai (jab tak ki ise haani na ho). haalaanki ek saarvajanik roop kaarobaar waali company share dhaarakon mein laabh aur vikaas spasht na hone par aksar charam jaanch ke daayare mein aati hai, jisse kaaran sheyaradhaarak share bech sakte hain, jisse company ko aur nuksaan hota hai. aksar yeh jhatka ek chhoti saarvajanik company ko vifal karne ke liye paryaapt hota hai.

ek saarvajanik company ki tulana mein niji company se saamudaayik laabh adhik praapt hote hain. ek niji company ke ek hi sthaan par rahane ki sambhaavana hai jahaan use achhi suvidhaaen milti hain chaahe vah kathin samay se gujar rahi ho. ek kharaab varsh ya company ke munaafe mein dheemi gati waali avadhi mein, sheyaradhaarak company ka kuchh nuksaan jhel sakte hain. niji companiyon ka aksar karmachaariyon ke saath ek achha rishta hota hai. saarvajanik roop se kaarobaar waali adhik badi companiyon mein, kisi kharaab varsh mein sabse pehle padne vaale prabhaavon mein chhantani dvaara kaaryabal ghataana ya karchaariyon ke ghanton, vetan ya laabh mein katauti karna shaamil hai. ek baar fir, ek niji vyaapaar mein sheyaradhaarak shramikon par laabh mein hue is nuksaan ko daalne ki bajaae ise jhel sakte hain.

kai maamalon mein saarvajanik roop se kaarobaar karne vaale tatha niji nigam ek samaan hain. adhikaansh deshon mein mukhya antar yeh hai ki saarvajanik roop se kaarobaar karne vaale nigmon par atirikt pratibhootiyon kaanoonon ka bojh hai, (vishesh roop se America mein) jiske liye atirikt saamayik prakateekaran (adhik kathor aavashyakataaon ke saath), kathor nigam prashaasan maanakon aur nigmon ke pramukh lenaden (jaise vilay) ya ghatnaaon (jaise nirdeshakon ke chunaav) mein atirikt prakriyaatmak daayitvon ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

ek niji nigam kisi aur nigam (apni mool company) ka sahaayak ho sakta hai, jo apne aap mein niji ya saarvajanik nigam ho sakta hai.

sanyukt raajya America ke adhikaansh kaarobaar niji nigam hain. pichaanave pratishat parivaar ke svaamitv mein hain aur desh ki lagbhag pachaas pratishat aabaadi ke liye rojagaar upalabdh karaate hain. haalaanki, bade paimaane par sheyaradhaarak kalah ke kaaran, sirf bees pratishat svaamitv-vyavasaaya vaale parivaar ek peedhi se adhik samay tak bane rah paate hain.[30] niji nigmon mein sheyaradhaarak ko utpeedit karne ki bhi kshamata hai kyonki alpasankhyak sheyaradhaarak ek saarvajanik baajaar mein share bech kar aur company se nikal kar bure bartaav se naheen bach sakte.[31]

paarasparik laabhakaari nigam

ek paarasparik gair-laabhakaari nigam vo nigam hai jo apne sadasyon ke laabh ke liye keval sanyukt raajya America mein sthaapit hai. ek paarasparik gair-laabhakaari nigam ka ek udaaharan golf club hai. vyakti club mein shaamil hone ke liye bhugataan karte hain, sadasyata khareedi aur becheen ja sakti hai aur club ke khtm hone ki sthiti mein club ke svaamitv waali sampatti iske sadasyon mein baanti jaati hai. club apne kaurporet upaniymon dvaara yeh faisala kar sakte hain, ki kitne sadasya hone chaahiyein aur kaun ek sadasya ho sakta hai. saamaanyataya, jabki yeh ek gair-laabhakaari nigam hai, ek paarasparik laabhakaari nigam ek daani sanstha naheen hai. kyonki yeh ek daani sanstha naheen hai, ek paarasparik laabh gair-laabhakaari nigam 501(c)(3) darja haasil naheen kar sakta. agar paarasparik laabh ke liye gair-laabhakaari nigam mein sanchaalan ke dhang par vivaad ho to, to iske sadasya vivaad sulajha sakte hain, kyonki nigam keval apni sadasyon ki aavashyakataaon ko poora karne ke liye bana hai na ki saamaanya janta ki.[32]

vishv star par nigam

raashtreeya star par ek model ki safalta ke baad company kai nigam antararaashtreeya ya bahuraashtreeya nigam ban gaye hain: vaishveekaran ki prakriya mein shakti tatha prabhaav ka ullekhaneeya sthaan praapt karne ke liye raashtreeya seemaaon se baahar badh rahe hain.

apne aap mein vishisht "antararaashtreeya" ya "bahuraashtreeya" nigam sheyaradhaarakon aur ideshakon ke ativyaapi ek web mein kai shaakhaaon aur vibhinn kshetron mein laainon ke saath fit ho sakte hain, aise kai up samooh apne adhikaaron ke saath nigam banaate hain. vistaar dvaara vikaas raashtreeya ya kshetreeya shaakhaaon ka samarthan kar sakta hai; adhigrahan ya vilay ke parinaamasvaroop chaaron or tatha/ya duniya mein bikhre hue samoohon ki ek bahutaayat ho sakti hai, jinki sanrachana aur naam sheyaradhaarakon ke svaamitv tatha prabhaav ke dhaanchon ko hamesha spasht naheen karte.

kai mahaadveepon mein faile hue nigmon ke kaaran, kaurporet sanskruti ekeekrut kaarak ke roop mein badhi hai aur isne sthaaneeya raashtreeya sanvedanasheelata aur saanskrutik jaagrukta ko apnaaya hai.

Australia

Australia mein nigmon ka panjeekaran aur viniyman Australiaee pratibhooti aur nivesh aayog ke maadhyam se raashtramandal sarkaar dvaara kiya jaata hai. nigam kaanoonon ko kaafi had tak nigam adhiniyam, 2001 mein kootabaddh kiya gaya hai.

braajeel

Brazil mein kai prakaar ke nigam hain ("sosidaades" ("sociedades")), lekin vaanijyik roop se do saamaanya prakaar ye hain: (i) "sosidde limitaada" (), jise company ke naam mein "elateedeee" dvaara pahachaana jaata hai, jo ki british limited company ke baraabar hai, tatha (ii) "sosidaade enonima" ya "kaumpanhiya", jise company ke naam mein "esae" ya "kaumpanhiya" dvaara pahachaana jaata hai, jo ki british pablik limited company ke baraabar hai. 'LTDA" mukhya roop se 2002 mein adhiniymit nai naagrik sanhita aur "esae" 15 December 1976 ke kaanoon 6.404 dvaara niyantrit hain.

Canada

Canada mein sangheeya sarkaar aur praant, donon ke paas nigam vyavastha hai aur is prakaar ek nigam mein sthaaneeya ya sangheeya visheshaadhikaar ho sakta hai. Canada mein kai puraane nigam saamaanya nigam kaanoon ki shuruaat se pehle sansad ke adhiniymon dvaara paarit ho kar utpann hue hain. Canada mein sabse puraana nigam hadasan be company hai, haalaanki iska vyaapaar hamesha se hi Canada mein raha hai, iska shaahi visheshaadhikaar England mein raaja Charles dviteeya dvaara 1670 mein jaari kiya gaya tha aur 1970 mein yeh Canada ka visheshaadhikaar ban gaya jab isne apne mukhyaalaya ko London se Canada mein sthaanaantarit kar liya. maanyata praapt sangheeya nigmon ka viniyman Canada vyaapaar nigam adhiniymon dvaara kiya jaata hai.

jarman-bhaashi desh

Germany, ostriya, Switzerland aur likteinsteen mein do prakaar ke nigmon ko maanyata praapt hai: the ektingeselashaaft (Aktiengesellschaft) (AG), jo angreji bhaashi duniya mein saarvajanik nigam ke samaan hai, tatha the geselashaaft mit bishrenkatar haaftang (Gesellschaft mit beschräaankter Haftung) (jeeemabeeech), jo aadhunik seemit deyata company ke samaan (tatha iske liye ek prerana) hai.

Italy

itaalavi ganaraajya seemit deyata waali company ke teen prakaaron ko maanyata deta hai: "S.aar.L." ya "sosiyeta A risponsaabilita limitaata" (ek private limited company), "S.pi.A" ya "sosiyeta par ejioni (ek sanyukt stock company, jo Britain mein pablik limited company ke samaan hai), tatha "S.A.pi.A." ("sosiyeta in akomandita par ejioni"). baad wala ek mila jula prakaar hai jisme sheyaradhaarakon ki do shreniyaan shaamil hain, kuchh seemit deyata ke saath tatha kuchh bina iske aur vyavahaar mein yeh bahut kam prayukt hota hai.

Japan

Japan mein, sthaaneeya svaayattata kaanoon (praant aur nagar paalikaaon) ke tahat praanteeya tatha sthaaneeya niji ikaaiyon ko maana jaata haicorporations (法aa人 hōaajin?). naagrik sanhita ke tahat gair laabhakaari nigmon ki sthaapana ki ja sakti hai.

"company" (会aa社 kaisha?) shabd vyaapaar nigmon ke liye prayukt hota hai. pramukh roop kaabushiki kaisha (株aa式aa会aa社) hai, jiska saarvajanik nigmon ke saath saath chhote udyamon dvaara bhi prayog kiya jaata hai. mochibun kaisha (持aa分aa会aa社), jo chhote udyamon ka ek roop hain, teji se aam hote ja rahe hain. 2002 aur 2008 ke beech, laabh lene waali companyon tatha gair sarkaari va gair laabh sangathanon ke beech ki khaai paatane ke liye intermediary corporation (中aa間aa法aa人 chūaakan hōaajin?) ek setu ka kaam karta tha.

Britain aur Ireland ganatantr

Britain mein, 'nigam' aam taur par shaahi visheshaadhikaar ya vidhi dvaara gathit ek baudi kaurporet ko sandarbhit karta hai, jinmein se ab keval kuchh hi bache hain. Britain mein BBC ek sabse praacheen aur jaana maana nigam hai jo abhi bhi astitv mein hai. british ispaat nigam jaise kai anyon ka 1980 ke dashak mein nijeekaran ho gaya tha.

niji kshetr mein, kaanoon ke anusaar nigmon ko company ke roop mein maana jaata hai aur inka viniyman company adhiniyam 2006 (ya samakaksh uttari Ireland adhiniyam) dvaara kiya jaata hai. sabse saamaanya prakaar ki company private limited company ("limited" ya elateedi") hai. private limited companyon ko share ya guaranty dvaara seemit kiya ja sakta hai. nigam ke anya praaroopon mein pablik limited company ("peeelasi") aur analimited company aur guaranty dvaara limited companiyaan shaamil hain.

1922 ke baad se hi Ireland ganatantr ka apna saarvabhaumik company kaanoon raha hai jo maute taur par Britain ke kaanoon ke samaan hai, kyonki yeh british kaanoonon se viksit hua hai.

Britain mein, 'nigam' ekal vyaapaar sangh ko bhi darsha sakta hai jo ki vyakti vishesh ka kaaryaalaya hai aur jiski kaanooni ikaai us vyakti se alag hai.

sanyukt raajya America

inhein bhi dekhein: Delaware corporation

sanyukt raajya America mein paaramparik nigmon ke kai prakaar maujood hain. aam taur par, koi bhi vyaapaar ikaai jiski pehchaan iske maalik se alag hai (arthaat ekal svaamitv ya saajhedaari naheen hai), ek nigam hai. is saamaanya lebal mein aisi sansthaaen shaamil hain jo kaanooni lebalon jaise 'sangh', 'sangathan' aur 'seemit deyata company' tatha nigmon ke naamon se jaani jaati hain.

keval vah company jo kisi vishesh raajya ke kaanoonon ke anusaar aupachaarik roop se bani ho, ko 'nigam' kaha jaata hai. 1819 ke daartamaauth college ke maamale mein nigam ki paribhaasha bataai gayi thi, sanyukt raajya America ke Supreme court ke mukhya nyaayaadheesh maarshal ne kaha ki "nigam krutrim, adrushya, amoort aur "keval kaanoon ke chintan mein hi maujood" hai. nigam ek kaanooni sanstha hai jo ise banaane vaale tatha sanyachaalan karne vaale vyaktiyon se vishisht tatha alag hai. ek kaanooni ikaai ke roop mein nigam imaaraton, bhoomi aur upakaran ke roop mein sampatti ka adhigrahan, kraya ya niptaan apne naam se kar sakta hai. ye daayitv bhi le sakte hain tatha freinchaaijing aur patte jaise anubandh kar sakte hain. ameriki nigam laabh kamaane waali companiyon ya gair-laabh waali sanstha ke roop mein ho sakte hain. kar mukt gair laabh nigmon ko aksar aantarik raajasv sanhita ki dhaara ke antargat "501(c)3 nigam" kaha jaata hai jo unke kar ki chhoot ke baare mein bataata hai.

nigmon ke us raajya ki sarkaar ke paas aavashyak dastaavej daakhil karke banaaya jaata hai. prakriya ko nigman kaha jaata hai jo kapde ke saar ki avadhaarana mein krutrim aavaran vaale vyakti ko vyakt karti hai (shareer ko dhaaran karti hai ya ise "banaati" hai, choonki laitin mein 'shareer' ko 'korpas' (corpus) kaha jaata hai). bankon sahit keval kuchh companiyaan chaartard hain. anya saamaanya roop se ek panjeekaran prakriya ke bhaag ke roop mein raajya sarkaar ke saath apne nigman ka anuchhed daakhil karte hain.

sangheeya sarkaar America ke samvidhaan mein di gayi shaktiyon ke anusaar hi nigam sansthaaon ko bana sakti hai. udaaharan ke liye, Congress ke paas daak sevaaen pradaan karne ke liye samvaidhaanik shakti hai, isliye iske paas sanyukt raajya daak seva ka sanchaalan karne ki shakti hai.

ek baar gathan hone ke pashchaat, nigam apne dvaara sanchaalit har jagah par krutrim vyakti ke roop mein tab tak kaarya kar sakte hain jab tak ki nigam bhang na ho jaae. ek nigam jo anya raajya mein gathit ho kar doosare raajya mein sanchaalan kare, use "videshi nigam" kaha jaata hai. yeh lebal sanyukt raajya America ke baahar banane vaale nigmon ke liye bhi laagoo hota hai. videshi companiyaan aamtaur par pratyek raajya mein raajya ke kaaryaalaya ke sachiv ke saath panjeekrut honi chaahiyen, taaki us raajya mein vyaapaar ka vidhivt sanchaalan kar sake.

nigam kaanooni roop se us raajya (ya anya adhikaar kshetr) ka naagrik hota hai jisme iska gathan hota hai. (un paristhitiyaan ko chhod kar, jo nigam ko us raajya ke naagrik ke roop mein shreneebaddh kare jisme usaka mukhya kaaryaalaya hai, ya vo raajya jisme iska adhikaansh vyaapaar hai). kaurporet vyaapaar ke kaanoon raajyon ke anusaar alag alag ho sakte hain, tatha kai bhaavi nigam us raajya ko gathan ke liye chunate hain jiske kaanoon unke vyaapaar ke hiton ke liye sarvaadhik anukool hain. udaaharan ke liye, kai bade nigam delaaveyar mein bhautik roop se sthit na hone ke baavajood vahaan gathit hote hain, kyonki us raajya ke nigam kar tatha prakateekaran kaanoon bahut anukool hain.

gopaneeyata ya parisanpatti sanrakshan ke liye companiyaan aksar nevaada mein gathit hoti hain, jahaan svaamitv ke share prakateekaran ki aavashyakta naheen hoti hai. kai raajyon, khaaskar chhote raajyon ne, ne apna nigam samvidhaan aadarsh vyaapaar nigam adhiniyam ke anuroop banaaya hai jo American baar association dvaara nirmit tatha prakaashit kaanoon ki kai aadarsh vidhiyon mein se ek hai.

kaanooni vyaktiyon ke roop mein, nigmon ke paas praakrutik vyaktiyon ke samaan kuchh adhikaar hote hain. unamein se adhikaansh raajya ke kaanoon ke tahat nigmon se judte hain, vishesh roop se us raajya ke kaanoon jisme company gathit hui hai - choonki nigmon ka astitv us raajya ke kaanoonon ke aadhaar par nirbhar karta hai. kuchh adhikaar sangheeya samvaidhaanik aur vaidhaanik kaanoon dvaara bhi sanlagn hai, lekin praakrutik vyaktiyon ke adhikaaron ki tulana mein kam tatha anaavashyak hain. udaaharan ke liye, ek nigam ke paas mukaddama daayar karne ka vyaktigat adhikaar hai (saath hi mukaddama jhelne ki kshamata bhi hai) tatha, ek praakrutik vyakti ki tarah, ek nigam par abhiyog lagaaya ja sakta hai.

lekin nigam ko apne dharm ka prachaar karne ki koi samvaidhaanik aajaadi naheen hai kyonki dharm ka prachaar keval "praakrutik" vyakti hi kar sakte hain. arthaat vyaapaarik sasthaaon ki banispat keval manushyon mein hi vishvaas aur aadhyaatmikta ki aavashyak manoshakti hoti hai jo unhein dhaarmik maanyataaon ko maanane tatha unka prachaar karne mein saksham banaati hai.

Harvard college, (Harvard vishvavidyaalaya ka ek ghatak), aupachaarik roop se prejideint end feloj of Harvard college, (Harvard nigam ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai), pashchimi golaarddh mein sabse puraana nigam hai. 1636 mein sthaapit Harvard ke do shaasi nikaayon mein se doosra maisaachusets ki great end general court dvaara 1650 mein gathit kiya gaya tha. gaurtalab hai ki maisaachusets us samay swayam ek nigam colony tha- jiska svaamitv aur sanchaalan maisaachusets be company dvaara kiya jaata tha (1684 mein apna visheshaadhikaar khone tak)- is prakaar Harvard college ek ek nigam ke dvaara banaaya gaya nigam hai.

kai deshon ne apne nigam kaanoon ameriki vyaapaar kaanoonon ke anuroop banaae hain. udaaharan ke liye, Saudi arab ke nigam kaanoon, New York raajya ke nigam kaanoonon ka anusaran karte hain. sanyukt raajya America mein vishisht nigmon ke alaava, sangheeya sarkaar ne 1971 mein alaaska mool nivaasi daava niptaan adhiniyam (ANCSA) jaari kiya jisne alaaska ke mool tatha 200 se adhik gram nigmon, jo bhoomi tatha nakadi ke liye samjhaute ke hakdaar the, ke liye 12 kshetreeya deshi nigmon ko adhikrut kiya. 12 kshetreeya nigmon ke atirikt, kaanoon ne terahavein kshetreeya nigam ko alaaska ke un mool logo ke liye bhoomi samjhaute ke bina anumati de di jo ANCSA ke paarit hone ke samay alaaska raajya se baahar rah rahe the.

nigam kar

kai deshon mein nigam ke laabh par nigam kar ki dar ke anusaar kar/tax lagaaya jaata hai tatha sheyaradhaarakon ko diye gaye laabhaansh par alag dar se kar lagaaya jaata hai. is tarah ki pranaali ko kabhi kabhi "dohara karaadhaan" kaha jaata hai, kyonki sheyaradhaarakon ke beech vitrit kiye gaye kisi bhi laabh par antat: do baar kar lagega. laabhaansh praapt karne vaale ke liye iska ek samaadhaan (Australian tatha british kar pranaali ke maamalon mein) tax kredit ka hakdaar hona hai jo is tathya par aadhaarit hai ki laabhaansh dvaara pradarshit laabh par pehle hi kar lagaaya ja chuka hai. is prakaar company dvaara diye gaye laabh par keval antim praaptakarta dvaara praapt kiye gaye laabhaansh par lagne waali kar ki dar se kar lagega. anya pranaaliyon mein, laabhaansh par anya aamadaniyon ki bajaae kam dar ka kar lagaaya jaata hai (jaise America mein) ya sheyaradhaarakon par seedhe nigam ke laabh ka kar lagaaya jaata hai aur laabhaansh par kar naheen lagaaya jaata. (jaise America mein S nigam) (S corporation).

aalochanaaen

jaisa ki Adam smith ne velth of nations mein bataaya hai, jab prabandhan se svaamitv alag ho jaata hai (arthaat vaastavik nirmaan prakriya ko poonji ki aavashyakta hoti hai), to baad wala anivaarya roop se pehle ke hiton ki upeksha karega, jisse company mein samasya paida hogi.[33] kuchh logon ka kehna hai ki kaurporet America ki haal ki ghatnaaen, kaanooni taur par sanrakshit samooh anukramon ke khataron ke baare mein smith ki chetaavaniyon ka samarthan kar sakti hain.[34]

anya vyaavasaayik sansthaaen

lagbhag pratyek maanyata praapt sangathan kuchh aarthik gatividhiyon ka sanchaalan karta hai (jaise parivaar). anya sangathan jo gatividhiyon ko chala sakte hain unhein vibhinn deshon ke kaanoonon dvaara aam taur par vyaapaar maana jaata hai. inmein shaamil hain:

  • upabhokta sahakaari
  • limited company (limited)
  • seemit deyata company (LLC)
  • seemit deyata seemit bhaageedaari (LLLP)
  • seemit deyata bhaageedaari (LLP)
  • seemit bhaageedaari (LP)
  • kam laabh seemit deyata company (L3C)
  • gair laabh nigam
  • saajhedaari
  • ekal svaamitv
  • trast company, trast kaanoon

inhein bhi dekhein

  • alaaska mool nivaasi nigam
  • virodhi kaurporet sakriyta
  • avarodhak nigam
  • upaniym
  • vaanijyik kaanoon
  • samudaaya ke hit company
  • company ke niyam (law)
  • sangutika (company)
  • sahakaari
  • kaarporet aparaadh
  • kaurporet prashaasan
  • kaurporet aashray
  • kaurporet ghotaale
  • kaurporet kalyaan
  • kaurporetism
  • delaaveyar nigam
  • vitt poonjeevaad
  • gud stainding
  • samaaj
  • nigman (vyavasaaya)
  • hadtaal ki soochi
  • megaakaurporeshan (kaalpanik)
  • bahuraashtreeya nigam
  • sangathanaatmak sanskruti
  • adhimaanya stock
  • vyaavasaayik nigam (PC ya pi.si)
  • pablik limited company (peeelasi)
  • panjeekrut agent
  • shelf nigam
  • share pramaan patra
  • raajya ke svaamitv waali nigam
  • kaurporeshan - ek dastaaveji film hai jo aadhunik nigmon ke prakruti aur prabhaavit ki charcha karta hain.
  • aseemit deyata nigam
  • ven kaurporeshan rul di world

futanots

  1. Dictionary.Reference.com
  2. Frank istarabruk, dainiyl aar. fishel. 'the ikonomik strakchar of kaurporet law' (1996)
  3. jaise: saaooth efrikn kansateetyushan Art.8, vishesh roop se Art.(4)
  4. Phillip I. blaambarg, the malteeneshanal chailenj too kaurporeshan lauk: the sarch for a new kaurporet parsanailiti, (1993) mein nigmon ko diye gaye vivaadaspad prakruti ke adhikaaron par bahut achhi charcha ki gayi hai.
  5. jaise: kaurporet mainaslautar end kaurporet homisaaid act 2007
  6. aarasi (RC) Clark, kaurporet law (espen 1986) 2; hainsmain eight L. bhi dekhein, the ainaataumi of kaurporet law (2004) adhyaaya 1, prushth.2; si.A. (C.A.) kook, kaurporeshan, trast end company: a leegal history, (1950).
  7. vikramaaditya S. khanna (2005). the ikonomik history of the kaurporet form in eshiyant indiya. Michigan vishvavidyaalaya.
  8. om prakaash, yooropiyn kamarshiyl intarapraaij in pre-koloniyl indiya (Cambridge yunivrsiti press, Cambridge 1998).
  9. A Treatise on the Law of Corporations, Stewart Kyd (1793-1794)
  10. John ke, the onorebal company : a history of the english East indiya company (maik milan, New York 1991).
  11. aaibid . eight 113.
  12. the law of bijnis organaaijeshan
  13. trasatees of daartamaauth college vi. vudavaard, 17 yu.S. (U.S) 518 (1819).
  14. aaidi . eight 25.
  15. aaidi . eight 45.
  16. scene M. O'kaunor, bi keyaraful what yu vish for: how akaaunateints end Congress kriyeted the praublam of oditr indeepeindeins, 45 bi.si.L rev. 741, 749 (2004).
  17. limited laaibaliti act, 18 end vikt.. adhyaaya. 133 (1855)(ing.), paul ji mahoni mein uddhrut, kaantraikt aur kanseshan? N ese on the history of kaurporet law, 34 ga. L. rev. 873, 892 (2000).
  18. greem ji. echesan end John di. turner, the impaikt of limited laaibaliti on onaraship N kartrol: aayarish banking, 1877-1914, [1] mein skul of management end ikonomiks, kveens university of belafaast upalabdh.
  19. ikonaumists, December 18 1926, 1053 mein, mahoni par uddhrut, supra, 875 mein.
  20. "modern kaurporeshan" (1900 ke baad) aur "classic kaurporeshan" (1860 ke pehle) ke matabhedon ke beech tulana ke liye dekhein ted nes, gaings of America: the raaij of kaurporet power end the disebling of demokresi 71 (beret-koihalar pablishr, ink., sain Francisco 2003).
  21. Lennard's Carrying Co Ltd v Asiatic Petroleum Co Ltd [1915] AC 705
  22. hainsmain eight L., the ainaataumi of kaurporet law, prushth 7.
  23. saalomain versus saalomain end company aam kaanoon mein ek agrani maamala hai. [1897] AC (AC) 22.
  24. Hock, Dee (2005). One from many. Berrett-Koehler Publishers. pa॰ 140. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1576753323. "... they have become a superb instrument for the capitalization of gain and the socialization of cost."
  25. Grosse, Robert E. (2004). The future of global financial services. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 57–62. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1405117005.
  26. ameriki raajya California ek aise kshetr ka udaaharan hai jisme band nigmon ke atirikt nigmon ko apne naam ke baad nigam darja darshaane ki aavashyakta naheen hoti. California general nigam kaanoon 1977 ke sanshodhan ke draaftar dvaara California ke sabhi nigmon ko naam ke baad nigam darja darshaane ki sambhaavana par vichaar kiya gaya, lekin iske vipreet nirnaya liya gaya kyonki badi maatra mein nigmon ko apna naam badalna padta aur California mein naam ke baad darja na darshaane waali sansthaaon dvaara kisi ko bhi haani pahuainchane vaale sabooton ke abhaav mein aisa naheen hua. haalaanki, 1977 ke draaftar band nigmon ke liye vartamaan prakateekaran aavashkataaon ko laagoo karne mein saksham the. herold marsh, junior, aar. Roy finkal, lairi dablyoo. sonsini, end N von vaukar, marsh California kaurporeshan law, 4 sanskaran., khand. 1 (New York: espen prakaashak, 2004), 5-15 - 5-16.
  27. hiks, A. end goo, S.H. (2008) keses end matiriyl on company law Oxford university press adhyaaya 4
  28. ontaariyo ke paryaavaran sanrakshan adhiniyam ko udaaharan ke liye dekhein.
  29. kaurpavaach : the death penelti for kaurporeshan kams of ej
  30. A Chernichaw (1994), Oppressed Shareholders in Close Corporations: A Market-Oriented Statutory Remedy, Cardozo L. Rev., https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&crawlid=1&doctype=cite&docid=16+Cardozo+L.+Rev.+501&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&key=116829fdc5d5fc91ce646dd032dc16c4
  31. Means, Benjamin (October 15, 2008), A Voice-Based Framework for Evaluating Claims of Minority Shareholder Oppression in the Close Corporation, 97, Georgetown Law Journal, http://ssrn.com/abstract=1285204
  32. varamont state (America) ke liye sekretri state ki aadhikaarik website
  33. Adam smith, N inkveri inatoo the nechar end kaujes of the velth of nations 741 (klaireindan, Oxford 1776).
  34. enaraun kaurporeshan mein giraavat bade paimaane par nae vyaapaar oorja baajaar banaane ka prayaas karne ke kaaran aur laabh banaaye rakhane ke liye dhan de kar vyaapaar karne ki rananeeti ke kaaran hui. enaraun ki galatiyon ke poori tarah se vishleshan ke liye, dekhein kart ishenvaald, kaunsapiresi of fools (brodave books, New York 2005).

sandarbh

  • A.bi. dayuboyes, the english bijnis company aaftar the babal act, , (1938)
  • ek tulanaatmak granth soochi: regyuletari kaumpitishn on kaurporet law
  • bishp hant, the develapameint of the bijnes kaurporeshan in inglaind (1936)
  • blaambarg, Phillip I., the malteeneshanal chailenj too kaurporeshan law: the sarch for the new kaurporet parsanailiti, (1993
  • brombarg, elan aar. kren end brombarg on paartanaraship . 1968.
  • Bruce brown, the history of the kaurporeshan (2003)
  • si.A. kook, kaurporeshan, trast end company: a leegal history, (1950)
  • Charles freedamain, joint stock intarapraais in fraans,: fraum privelej company too modern kaurporeshan (1979)
  • konaard, elfred ऍf. kaurporeshan in parsapektiv . 1976.
  • dignam, A end lauri, J (2006) company law, Oxford university press ISBN 978-0-19-928936-3
  • arnst friyund, MCMaster.ca, the leegal nechar of the kaurporeshan (1897)
  • edavin merik dod, American bijnis kauraporeshans antil 1860, vith special refareins too maisaachusets, (1954)
  • John mikelthvet end edriyn vuldrij. the company: a short history of a revolyooshanari aaediya . New York: aadhunik pustakaalaya. 2003.
  • fredarik hailis, kaurporet parsanailiti: a stadi in jyoorisproodeins (1930)
  • hesen, Robert. in difens of the kaurporeshan . hoovar sansthaan. 1979. ISBN -X
  • John pi. Davis, kauraporeshans (1904)
  • John William kaidamain, the kaurporeshan in new jersey: bijnis end paulitiks, .(1949)
  • Joseph S. Davis, esej in the arliyr history of American kauraporeshans (1917)
  • clean aur kaufi. bijnis aurganaaijeshan end faainains: leegal end ikonomik prinsipls . foundation. 2002. ISBN-X
  • raadhe shyaam roongata, the raaij of the bijnis kaurporeshan in indiya, 1851–1900, (1970)
  • ramesh chandr majoomadaar, kaurporet life in eshiyant indiya , (1920)
  • Robert Charles meens, andaradevelapd end the develapameint of law: kauraporeshans end kaurporeshan law in naainateenth-seinchyuri kolombiya, (1980)
  • sobel, Robert. the ej of jaaint kaurporeshan: a micro ikonomik history of American bijnis . (1984)
  • Thomas oven, the kaurporeshan under rashiyn law,: a stadi in sairist ikonomik paulisi (1991)
  • dablyoo.aar. Scott, kansateetyooshan end faainains of english, skautish end aayarish joint-stock kanpaneej too 1720 (1912)

aage padhein

baahari links