nidra

soai hue bachche
billi ka bachcha so raha hai

nidra apekshaakrut nilambit samvedi aur sanchaalak gatividhi ki chetna ki ek praakrutik baar-baar aanevaali roopaantarit sthiti hai, jo lagbhag sabhi svaichhik maansapeshiyon ki nishkriyta ki visheshata liye hue hota hai.[1] ise ekdam se jaagrat avastha, jab kisi uddeepan ya uttejan par pratikriya karne ki kshamata kam ho jaati hai aur achetaavastha se bhi alag rakha jaata hai, kyonki sheet nidra ya coma ki tulana mein neend se baahar aana kaheen aasaan hai. neend ek unnat nirmaan kriya vishyak (enaabolik) sthiti hai, jo vikaas par jor deti hai aur jo rogaksham tantr (imyoon), tantrika tantr, kankaaleeya aur maansapeshi pranaali mein nayi jaan daal deti hai. sabhi stanapaayiyon mein, sabhi panchhiyon aur anek sareesrupon, ubhayacharon aur machhaliyon mein iska anupaalan hota hai.

neend ke uddeshya aur prakriya sirf aanshik roop se hi spasht hain aur ye gahan shodh ke vishay hain.[2]

anukram

shareeravijnyaaan

neend ke charan

raat bhar neend gahari neend ke saath chakr par aur adhik REM (laal rang mein) chihnit subah ki or.
stage N3 neend, laal box dvaara prakaash daala hua iiji.50% se adhik delta tarangon ke saath gahari neend ke tees second.
aaraiem (REM) nindra, laal box dvaara daala iiji (EEG); laal rekha se prakaash daala hua aankh aandolanon.sone ke tees second.

stanadhaariyon aur pakshiyon mein, nidra ko do mukhya bhaagon mein baanta jaata hai: tej netr gati (REM) aur gair-tej netr gati (NREM ya non-REM) neend. pratyek prakaar ek bhinn kism ki shaareerik, tantrika sambandhi aur manovaigyaanik visheshataaon ke set se jude hue hain. American ekedami of sleep medisin (AASM) ne NREM ko aur bhi teen staron mein vibhaajit kiya hai: N1, N2 aur N3. antim star ko delta sleep (delta nidra) ya slo-vev sleep (dheemi gati ki neend) (SWS) bhi kehte hain.[3]

REM aur NREM ke chakr mein nidra agrasar hoti jaati hai, kram saamaanya roop se N1 → N2 → N3 → N2 → REM hota hai. raat mein aarambh mein bahut adhik gahari neend (N3 star) hua karti hai, jabki raat mein baad mein aur praakrutik jaagaran se theek pehle REM neend ka anupaat badh jaata hai.

1937 mein sabse pehle alfred li loomis aur unke sahakarmiyon ne neend ke charanon ka varnan kiya tha; jinhonne neend ki vibhinn ilektroensefaalograafi visheshataaon ko paanch staron mein vibhaajit (A se E tak) kiya tha, jo jaagrataavastha se gahari nidra ke kram ka pratinidhitv karte hain.[4] 1953 mein, REM nidra ke bhinn roop ki khoj ki gayi aur is prakaar William dimeint aur naathaaniyl kleetamain ne nidra ko NREM charanon tatha REM mein punarvargeekrut kiya.[5] 1968 mein "aar end ke sleep scoring mainyual" mein alaan rechtsachaaffen aur enthoni kaales ne charanon ke maanadand ko maanakeekrut kiya.[6] aar end ke maanak mein, NREM nidra ko chaar charanon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya tha, dheemi-tarangon ki nidra charanon ko charan 3 aur 4 rakha gaya. charan 3 mein, delta tarangein kul tarang paitarn ka 50% se kam hoti hain, jabki charan 4 mein ye 50% se adhik ho jaaya karti hain. iske alaava, REM nidra ka ullekh kabhi-kabhi charan 5 ke roop mein kiya jaata tha.

2004 mein, AASM ne aar end ke scoring pranaali ki sameeksha ke liye AASM drushya scoring taask fors ko niyukt kiya. sameeksha se kai badlaav kiye gaye, inmein sabse mahatvapoorn raha charan 3 aur charan 4 ka charan N3 mein sanyojan. 2007 mein sanshodhit scoring the AASM mainual for scoring of sleep end associated iveints ke roop mein prakaashit hua.[7] uttejana aur shvaas prashvaas sambandhi, hrudaya sambandhi tatha gati vrutaanton ko bhi joda gaya.[8][9]

vishesheekrut nidra prayogashaala mein poleesomnograafi dvaara neend ke charan tatha neend ki anya visheshataaon ka aam taur par moolyaankan kiya jaata hai. liye gaye maap mein mastishk ki tarangon ka EEG, netr gati ka ilektrokyulograafi (EOG) aur kankaaleeya maansapeshi ki gatividhi ka ilektromaaiyograafi shaamil hain. manushyon mein, pratyek nidra chakr ausat 90 se 110 minute tak ke liye rahata hai,[10] aur pratyek charan ke alag-alag shaareerik kaarya ho sakte hain. isse neend to aa sakti hai aur behoshi jaisi haalat lag sakti hai, lekin isse shaareerik kaarya poore naheen hote (jaise ki, paryaapt neend lene ke baad bhi koi vyakti thaka hua mahasoos kar sakta hai).

enaaaraiem nidra

2007 ke eeesaem maanakon ke anusaar, enaaaraiem teen charanon ke hote hain. enaaaraiem mein apekshaakrut kam sapane aaya karte hain.

charan N1 mastishk ke sankraman se sambandhit hai, is charan mein mastishk 8 se 13 hartj (jaagrat sthiti mein aam) ki freekveinsi (baaranbaarata) ke alfa tarangon se 4 se 7 hartj freekveinsi ki theta tarangon mein sankraman karta hai. is charan ko kai baar uneendaapan ya oonghati neend kaha jaata hai. achaanak jhatka aana aur neend ke ubharane ko sakaaraatmak maayoklonas ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai, jo N1 ke dauraan neend ke aarambh ke saath juda ho sakta hai. kuchh logon ko is charan ke dauraan nidraajanak matibhram bhi ho sakta hai, jo unke liye pareshaani ka sabab ban sakta hai. N1 ke dauraan, vyakti kuchh maansapeshi dasha aur baahari vaataavaran ki sabse adhik sachet jaagrukta ganva deta hai.

charan N2 ki visheshata hai ki is dauraan neend ki takali 11 se 16 hartj aur ke-samashtiyon ke beech ghoomti rahati hai. is charan ke dauraan, jaisa ki EMG dvaara maapa gaya, maansapeshiyon ki gatividhi kam ho jaati hai aur baahari vaataavaran ke prati sachet jaagrukta gaayab ho jaati hai. vayaskon mein yeh charan kul neend ke 45% se 55% mein hua karta hai.

stage N3 (gahari ya dheemi-tarang neend) ka charitra chitran is tarah kiya jaata hai ki is dauraan delta tarangon ka kam se kam 20% 0.5 se 2 hartj ke beech hon aur choti-se-choti aayaam >75 μaV ka ho. (iiji maanak 0-4 hartj par delta tarangon ko paribhaashit karte hain, lekin mool aar end ke tatha nae 2007 ke eeesaem donon ke hi dishaanirdesh mein neend maanak ka kram 0.5 - 2 hartj hai.) isi charan mein raatri aatank, raatri shayyaamootr, neend mein chalana aur neend mein badabadaana jaise paaraasomaniyaai (neend ke anek vikaar) hua karte hain. kai drushtaant aur vivran abhi bhi 20% -50% delta tarangon ke saath N3 charan aur 50% se adhik delta tarangon ke saath N4 ko darshaate hain; ye sanyukt roop se charan N3 hain.

aaraiem nidra

tej netr gati neend, ya aaraiem neend, adhikaansh maanav vayaskon ki kul neend ka 20%–25% hua karti hai. aaraiem nidra ke liye maanadandon mein tej netr gati aur ek drut kam-voltej iiji shaamil hai. isi charan mein sabse yaadagaar sapane aaya karte hain. kam se kam stanadhaariyon mein, ek avarohi maansapeshi tanaav dekha gaya hai. is tarah ka pakshaaghaat jaruri ho sakta hai taaki shaareerik rachana ko aatm-kshati se bachaaya ja sake, jo ki is charan ke dauraan aksar aane vaale sajeev sapanon se shaareerik kriya ke jariye ho sakta hai.

samay

maanav jaivik ghadi

neend ka samay sirkaadiyn ghadi (circadian clock), sleep-vek homiyostesis dvaara niyantrit hai aur manushyon mein, kuchh seema ke andar, ichhaashakti vyavahaar par nirbhar hai. sirkaadiyn ghadi -ek bheetari samayanirdhaarak, taapamaan-asthirta, enjaaim-niyantrak upakaran- edenosaain ke saath agraanukram mein kaam karti hai, yeh ek aisa nyoorotraansameetar hai jo jaagrataavastha ke saath judi anek shaareerik prakriyaaon ko baadhit karta hai. edenosaain din bhar mein taiyaar hota hai; edenosaain ke uchch star se tandra aati hai. dinchar pashuon mein, haaramon melaatonin ke nirgaman ke kaaran sirkaadiyn tatv se aur shareer ke bheetari taapamaan mein kramik kami se tandra ya uneendaapan aaya karta hai. kiseeke kronotaaip dvaara samay prabhaavit hota hai. sirkaadiyn aavartan se ek sahi dhang se sanrachit aur svaasthyavarddhak nidra prakaran ka aadarsh samay nirdhaarit hota hai.[11]

homiyostetik nidra ki sahajapravrutti (pichhli paryaapt nidra prakaran ke baad se gujar chuki samay raashi ki ek kriya ke roop mein neend ki jarurat) ka santoshaprad neend ke liye sirkaadiyn tatv ke saath santulit hona jaruri hai.[12] sirkaadiyn ghadi se praapt sandesh ke saath-saath yeh shareer ko bataata hai ki ise neend ki jaroorat hai.[13] sirkaadiyn aavartan se neend se jagane ka mukhya roop se nirdhaaran hota hai. ek vyakti jo niyamit roop se jaldi uthata ya uthati hai, aam taur par vah apne saamaanya samay se adhik der tak soye naheen rah sakta ya sakti, yahaan tak ki bhale hi usane kam neend li ho.

neend ki avadhi DEC2 jeen dvaara prabhaavit hai. kuchh logon mein is jeen ka utparivrtan hota hai; ve saamaanya se do ghante kam sote hain. tantrika sambandhi vigyaan ki professor ying-hui foo aur unke sahayogiyon ne DEC2 utparivrtan liye choohon ki nasl paida ki, jo aam choohon ki tulana mein kam soya karte.[14][15]

maanav mein sarvotkrusht maatra

vayask

neend ki sarvotkrusht maatra koi arthapoorn avadhaarana naheen ho sakti, jab tak ki kisi vyakti ke sirkaadiyn aavartan ke saath jodkar neend ke samay ya timing ko na dekha jaaya. ek vyakti ka bada neend prakaran apekshaakrut nishfal aur aparyaapt ho sakta hai agar yeh din ke "galat" samay mein hota hai; vyakti ko shareer ke taapamaan ke nyoonatam hone se pehle kam se kam chh: ghante sona chaahiye. [16] sahi timing vo hai jab neend ke madhya prakaran ke baad aur jagane se pehle nimnalikhit do chihnak ya maarkar prakat ho jaaen:[17]

  • haarmon melaatonin ka adhiktam jamaav aur
  • nyoonatam bheetari shareer taapamaan.

maanav neend umr ke hisaab se aur vyaktiyon ke beech bhinn ho sakti hai aur agar din mein uneendaapan ya dushkriya na ho to neend ko paryaapt maana jaata hai.

vishvavidyaalaya California, saan Diego ke das lakh vayaskon ke ek man:chikitsa adhyayan mein paaya gaya ki jo log sabse adhik samay tak jeevit hain ve raat mein chh: se saat ghante roj swayam prerit hokar soya karte hain.[18] neend ki avadhi aur mahilaaon mein mrutyu dar ke jokhim par hue ek anya adhyayan mein bhi aisa hi parinaam paaya gaya.[19] anya adhyayanon se pata chalta hai ki "pratidin 7 se 8 ghante se adhik neend lene vaalon mein badhi hui mrutyu dar lagaataar judi hui hai", haalaanki is adhyayan ka yeh bhi kehna hai ki iska kaaran avasaad aur saamaajok-aarthik sthiti ho sakti hai, jo aankadon ki drushti se sah-sambandhit ho jaate hain.[20] yeh bhi kaha gaya hai ki alaarm lagaakar jagane vaalon ki tulana mein, jo log praakrutik roop se kam neend ke baad jag jaaya karte hain, sirf uname kam neend ke ghante aur kam rugnata ke beech sah-sambandh prakat hote hain.

nindra abhaav ke mukhya svaasth parinaam,[21] saamaanya rakharakhaav ke sone se haani ka sanket

vaaravik vishvavidyaalaya aur vishvavidyaalaya college London ke shodhakartaaon ne paaya ki neend ki kami hradaya rog se mrutyu ke khatre ko dugune se adhik badha deti hai, lekin bahut adhik neend bhi mrutyu ke khatre ko duguna karne ke saath judi ho sakti hai, haalaanki mukhya roop se hradaya rog se naheen.[22][23] professor Francisco kaipuseeo ne kaha, "chhoti neend ko vajan badhne, uchcharaktachaap aur taaip 2 madhumeh ke liye aur kabhi-kabhi mrutyu ke liye ek jokhim ka kaarak banta dekha gaya hai; lekin chhoti neend-mrutyu dar ke vipreet lambi neend ko badhi hui mrutyu dar se jod sakane ke liye koi sambhaavit tantr saamane naheen aaya hai, abhi iski jaanch hona baaki hai. kuchh log ismein shaamil hain lekin iske liye avasaad, nimn saamaajik-aarthik sthiti aur Cancer-sambandhit klaanti iski vajah rahe... rokathaam ke sandarbh mein, hamaare nishkarshon se pata chalta hai ki lagaataar prati raat saat ghante ke aaspaas sona svaasthya ke liye ishtatam ya sarvottam hai aur neend mein nirantar kami beemaar svaasthya ke liye pehle se pravrutt hona ho sakta hai."

iske alaava, neend ki kathinaaiyaan ghanishth roop se avasaad, madyapata aur dvidhruvi vikaar jaise manorog vikaaron se judi hain.[24] avasaad se grast vayaskon ke 90% tak mein neend ki kathinaaiyaan pai gayi hain. iiji mein paae gaye animyan (Dysregulation) mein neend ki nirantarata mein vighn, delta neend mein kami aur prasupti ke sambandh sahit badalate REM paitarn, raat bhar ka vibhaajan tatha netr gati ka ghanatv shaamil hain.[25]

umr ke saath ghante

viksit hone aur theek se kaam karne ke liye bachchon ko pratidin adhik neend ki jaroorat hoti hai: navajaat shishu ke liye 18 ghante tak, iske baad umr badhne ke saath-saath ismein kami aati jaati hai.[13] ek navajaat shishu rojaana lagbhag 9 ghante ki REM neend liya karta hai. paanch varsh ki aayu tak ya usase oopar, keval do ghante se jra jyaada REM neend liya karta hai.[26]

umr aur sthiti prati din ausat neend
navajaat 18 ghante tak
1–12 maheene 14–18 ghante
1–3 varsh 12–15 ghante
3–5 varsh 11–13 ghante
5–12 varsh 9–11 ghante
kishoravaya 9–10 ghante[27]
bujurg samet vayask 7–8(+) ghante
garbhavati mahilaaen 8 (+) ghante

sone ka karj

paryaapt aaraam aur neend naheen lene ka asar hai neend ka karj; aise bade karj maanasik, bhaavanaatmak aur shaareerik thakaan ka kaaran bante hain.

neend ke karj ke parinaamasvaroop uchch stareeya sanjnyaaanaatmak kaarya kar paane ki kshamata mein kami aati hai. nyoorofijiyolaujikl aur kaaryaatmak imejing adhyayanon ne dikhaaya hai ki mastishk ke saamane ke kshetr vishesh roop se homiyostetik neend dabaav ke liye pratikriyaasheel hain.[28]

vaigyaanik is baat par sahamat naheen hain ki kitna neend ka karj jama hona sambhav hai; kya yeh kisi vyakti ki ausat neend ke hisaab se jama hota hai ya koi anya maanadand hai; na hi haal ke dashakon mein audyogik vishv mein vayaskon mein neend ke karj ki prabalata mein koi ullekhaneeya badlaav aaya hai. yeh jarur hua hai ki pehle ki tulana mein pashchimi samaajon ke bachche kam so rahe hain.[29]

aanuvanshiki

aisa sandeh hai ki kab aur kitni der tak ek vyakti ko neend ki jaroorat hai, jaise neend se sambandhit vyavahaar ka ek bada parimaan, hamaare aanuvanshiki dvaara viniymit hota hai. shodhakartaaon ne kuchh saboot ki khoj ki hai jisse is dhaarana ko samarthan milta hua lagta hai.[30]

prakaarya

neend ke prakaarya ke baare mein anek siddhaanton ne apni-apni vyaakhya prastaavit ki hai, lekin aisa pratibinbit hota hai ki vishay ke baare mein samajhadaari filhaal adhoori hai. aisa sambhav hai ki kuchh maulik kaarya ko poora karne ke liye neend ka vikaas hua aur samay ke saath isne kai kaam apna liya. (upama ke taur par, sabhi stanapaayiyon ki kanthanali bhojan aur hava ke maarg ka niyantran karti hai, kintu manushyon mein inke alaava bolne ki kshamata alag se mili ho sakti hai.)

yeh mudda uthaaya gaya ki agar neend aavashyak naheen hoti, to yeh jaanane ki apeksha ki jaaegi:

  • vo pashu prajaatiyaan jo ki kabhi soti naheen hain
  • vo praani jinhein svaasthya laabh ke liye sone ki jaroorat naheen padti, jab ve saamaanya se kaheen adhik samay tak jage hote hain
  • vo praani jinhein neend ki kami se koi gambhir parinaam naheen bhugatne padte

aaj tak koi bhi pashu aisa naheen mila hai jo in maanadandon ko poora kar sake. [31]

anek mein se neend ke kuchh prastaavit kaarya nimnalikhit hain.

aarogyata

ek kuchchi aurat so rahi hai.

neend dvaara ghaav bharne mein sahaayata milte dekha gaya hai. 2004 mein gumustekin eight al.[32] dvaara kiye gaye ek adhyayan se pata chala ki neend ke abhaav ke kaaran choohon ke jale ko theek hone mein baadha aayi.

yeh paaya gaya hai ki neend ki kshati rogaksham (imyoon) pranaali ko prabhaavit karti hai. 2007 mein jaager eight al. dvaara kiye gaye ek adhyayan mein,[33] choohon ko 24 ghante tak neend se vanchit rakha gaya. jab ek niyantrit samooh ke saath tulana ki gayi to neend se vanchit choohon ke rakt pareekshan mein shvet rakt kan ganana mein 20% ki kami paayi gayi, jo ki rogaksham pranaali mein ek mahatvapoorn parivartan hai. ab yeh kaha jaana sambhav hai ki "neend ki kshati rogaksham kaarya ko ksheen karti hai aur rogaksham neend mein herafer ki chunauti pesh karta hai," aur yeh bataaya gaya ki stanadhaari praani jo ki lambi neend mein apna samay lagaaya karte hain ve rogaksham pranaali mein nivesh karte hain, kyonki jin prajaatiyon ki lambi neend hua karti hai unamein adhik shvet rakt kan hua karte hain.[34]

