nibndh

nibndh (Essay) gadya lekhan ki ek vidha hai. lekin is shabd ka prayog kisi vishay ki taarkik aur bauddhik vivechana karne vaale lekhon ke liye bhi kiya jaata hai. nibandh ke paryaaya roop mein sandarbh, rachana aur prastaav ka bhi ullekh kiya jaata hai. lekin saahityik aalochna mein sarvaadhik prachalit shabd nibandh hi hai. ise angreji ke kampojeeshan aur esse ke arth mein grahan kiya jaata hai. aachaarya hajaareeprasaad Dwivedi ke anusaar sanskrut mein bhi nibandh ka saahitya hai. praacheen sanskrut saahitya ke un nibandhon mein dharmashaastreeya siddhaanton ki taarkik vyaakhya ki jaati thi. unamein vyaktitv ki visheshata naheen hoti thi. kintu vartamaan kaal ke nibandh sanskrut ke nibandhon se theek ulate hain. unamein vyaktitv ya vaiyaktikta ka gun sarvapradhaan hai.

itihaas-bodh parampara ki roodhiyon se manushya ke vyaktitv ko mukt karta hai. nibandh ki vidha ka sambandh isi itihaas-bodh se hai. yahi kaaran hai ki nibandh ki pradhaan visheshata vyaktitv ka prakaashan hai.

nibandh ki sabse achhi paribhaasha hai-

nibandh, lekhak ke vyaktitv ko prakaashit karne waali lalit gadya-rachana hai.

is paribhaasha mein ativyaapti dosh hai. lekin nibandh ka roop saahitya ki anya vidhaaon ki apeksha itna svatantr hai ki usaki sateek paribhaasha karna atyant kathin hai.

anukram

nibandh ki visheshata

saari duniya ki bhaashaaon mein nibandh ko saahitya ki srujanaatmak vidha ke roop mein maanyata aadhunik yug mein hi mili hai. aadhunik yug mein hi madhyayugeen dhaarmik, saamaajik roodhiyon se mukti ka dwaar dikhaai pada hai. is mukti se nibandh ka gahra sambandh hai.

hajaareeprasaad Dwivedi ke anusaar-

"nae yug mein jin naveen dhang ke nibandhon ka prachalan hua hai ve vyakti ki svaadheen chinta ki upaj hai.

is prakaar nibandh mein nibandhakaar ki svachhandata ka vishesh mahattv hai.

aachaarya raamachandr shukl ne likha hai:

" nibandh lekhak apne man ki pravrutti ke anusaar svachhand gati se idhar-udhar footi hui sootr shaakhaaon par vichrata chalta hai. yahi usaki arth sambandhi vyaktigat visheshata hai. arth-sambandh-sootron ki tedhi-medhi rekhaaeain hi bhinn-bhinn lekhakon ke drushti-path ko nirdisht karti hain. ek hi baat ko lekar kisi ka man kisi sambandh-sootr par daudta hai, kisi ka kisi par. isi ka naam hai ek hi baat ko bhinn drushtiyon se dekhna. vyaktigat visheshata ka mool aadhaar yahi hai.

iska taatparya yeh hai ki nibandh mein kinheen aise thos rachana-niyamon aur tatvon ka nirdesh naheen diya ja sakta jinka paalan karna nibandhakaar ke liye aavashyak hai. aisa kaha jaata hai ki nibandh ek aisi kalaakruti hai jiske niyam lekhak dvaara hi aavishkrut hote hain. nibandh mein sahaj, saral aur aadambaraheen dhang se vyaktitv ki abhivyakti hoti hai.

hindi saahitya kosha” ke anusaar:

"lekhak bina kisi sankoch ke apne paathakon ko apne jeevan-anubhav sunaata hai aur unhein aatmeeyata ke saath unamein bhaag lene ke liye aamantrit karta hai. usaki yeh ghanishthata jitni sachchi aur saghan hogi, usaka nibandh paathakon par utana hi seedha aur teevr asar karega. isi aatmeeyata ke falasvaroop nibandh-lekhak paathakon ko apne paanditya se abhibhoot naheen karna chaahata.

is prakaar nibandh ke do vishesh gun hain-

1. vyaktitv ki abhiv‍aayakti

2. sahabhaagita ka aatmeeya ya anaupachaarik star

nibandh ka aarambh kaise ho, beech mein kya ho aur ant kis prakaar kiya jaae, aise kisi nirdesh aur niyam ko maanane ke liye nibandhakaar baadhya naheen hai. lekin iska arth yeh naheen hai ki nibandh ek uchhrunkhal rachana hai aur nibandhakaar ek uchhrunkhal vyakti. nibandhakaar apni prerana aur vishay vastu ki sambhaavnaaon ke anusaar apne vyaktitv ka prakaashan aur rachana ka sangathan karta hai. isi kaaran nibandh mein shaili ka vishesh mahattv hai.

hindi saahitya mein nibndh

hindi saahitya ke aadhunik yug mein bhaaratendu aur unke sahayogiyon se nibandh likhne ki parampara ka aarambh hota hai. nibandh hi naheen, gadya ki kai vidhaaon ka prachalan bhaaratendu se hota hai. yeh is baat ka pramaan hai ki gadya aur usaki vidhaaeain aadhunik manushya ke svaadheen vyaktitv ke adhik anukool hain. mote roop mein svaadheenata aadhunik manushya ka kendreeya bhaav hai. is bhaav ke kaaran parampara ki roodhiyaaain dikhaai padti hain. saamayik paristhitiyon ka dabaav anubhav hota hai. bhavishya ki sanbhaavanaaeain khulati jaan padti hain. isi ko itihaas-bodh kaha jaata hai. bhaaratendu yug ka saahitya is itihaas-bodh ke kaaran aadhunik maana jaata hai.

pramukh hindi nibandhakaar

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain