nepoliyn ke yuddh

nepoliyn bonaapaart jab tak satta me raha yuddhon me ulajha raha jinse saara Europe trust tha. in yuddhon ko sammilit roop se nepoliyn ke yuddh (Napoleonic Wars) kaha jaata hai. 1803 se lekar 1815 tak koi saath yuddh usane lade the jismein se saat mein usaki paraajaya hui (adhikaanshat: apne antim dinon mein).

in yuddhon ke falasvaroop Europeeya senaaon mein kraantikaari parivartan hue. paramparaagat roop se in yuddhon ko 1972 mein fraanseesi kraanti ke samay shuroo hue kraantikaari yuddhon ki shrunkhala mein hi rakha jaata hai. aarambh mein France ki shakti badi teji se badhi aur naipoliyn ne Europe ka adhikaansh bhaag apne adhikaar mein kar liya. 1812 mein roos par aakraman karne ke baad France ka badi teji se patan hua.

anukram

France ke virooddh teesare gut ka nirmaan

Europe mein anya deshon par nepoliyn ke aadhiptya sthaapit karne ke prayaason ko nishfal karne ke liye Europe ke mukhya raajyon ne 1805 E. mein nepoliyn aur France ke virooddh truteeya gut bana liya. iska netrutv inglaind ne kiya. is gut mein inglaind, aastriya, roos, sveedan aadi desh the jabki aastriya ke virodhi dakshin Germany ke raajyon ne is gut ke virooddh nepoliyn ka saath diya.

France aur inglaind ke yuddh

May 1803 mein France aur inglaind mein paraspar yuddh chhid gaya. nepoliyn ne Italy ke peedamaand raajya ko France mein sammilit kar liya, haalaind ko apne adhikaar mein karke vahaan ke entavarp bandargaah ko jal sena ke liye vistrut karna praarambh kar diya. uske ye kaarya inglaind ke hiton ke virooddh the, isliye 18 May 1803 ko inglaind ne France ke virooddh yuddh ghoshit kar diya.

trafalagaar ka yuddh

21 October 1805 ko France aur Spain ki sanyukt jal sena aur nelasan ke netrutv waali angrej jalasena ke madhya trafalagaar ke sameep samudra mein bhayankar yuddh hua. ise trafalagaar ka yuddh kehte hain. yadyapi is yuddh mein nelasan veeragati ko praapt hua, par inglaind ki jalasena ne France aur Spain ki sanyukt jal sena ko trafalagaar ke yuddh mein paraast kar diya. France ki is paraajaya se nepoliyn dvaara samudra ki or se inglaind par aakraman karne ka bhaya samaapt ho gaya.

France aur aastriya ke yuddh

nepoliyn ne mek ke senaapatitv mein aastriya ki sena par aakraman kar use 20 October 1805 ke ulm ke yuddh mein paraast kar diya. is vijay ke baad nepaaliyn ne viyna par adhikaar kar liya. aastriya ka shaasak Francis dviteeya viyna chhodkar poorv ki or chala gaya.

ostaralitj ka yuddh

nepoliyn ne roos aur aastriya ki sanyukt senaaon ko October 1805 ko aastaralitj ke yuddh mein paraast kar diya. yeh vijay nepoliyn ki mahatvapoorn vijyon mein se thi. roos ne is paraajaya ke baad apni senaaeain peechhe hata leen aur aastriya ne nepoliyn ke saath 26 December 1805 E. ko presavarg ki sandhi kar li.

France aur roos ka yuddh

nepoliyn ke virooddh jo teesara gut nirmit hua tha usamein ab inglaind aur roos hi shesh bache the, baaki sadasya desh nepoliyn ke haathon paraast ho chuke the. falat: nepoliyn roos ki or aage badha aur 8 January 1807 ko aailo ke sthaan par donon deshon mein bheeshan yuddh hua. 14 June 1807 ko freedalaind ke yuddh mein nepoliyn ne roos ko paraast kar diya. is paraajaya ke baad roos ke samraat jaar Alexander ne neemen nadi mein ek shaahi naav mein nepoliyn se bheint ki. is avsar par nepoliyn ne apne aakarshak prabhaavashaali vyaktitv aur madhur shishtaachaar se jaar ko prasann kar liya. ant mein tilsit nagar mein France, roos aur prashaas ke pratinidhiyon mein tilsit ki sandhi ho gayi.

tilsit ki sandhi (8 July 1807 E.)

is sandhi mein saarvajanik aur gupt shartein theen, jo nimnalikhit hain-

saarvajanik shartein:

  • (1) roos aur France mein paraspar prabhaav kshetr nirdisht ho gaya. apne prabhaav ke vistaar ke liye roos ko poorvi kshetr aur France ko pashchimi kshetr praapt hua. roos ko Finland tatha Turkey ki or apne raajya ke vistaar ke liye chhoot di gayi.
  • (2) France, roos se kshatipoorti ke liye koi dhanaraashi ya pradesh naheen lega.
  • (3) prasha mein elba nadi ke pashchimi kshetr ko anya jarman pradeshon se milaakar vestafeliya naamak naveen raajya nirmit kiya gaya aur nepoliyn ne is raajya ka shaasak apne bhaai jerom bonaapaart ko niyukt kiya.
  • (4) polaind ne prasha ke adhikaansh kshetr ko lekar 'grend dachi of vaarasa' naamak raajya nirmit kiya gaya aur yahaaain seksani ke Duke ko raaja ki upaadhi dekar shaasak banaaya gaya.
  • (5) roos ke samraat jaar Alexander ne nepoliyn dvaara navanirmit raajyon ko maanyata de di tatha nepoliyn dvaara jeete gaye Italy, Germany aur haalaind ke raajyon ko bhi maanyata de di.

gupt shartein:

  • (1) jaar ne vachan diya ki vah France aur inglaind mein madhyasth bankar unamein paraspar maitreepoorn sambandh sthaapit karne mein sahaayata karega. yadi ek maas ki avadhi mein inglaind samjhauta karne ke liye sahamat naheen ho to roos France ke saath milkar inglaind ke virooddh yuddh karega.
  • (2) Denmark, sveedan aur Portugal par bhi inglaind ke virooddh yuddh karne tatha uske saath vyaapaarik sambandh todne aur inglaind ki jal shakti ke vinaash karne ke liye dabaav daala jaaega.
  • (3) nepoliyn, Turkey aur roos mein paraspar matabhedon ke nivaaran mein aur samjhauta karaane mein sahaayata dega. yadi Turkey, samjhaute ke liye sahamat naheen hua to France aur roos milkar Turkey saamraajya ko paraspar baant leinge.

tilsit ki sandhi ke parinaam aur mahatva

  • (1) is sandhi se aastriya aur prasha donon Europeeya raajyon ki shakti ksheen ho gayi. prasha se raainalaind aur polaind ke pradesh chheenakar usaka raajya aadha kar diya gaya. ab vah Europe mein truteeya shakti bankar rah gaya. yuddh ki kshatipoorti ke liye bhi usase bhaari dhanaraashi vasool ki gayi. isse nepoliyn ke prati prashaavaasiyon ka ghor asantosh badha.
  • (2) tilsit ki sandhi ke samay se France ke raajya ki seemaaon ka khoob vistaar hua. Europe ke chhote-chhote raajya nepoliyn ki satta aur shakti se bhayabheet ho gaye. roos jaisa shaktishaali desh bhi nepoliyn ka mitr ban gaya. inglaind ko chhodkar Europe ke sabhi desh nepoliyn ki shakti ka loha maanane lage.