yeh pramaanit hona abhi baaki hai ki neend ki avadhi daihik vikaas ko prabhaavit karti hai. 2007 mein Jenny eight al.[35] dvaara ek adhyayan mein 305 bachchon ke vikaas, oonchaai aur vajan ko darj kiya gaya, yeh unke maata-pita ke saath sahasambaddh hokar kiya gaya, maata-pita dvaara bachchon ke sone ke samay ki jaankaari di jaati rahi aur yeh adhyayan nau varshon (umr 1-10) tak chala. yeh paaya gaya ki "bachchon mein neend ki avadhi mein badlaav ka asar unke vikaas par hota naheen lagta hai." yeh dekha gaya ki neend-aur adhik vishesh roop se dheemi gati ki neend (SWS)- vayask purushon ke haarmon staron ki vruddhi ko prabhaavit karti hai. aath ghante ki neend ke dauraan, vaan kaautar, leprault aur plaat[36] ne paaya ki jin logon mein SWS ka ooncha pratishat (ausat 24%) raha unamein haarmon sraav ki oonchi sanvruddhi bhi rahi, jabki lam pratishat SWS vaalon mein haarmon ki nimn vruddhi (ausat 9%) rahi.

neend ke svasthyakaari kaarya ke paksh mein anek tark hai. neend ke dauraan chayaapachaya charan surgeon kriya hai; neend ke dauraan sanvruddhi haarmon (jaisa ki oopar ullekh kiya gaya hai) jaise surgeon kriya haarmon jaise adhimaanya dhang se sraavit hote hain. saamaanyat:, prajaatiyon mein neend ki avadhi, jaanavar ke aakaar se vipreet dhang se sambandhit hai aur seedhe-seedhe aadhaareeya chayaapachaya dar se judi hui hai. ek bahut hi uchch aadhaareeya chayaapachaya dar ke saath choohe rojaana 14 ghante tak ki neend liya karte hain, jabki haathi aur jiraaf nimn aadhaareeya chayaapachaya dar ke saath maatr 3-4 ghante hi sote hain.

vaataavaran se aindrik rachana ko band kiye bina shaanti se aaraam karne ke jariye oorja sanrakshan sampann kiya ja sakta hai, jo sanbhavat: ek khatarnaak sthiti hai. ek mand naheen sone wala jaanavar ki shikaariyon se bache rahane ki adhik sambhaavana hai, jabki tab bhi vah oorja sanrakshan karta rahata hai. so, neend, oorja sanrakshan karne ke alaava anya uddeshya ya uddeshyon ko poora karti lagti hai; udaaharan ke liye, suptaavastha vaale pashu sheetanidra se jagane ke baad suptaavastha ki avadhi ke dauraan neend poori naheen hone ke kaaran fir se neend mein chale jaate hain. ve nishchit roop se achhi tarah se aaraam kar chuke hote hain aur sheetanidra ke dauraan oorja sanrakshan bhi kiya hai, lekin kuchh anya kaaran se unhein sone ki jaroorat hai.[37] jin choohon ko anishchitkaal tak jagaaye rakha jaata hai, unamein tvacha ke jakhm, haayaparafegiya (atyadhik bhookh), shareer pind ka nuksaan, alpataap aur antat:, ghaatak saiptiseemiya ka vikaas hota hai.[38]

vyaktivrutt

REM neend ki ontojenetik (vyaktivrutt) parikalpana ke anusaar, navajaat shishu sambandhi REM neend (ya sakriya neend) ke dauraan hone waali gatividhi khaaskar shareer ke vikaas ke liye mahatvapoorn hai (maarks eight al., 1995). sakriya neend ke abhaav ke prabhaavon par kiye gaye adhyayanon se pata chala ki jeevan ke aarambh mein is abhaav se vyavahaar ki samasyaaen, sthaayi neend vighn, mastishk pind mein kami (mirmiraan eight al., 1983) aur ek asaamaanya parimaan mein nyooron koshikaaon ki mrutyu (morise, dantali end ench, 2004) ki samasyaaen paida hoti hain.

mastishk ke vikaas ke liye REM neend mahatvapoorn prateet hota hai. shishuon ki neend ke adhikaansh bhaag par REM neend ka hi kabja hota hai, shishu apna adhik samay neend mein hi gujaara karte hain. vibhinn prajaatiyon mein, janm lenevaala shishu jitna adhik aparipkv hota hai, vah utana hi adhik samay REM neend mein bitaata hai. prastaavakon ka yeh bhi kehna hai ki mastishk sakriyn ki upasthiti mein REM-prerit maansapeshi avarodhan se chetopaagam ko sakriya karne ke jariye mastishk vikaas mein madad milti hai, tathaapi kisi sanchaalak parinaam ke bagair isse shishu mushkil mein pad sakta hai. iske atirikt, REM neend ke abhaav se baad ke jeevan mein vikaas ki asaamaanyataaen paida hoti hain.

baharahaal, iski vyaakhya naheen ki gayi hai ki praudh vayaskon ko tab bhi kyon REM neend ki jaroorat padti hai. jaleeya stanapaayi shishu shaishavaavastha mein REM neend naheen lete;[39] umr badhne ke saath aise pashuon mein REM neend badhti jaati hai.

smruti prakraman

inhein bhi dekhein: nidra aur gyaan, nidra aur rachanaatmakata, evam nidra aur smaran

vaigyaaniko ne aise anek tareeke bataaye hain jinmein neend ko smruti se sambandhit dikhaaya gaya hai. turner, dramand, salaamat aur brown dvaara kiye gaye ek adhyayan[40] mein neend ke abhaav se kaaryarat smruti par prabhaav padta dikhaaya gaya. kaaryarat smruti mahatvapoorn hai kyonki yeh nirnaya lene, tark-vitrk karne aur praasangik smruti jaise uchch stareeya sanjnyaaanaatmak kaaryon ke adhik prakraman aur madad ke liye soochanaaon ko sakriya rakhata hai. adhyayan mein 18 mahilaaon aur 22 purushon ko chaar dinon ki avadhi mein prati raat sirf 26 minute hi sone ki anumati di gayi. in vyaktiyon ne poore aaraam ke baad shuruaat mein sanjnyaaanaatmak pareekshan diye aur fir chaar dinon mein neend ke abhaav ke dauraan din mein do baar pareekshan kiye gaye. antim pareekshan mein, niyantrit samooh ki tulana mein is neend-abhaavagrast samooh ki ausat kaaryarat smruti vistaar mein 38% ki giraavat paayi gayi.

REM aur dheemi gati (ya tarang) ki neend (SWS) jaise neend ke kuchh charanon dvaara smruti alag tarah se prabhaavit hoti jaan padti hai. born, raasch aur ges mein uddhrut,[41] ek adhyayan mein anek maanav vishyon ka upayog kiya gaya tha: jaagaran niyantrit samoohon aur neend pareekshan samoohon ka. neend aur jaagaran samoohon ko ek kaarya sikhaaya gaya aur fir sabhi pratibhaagiyon mein santulit roop se raat ke kram mein, raat ki shuruaat aur der raat donon hi samay pareekshan kiya gaya. jab neend ke dauraan un pratibhaagiyon ke mastishk ko scan kiya gaya to hipnograam ne paaya ki raat ke aarambh mein neend ka charan SWS haavi rahata hai, jo neend charan gatividhi ka ausatan 23% ke aaspaas ka pratinidhitv karta hai. niyantrit samooh ki tulana mein, ghoshanaatmak smruti pareekshan mein aaranbhik-raatri pareekshan samooh ne 16% behtar pradarshan kiya. der-raatri neend ke dauraan, lagbhag 24% ke saath REM sabse sakriya neend ka charan ban gaya aur niyantrit samooh ki tulana mein prakriyaatmak smruti pareekshan mein der-raatri pareekshan samooh ne 25% behtar pradarshan kiya. isse pata chalta hai ki der-raatri REM-sampann neend se prakriyaatmak smruti ko laabh milta hai, jabki aaranbhik-raatri SWS-sampann neend se ghoshanaatmak smruti ko laabh hota hai.

datta dvaara kiye gaye ek adhyayan[42] mein in parinaamon ka paroksh roop se samarthan kiya gaya hai. 22 nar choohon ko adhyayan ka paatr banaaya gaya tha. ek aise dibbe ka nirmaan kiya gaya tha jismein ek chooha maje se ek chhor se doosare chhor tak aa-ja sake. dibbe ki tali ispaat ki jaali se banaayi gayi thi. ek dhvani ke saath dibbe mein ek roshani chamakati. paanch second baad, bijli ka jhatka lagaaya jaata. jhatka shuroo hote hi chooha dibbe ke doosare chhor par chala jaata, tab jhatka turant hi samaapt ho jaata. choohe bhi paanch second deri ka upayog karke dibbe ke doosare chhor ja sakte the aur is tarah jhatke se poori tarah bach sakte the. jhatke ki avadhi kabhi bhi paaainch second se adhik naheen rahi. aadhe choohon par ise 30 baar duharaaya gaya. anya aadhe, niyantran samooh, ko usi pareekshan mein rakha gaya, lekin unki pratikriya par dhyaan diye bina choohon ko jhatka diya gaya. pratyek prashikshan satr ke baad, choohe ko poligraafik rikaurding ke liye chhah ghante tak ek rikaurding pinjare mein rakha jaata. yeh prakriya lagaataar teen dinon tak duharaayi gayi. is adhyayan mein paaya gaya pareekshan ke baad neend ki neend rikaurding satr ke dauraan, choohon ne niyantran pareekshanon ke baad ki tulana mein, abhyaas pareekshanon ke baad REM neend mein 25.47% adhik samay bitaaya. ye pareekshan born eight al. adhyayan ke parinaamon ka samarthan karte hain, inse REM neend aur prakriyaatmak gyaan ke beech sahasanbandh ka ek spasht sanket milta hai.

datta adhyayan ka ek avlokan yeh hai ki pareekshan ke baad rikaurding satr ke dauraan niyantran samooh ki tulana mein neend abhyaas samooh ne SWS mein 180% adhik samay bitaaya. is tathya ko kudreemoti, barns aur maikanautan dvaara kiye gaye ek adhyayan se samarthan mila. [43] is adhyayan se pata chalta hai ki sthaanik khoj gatividhi ke baad, prayog mein hippokaimpal ki koshikaaon ka paitarn SWS ke dauraan pun:sakriya hota hai. kudreemoti eight al. ke ek adhyayan mein, kisi chhor mein inaam ka upayog karke saat choohon ko ek rekheeya track (maarg) mein daudaaya gaya. choohon ko track mein anukool hone ke liye 30 minute tak rahane diya gaya (poorv), fir unhein inaam-aadhaarit prashikshan ke liye track mein 30 minute tak daudaaya gaya (daud) aur fir unhein 30 minute tak aaraam karne diya gaya. in teen pratyek avadhiyon ke dauraan, choohon ki neend ke charanon ki soochana ke liyeiiji deta ekatr kiye gaye. kudreemoti eight al. ne SWS (poorv) ke poorv-vyavahaar ke dauraan hippokaimpal ki koshikaaon ki meen firing rets (mean firing rates) ko aur saat choohon ke ausatan 22 track -daud dvaara SWS (baad ka) ke uttar-vyavahaar mein teen baar rakhe das minute ke avakaash ko pariklit kiya. nateeje bataate hain ki pareekshan daud satr ke baad ke das minute mein poorv star ki tulana mein hippokaimpal ki koshikaaon ki meen firing rate mein 12% ki vruddhi dekhi gayi; haalaanki 20 minute ke baad, meen firing rate teji se poorv star par vaapas laut gayi. sthaanik anveshan ke baad SWS ke dauraan hippokaimpal ki koshikaaon ki firing mein vruddhi se samjha ja sakta hai ki aakhir kyon datta ke adhyayan mein SWS neend ka star badh gaya tha, kyonki yeh bhi sthaanik anveshan ke ek roop se sambaddh tha.

SWS ke dauraan dheeme dolan ke parimaan ko badhaane ke liye puromukheeya valkal (prefrontal cortex) mein ekadish dhaara uttejan (direct current stimulation) ko shaamil karte hue ek adhyayan hua (maarshal eight al., jaisa ki vaakar mein uddhrut, 2009). ekadish dhaara uttejan ne agale din shabd-jodi smaran mein bahut vruddhi kar di, isse yeh pramaan mila ki praasangik smrutiyon ke samekan mein SWS ek badi bhoomika nibhaata hai.[44]

vibhinn adhyayanon ka yeh kehna hain ki neend aur smruti ke jatil kaaryon ke beech ek sah-sambandh hai. Harvard ke neend shodhakarta sapar aur stikgold[45] ka kehna hai ki smruti aur abhyaas ka ek aavashyak hissa tantrika koshika drumaashm (dendrites) se yukt hota hai, jo nae nyooronal sanparkon mein sangathit hone ke liye koshika pind ko soochana bhejata hai. is prakriya ki maang hai ki koi baahari jaankaari in drumaashmon ko prastut naheen ki jaaya aur yeh bhi kaha gaya ki sanbhavat: iseeliye neend ke samay smrutiyaan aur gyaan thos aur vyavasthit hoti hain.

parirkshan

"parirkshan aur sanrakshan" ke siddhaant ka maanana hai ki neend anukoolaneeya kaarya karti hai. din ke 24 ghanton ke un bhaagon mein jab praani ki raksha karta hai, jab vah jaga hota hai aur iseeliye aaspaas ghoomta rahata hai aur jab vyakti bade jokhim mein hota hai.[46] jeev ko bhojan karne ke liye 24 ghante ki jaroorat naheen hoti aur vah anya jarooraton ko poora karta hai. anukoolan ke is drushtikon se, jeev nuksaan ke raaste se door rahate hain, jahaan ve anya sambhaavit majaboot jeevon ka shikaar ban sakte hain. ve usi samay neend lete hain jo unki suraksha ko adhiktam banaata hai, unhein shaareerik kshamata aur unka aavaas pradaan karta hai. (eleesan aur sichchetti, 1976; vebb, 1982).

haalaanki, yeh siddhaant iski vyaakhya karne mein vifal raha ki aakhir kyon saamaanya neend ke dauraan baahari vaataavaran se mastishk ka sambandh toot jaata hai. is siddhaant ke khilaaf ek aur tark hai ki neend mahaj vaataavaran se pashuon ko alag karne ka ek nishkriya parinaam naheen hai, balki ek "drive" hai;neend lene ke kram mein pashu apne vyavahaar mein tabdili let hai. isliye, gatividhi aur nishkriyta ki avadhi ki vyaakhya ke liye sirkaadiyn viniyman paryaapt se adhik hai, jo jeev ke liye anukoolaneeya hai, lekin neend ki aur bhi adhik ajeeb vishishtataaen sanbhavat: anya tatha agyaat kaaryon ko poora karti hain. iske alaava, parirkshan siddhaant ko yeh vyaakhya karne ki jaroorat hai ki Singh jaise maansaahaari, jo khaadya shrrunkhala mein sabse oopar hain aur jinhein adhik bhaya bhi naheen hai, kyon bahut adhik soya karte hain. yeh kaha gaya hai ki ve jab shikaar par naheen hote tab unhein oorja ksharan ko kam karne ki jaroorat hoti hai.

parirkshan siddhaant iski bhi vyaakhya naheen karta hai ki jaleeya stanapaayi chalte hue kyon soya karte hain. in samvedansheel ghanton ke dauraan nishkriyta vahi karti hai aur adhik laabhaprad ban jaati hai, kyonki praani tab bhi shikaariyon aadi ki tarah ki paryaavaran chunautiyon ka saamana karne mein saksham hota hai. nidraaheen raat ke doshapoorn anukoolan ke baad neend fir se palat kar aati hai, lekin spasht roop se kisi kaaran se hi aati hai. apne sone ke samay kisi Singh se apni jaan bachaane mein laga hua ek jebara din ke samay neend se nidhaal hokar so jaata hai, jo shikaar banane se kam naheen, kaheen adhik asurakshit hai.

svapn

neend ke dauraan samvedi chhaviyon aur dhvaniyon ke anubhav ko mahasoos karne ko sapane dekhna kehte hain, anukram mein aanevaale sapanon ko svapnadarshi ek paryavekshak ke bajaay ek prakat bhaageedaar ki tarah aam taur par mahasoos kiya karta hai. sapane dekhna pons (mastishk ka sanyojak ansh) dvaara utprerit hota hai aur neend ke REM charan ke dauraan adhikaanshat: sapane aaya karte hain.

sapane ke kaarya ke baare mein logon ne anek avadhaaranaaen pesh ki hain. sigmand fraayad ne nirvivaad roop se maan liya ki sapane un apoorn ichhaaon ki abhivyakti hain jo achetan man mein daal ya feink di jaati hain aur unhonne in ichhaaon ki khoj ke liye manovishleshan ke roop mein sapanon ki vyaakhya ka upayog kiya. dekhein fraayad: the intarapriteshan of dreams

fraayad ka kaam sapanon ki manovaigyaanik bhoomika se sambandhit hai, jo spasht roop se kisi bhi shaareerik bhoomika ke ho sakane ko chhod naheen deta. isliye haal ke smruti aur anubhav ke vyavasthaapan aur samekan mein badhti aadhunik dilchaspi dvaara isse inkaar naheen kiya gaya hai. haal ke shodh ka daava hai ki abhyaas aur anubhav ke dauraan chetopaagam sanparkon ke samekan aur vyavasthaapan ki samagr bhoomika neend ki hai.

John elan haubsan aur Robert maikakaarle ka sakriyn sanshleshan siddhaantakahata hai ki REM avadhi mein dimaagi valkal mein hone waali nyooron ki andhaadhundh firing se sapane aaya karte hain. is siddhaant ke anusaar, agramastishk tab saamanjasya sthaapit karne aur atarkasangat samvedi soochana prastut karke arth nikaalne ke prayaas mein ek kahaani bunata hai; iseeliye anek sapane ajeeb prakruti ke hote hain.[47]

neend par Khan-paan ka prabhaav

nidraajanak

  • anidra ke roopon ke ilaaj ke liye doctoron dvaara sujhaaye esjopeeklon (lunesta), jaaleplon (sonaata) aur jolpeedem (embiyen) jaise naunabenjodaayapaain hipnotiks davaaon ka aam upayog hota hai. naunabenjodaayapaain goliyaan bahut aam dhang se niyat ki jaati hain aur OTC neend ki goliya vishv star par istemaal hoti raheen aur 1990 ke dashak se inke istemaal mein bahut vruddhi hui hai. ve gaabaA (GABAA) riseptar ko lakshya karti hain.
  • beinjodaayajepaain bhi gaabaA riseptar ko lakshya karti hain aur usi roop mein, ve aam taur par neend ki dava ka bhi istemaal karti hain, haalaanki paaya gaya hai ki beinjodaayajepaain REM neend mein kami laati hai.[48]
  • enteehistemaains, jaise ki dipehenahaaidremaain (benaadril) aur dokseelemaain (vibhinn OTC davaaon mein paayi jaati hai, jaise ki naaikuil)
  • sharaab - aksar log sone ke liye sharaab peena shuroo karte hain (aarambh mein sharaab ek shaamak hai aur uneendaapan ka kaaran hai, neend ko protsaahan deta hai). [49] haalaanki, sharaab ki lat lag jaane ke baad isse neend mein vighn padti hai, kyonki der raat mein sharaab ka ulta prabhaav hota hai. parinaamasvarup, madyapata aur anidra ke roopon ko jodne ke thos saboot hain.[50] sharaab REM neend ko bhi kam kar deti hai.[48]
  • baarbeetyurets se oongh aaya karti hai aur iska asar sharaab jaisa hota hai, iska bhi ulta prabhaav (rebound effect) padta hai aur isse REM neend vighnit hoti hai. so deerghaavadhi mein neend laane ke liye iska upayog naheen kiya jaata.[51]
  • melaatonin ek svaabhaavik roop se aanevaala haarmon hai jo jhapaki ko niyantrit karta hai. yeh mastishk mein banta hai, jahaan traaiptofain serotonin mein parivrtit hota hai aur tab melaatonin mein, jo ki raat mein sheershagranthi dvaara sraavit hokar neend laane aur use kaayam rakhane ka kaam karta hai. neend ki daava ke roop mein melaatonin anupooran ka istemaal kiya ja sakta hai, haayapnotik aur kronobaayotik donon ke roop mein (dekhein phase respons karv, peeaarasi).
  • madhyaahn vishraam aur "bhojanoparaant jhapaki" - anek logon mein din ke bhojan ke baad asthaayi roop se ek oongh chha jaati hai, jise aam taur par "bhojanoparaant jhapaki" kehte hain. jab koi vyakti pet bhar kar khaana khaata hai to use neend aane lagti hai, dopahar ke bhojan ke baad aanevaali jhapaki jyaadaatar jaivik ghadi ka prabhaav hota hai. svaabhaavik roop se logon ko din mein 12 ghante ke antar mein do baar neend aane lagti hai (sabse jyaada "joron se neend" aati hai)—audaaharan ke liye poorvaahn 2 baje aur madhyaahn do baje, in do samay mein shareer ki ghadi "baj uthati hai". madhyaahn lagbhag 2 baje (14:00), yeh samasthaapit bakaaya neend par haavi ho jaati hai, isse kai ghanton tak jagana pad jaata hai. poorvaahn lagbhag 2 baje rojaana ki bakaaya neend poori hone ke saath yeh fir se kuchh aur ghante ki neend ko sunishchit karne ke liye "baj uthati hai."
  • traaiptofain – ameeno esid traaiptofain proteen ke bahut saare prakhand hai. kehte hain neend ki khumaari mein inheen ka yogadaan hota hai, choonki yeh nyarotraansameetar serotonin ka poorvalakshan hai, neend ko niytrit karne mein iski bhoomika hoti hai. haalaanki, maamooli aahaar se traaiptofain ke parivartan ka neend jude hone ka koi thos aankada abhi tak praapt naheen hai.

uttejak padaarth

  • emfaitaimaains (emfaitemin (amphetamines), deksatroemfetaimaains (dextroamphetamine) methamfaitaimaains (methamphetamine) vagairah) aksar neend ki beemaari (narcolepsy) tatha edeeechadi (ADHD) vikaar ke ilaaj ke liye istemaal hota hai aur jab iska istemaal mauj-masti ke liye hota hai to ise "raftaar" kaha ja sakta hai. inke aam prabhaav chinta, anidra, uttejana, satarkata badhaane aur bhookh ki kami hai.
  • kaifeen ek tarah ka uttejak padaarth hai, jisse mastishk mein haarmons ki sakriyta ki gati ko dheema kar dete hai, jiske kaaran uneendaapan, khaas taur par edenosaain abhigraahak ke pratidvandvi ke roop mein kaam karta hai.

prabhaavi khuraak kuchh had tak poorv mein upayog par nirbhar karta hai. jaise-jaise iska asar khatm hone lagta hai to yeh satarkata mein ek teji ka karan ho sakta hai.

  • kokeen aur vishuddh kokeen - kokeen par hue adhyayan mein iske prabhaav ko sarkediyn ridm pranaali ke jariye dikhaaya gaya hai.[52] ho sakta hai is haaiparasomiya (atinidra) ka hamla "kokeen se prerit nidra vikaar" se sambandhit ho. [53]
  • oorja peya - oorja peya ka uttejak prabhaav kaifeen aur shakkar jaise uttejak padaarthon se aata hai aur ve kaifeen ki hi tarah satarkata mein ekabaaragi teji se kami kar deinge.
  • emadeeemae (MDMA) samet emadeee (MDA), ya emaemadeee (MMDA), emadeeemae (MDMA) ya beeke-emadeeemae (bk-MDMA) – shreni ke maadak padaarth empaithojen-enataiktojens kahalaata hai, yeh upayogakartaaon ko ullaasonmaad ke saath jagaaye rakhata hai. saamaanyat: "paramaanand" ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.
  • methelfenidet (methylphenidate) – aamtaur par ritaalin (Ritalin) aur kaunserta (Concerta) brand ke naam se jaana jaata hai, kaam mein yeh emfetaamaains aur kokeen ke saamaan hai.

nidra se sambandhit kathinaai ke kaaran

kharaab neend ke kai kaaran hain. nimnalikhit svaasthyakar neend ke siddhaant shaareerik ya bhaavanaatmak samasyaaon ka hal ho sakte hain.[54] jab iske peechhe vajah dard, beemaari, davaaen, ya tanaav hai, to iske kaaran ka ilaaj kiya jaana chaahiye. (praathamik, S (sahit nidra ashvasan, aunghana (narcolepsy), praathamik bechaini se ang aandolan vikaar (PLMD), restales leg sindrom (RLS (aaraelaes)) aur sirkaadiyn ridm nidra vikaar (circadian rhythm sleep disorders) samet) nidra vikaar ilaaj yogya hain.

bujarg vyakti maahaul mein gadbadi se aasaani se jag jaate hain[55] aur kuchh had tak achhi neend lene ki kshamata kho de sakte hain.

nidra sahaayak ke roop mein vibhinn tarah ke peteint, utpaad aur neend ki takaneek ke roop mein upalabdh hain, jo behtar rakt sanchaalan aur shareer ke dard ko kam karne ke liye neend ke dauraan svaabhaavik sthiti ki anumati dete hain. choonki maanav itihaas mein khaat ya palang ka aavishkaar apekshaakrut abhi haal hi mein hua hai,[56] isliye is tarah ke tareeke vaapas jameen par sone ki salaah dene se lekar aise utpaad jo aapke paanvon se kambal ko door karta ho,[57] se lekar anek prakaar ke "smruti fom" ki kramabaddhata ki aur le jaata hai, jo ek vyakti ko dharaatal ke anukool banaata hai.[58]

iske alaava so jaane ki kashamakash ya neend aane se rokane ka aagrah yahaan tak ki kshanabhar ke liye "doosari praathamikta" ko sakriya kar sakta hai, jo tab asthaayi roop se jaane ke baad jara ‍akathin ho ja sakta hai.

nidra ka nruvijnyaaan

shodh se pata chalta hai ki nidra ka paitarn vibhinn sanskrutiyon mein alag-alag tarah ka hai.[59][60] samaajon mein sabse bada antar yeh hai ki kaheen bade paimaane par krutrim roshani ke srot hain aur kaheen naheen hain.[59] praathamik antar jo najar aata hai vah yeh hai ki puraani sanskatiyon mein nidra ka paitarn kaheen adhik bhangur raha hai.[59] udaaharan ke liye, logon ko ho sakta hai sooraj doobne ke turant baad log so jaaen, iske baad poori raat bhar baar-baar bahut baar jag jaate hain, jag-jag kar sone ki ruk-ruk kar chalti rahati hai, shaayad ghanton yeh chalta rahata hai.[59] sone aur jaagane ke beech ki seema an samaajon mein aspasht hai.[59] kuchh paryavekshakon ka maanana hai ki in samaajon mein neend ek du:svapn hai jahaan neend do avadhi ke beech mein toot jaati hai, pehla hissa gahari neend ka hota hai aur doosra hissa REM nidra ka.[59]

kuchh samaajon mein nidra ka paitarn khandit hota hai, jismein log ‍apoore din bhar sote hain aur raat mein thode samay ke liye. bahut saare khaanaabadosh ya shikaari-framar samaajon mein log poore din ya raat bhar sote-jagate rahate hain, yeh is baat par nirbhar karta hai ki kab kya kuchh ho raha hai.[59] kam se kam madhya 19veen sadi se audyogik pashchimi deshon mein bade paimaane par krutrim roshani upalabdh hone lagi aur prakaash vyavastha ki shuruaat hone se sabhi jagah neend ke paitarn mein ullekhaneeya badlaav aaya.[59] saamaanya taur par, log raat ke samay sone jaane ke bahut baad atyant gahari neend mein hote hain, haalaanki hamesha aisa sach naheen hota hai.[59]

kuchh samaajon mein, aam taur par log kam se kam ek anya vyakti (kabhi kabhi kai) ke saath ya fir jaanvaron ke saath sote hain. kuchh anya sanskrutiyon mein, log sabse antarang parijan jaise ki pati-patni ko chhodkar virle hi kisi ke saath sote hain. lagbhag sabhi samaajon mein, saath mein sonevaala saathi saamaajik niyamon dvaara niyantrit hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, ho sakta hai ve keval sabse najadeeki parivaar, vistaarit parivaar, pati-patni, unke bachche, har umr ke bachche, har vishisht ling, ling vishesh ke saathi, mitr, samaan saamaajik haisiyat ke mitr ya fir kisi ke saath bhi naheen hote hain. sona bagair kisi adchan ya shor ke sakriya saamaajik samay ho sakta hai, sonevaale samooh par yeh nirbhar karta hai.[59]

log alag-alag kism ke sthaanon par sote hain. koi seedhe jameen par so jaata hai, doosra koi kisi chaadar ya kanbal par aur kuchh log takhti ya khaat par sote hain. kuchh kanbal par, kuchh takiyon ke saath, kuchh saadhaaran sirhaane ke saath aur kuchh sir ko bagair koi sahaara diye sote hain. ye vikalp bahut saare kaarakon ke dvaara masalan; aabohava, hamlaavaron se raksha ke liye, ghar ke kism, takaneek aur keede-kamaude ke utpaat ko dekhte hue tay hote hain.[59]

amaanavon mein neend

Japani makaak so rahi hai.

kuchh pashuon mein snaayavik nidraavasthaaon ka pata lagaana kathin ho sakta hai. in maamalon mein, nidra ko paribhaashit karne ke liye aacharan visheshataaon ka upayog kiya ja samakata hai; masalan, kam se kam hilna-dulana, prajaatiyon ki vishisht mudraaen aur baahari uttejana se pratikriyaasheelata ka kaam hona. sheetanidra ya coma ke vipreet, neend ya nidra teji se utkramaneeya hota hai aur neend ki kami hone ke baad pratikriya svaroop lambi aur gahari neend aati hai. shaakaahaari pashu, jinhein apna aahaar ikattha karne ya khaane ke liye lambe samay tak chalne ki jaroorat hoti hai, aamtaur par pratidin kam avadhi ki neend lete hain, banispat maansaahaari pashuon ke, jo kai dinon tak baithe-bithaaye maans ki aapoorti ho jaane par achha aahaar grahan kar sakte hain.

ghode aur iski hi tarah khuravaale anya shaakaahaari pashu khade-khade ho sakte hain, lekin lekin aaraiem (REM) nidra ke liye (maansapeshiyon mein kamjori ke kaaran) anivaarya roop se jaroori hai ki thode samay ke liye let jaae. udaaharan ke liye, jiraaf ko keval REM neend ke liye ek baar mein kuchh minton ke liye let ki jaroorat hoti hai. chamagaadad ulta latak kar sota hai. kuchh jalachar stanapaayi aur kuchh pakshi aadhe mastishk ki neend so sakte hain, jabki unka aadha mastishk jaga rahata hai, tathaakathit roop se ise ek or ka pramastishkeeya golaarth ki dheemi gati ki nidra (unihemispheric slow-wave sleep) kehte hai.[61] pakshiyon aur stanapaayiyon mein gair REM aur REM neend ka chakr hota hai (jaisa ki oopar maanav ke liye varnit hai), haalaanki pakshiyon ka chakr bahut chhota hota hai aur unke maansapeshi ka ton (shithil ho jaana) ek had tak kharaab naheen hota, jaisa ki stanadhaariyon ka hota hai.

bahut saare stanapaayi chhoti umr mein prati 24 ghante ki avadhi mein lambe-lambe anupaat ke liye sote hain.[62] haalaanki, ‍akeelar vhel kuchh daulfin apne jeevan ke pehle maheene ke dauraan naheen soti hain.[63] in antaron ki vyaakhya is tarah se ki ja sakti hai ki thalachar stanapaayiyon ke navajaat jab sote hain tab ve apne maata-pitaaon dvaara sanrakshit hote hain, jabki samudreeya jeevon ke liye nanheen si umr mein bhi, apne shikaariyon se lagaataar satark hona jaroori hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • alaarm ghadi
  • kortisol jaagaran pratikriya
  • duniya dreem (bhookhand yantr)
  • maikrosleep
  • moravan ka sindrom
  • raashtreeya neend nirmaan
  • neend vikaar
  • neend ki dava
  • akas‍aamaat shishu mrutyu sindrom

sthitiyon, prathaaon aur vidhishaastr

  • neend ki sthiti
  • sah-nindra
  • mohaavas‍aatha
  • dhyaan
  • tatasth reedh
  • neend svachhata
  • yoga nidra

nots

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sandarbh

baahari links

Wiktionary-logo-en.png
nidra ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.
  • HealthySleep.med.harvard.edu, fraum the divijn of sleep medisin eight Harvard medical skul end dablyoojeebeeech (WBGH) edukeshanal faundeshan
  • PLOSjournals.org, kya neend aavashyak hai? cheeara sirelli aur jioliyo tononi ke dvaara, fraum the pablik laaibreri of science, baayolauji
  • National NIH.gov, center on sleep disorders research