nepoliyn bonaapaart

nepoliyn bonaapaart
Jacques-Louis David - The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries - Google Art Project.jpg
nepoliyn bonaapaart
France ke samraat
raajyakaal 17 May 1704 – 11 April 1714
20 March 1714 – 22 jun 1714
raajyaabhishek 2 disanbar 1704
poorvaadhikaari swayam pratham vaanijya-doot
uttaraadhikaari France ke lui XVIII
Italy ke raaja
raajyakaal 17 March 1805 – 11 April 1814
raajyaabhishek 28 May 1805
poorvaadhikaari swayam-Italy ke raashtrapati
uttaraadhikaari Victor immaanyul dviteeya
patni meri luis
santaan nepoliyn II
poora naam nepoliyn bonaapaart
kul bonaapaart kul
pita kaarlo bonaapaart
maata leteejiye ramolino
janm nepoliyn bonaapaart
15 August 1769
ajaashiyo
mrutyu 5 May 1821(1821-05-05) (umr 51)
laangavud, seint helena
kabr les inavhaalides
dharm roman kaitholikta
hastaakshar Firma Napoleón Bonaparte.svg

nepoliyn bonaapaart (15 August 1769 - 5 May 1821) (janm naam nepoliyoni di bonaapaarte) fraans ki kraanti mein senaapati, 11 November 1799 se 18 May 1804 tak pratham kaansal ke roop mein shaasak aur 18 May 1804 se 6 aprailal 1814 tak nepoliyn 1 ke naam se samraat raha. vah pun: 20 March se 22 June 1815 mein samraat bana. vah Europe ke anya kai kshetron ka bhi shaasak tha.

itihaas mein nepoliyn vishv ke sabse mahaan senaapatiyon mein gina jaata hai. usane ek France mein ek nayi vidhi sanhita laagoo ki jise nepoliyn ki sanhita kaha jaata hai.

vah itihaas ke sabse mahaan vijetaaon mein se ek tha. uske saamane koi ruk naheen pa raha tha. jab tak ki usane 1812 mein roos par aakraman naheen kiya, jahaan sardi aur vaataavaran se usaki sena ko bahut kshati pahuainchi. 18 June 1815 vautaraloo ke yuddh mein paraajaya ke pashchaat angrajon ne use andh mahaasaagar ke door dweep seint helena mein bandi bana diya. chh: varshon ke ant mein vahaaain usaki mrutyu ho gayi. itihaasakaaron ke anusaar angrejon ne use sankhiya (aarseenik) ka vish dekar maar daala.

anukram

mool aur shiksha

teis (23) varsh ki aayu mein naipoliyn France ke national guard mein leftinent Colonel tha.

naipoliyn kaarsika aur France ke ekeekaran ke agale varsh hi 15 August 1769 i॰ ko ajaisiyon mein paida hua tha. uske pita Charles bonaapaart ek chirkaaleen kuleen parivaar ke the. unka vansh kaarsika ke sameepasth Italy ke taskani pradesh se sanbhoot bataaya jaata hai. Charles bonaapaart French darbaar mein kaarsika ka pratinidhitv karte the. unhonne leetishiya remaulino (Laetitia Ramolino) naam ki ek ugr svabhaav ki sundari se vivaah kiya tha jisse naipoliyn paida hua. Charles ne French shaasan ke viruddh kaarsikn vidroh mein bhaag bhi liya tha, kintu antat: French shakti se saamya sthaapit karna hi shreyaskar samjha. French Governor maarabif (Marbeuf) ki krupa se unhein vaarasaai ki ek mantrana mein sammilit hone ka avsar bhi mila. Charles ke saath usaki dviteeya putr naipoliyn bhi tha. uske vyaktitv se jis ujval bhavishya ka sanket milta tha usase prerit hokar French adhikaariyon ne breen (Brienne) ki sainik akaidaimi mein adhyayan karne ke liye use ek chhaatravrutti pradaan ki aur vahaaain usane 1779 se 1784 tak shiksha pai. taduparaant pairis ke sainik school mein use apna topakhaane sambandhi gyaan pusht karne ka avsar lagbhag ek varsh tak mila. is prakaar naipoliyn ka baalyakaal French vaataavaran mein vyateet hua.

praarambhik kairiyr

baalyavastha mein hi saare parivaar ke bharan poshan ka uttaradaayitv komal kandhon par pad jaane ke kaaran use vaataavaran ki jatilta evam uske anusaar vyavahaar karne ki kushalata mil gayi thi. ataev French kraanti mein usaka pravesh yugaantarakaari ghatnaaon ka sanket de raha tha. France ke vibhinn vargon se sampark sthaapit karne mein use koi sankoch ya hichkichaahat naheen thi. usane jaikobin dal mein bhi pravesh kiya tha aur 20 June ke tuilariye (Tuileries) ke adhikaar ke avsar par use ghatnaaon se pratyaksh parichay hua tha. France ke raajatantr ki durdasha ka bhi use poorn gyaan ho gaya tha. yaheen se naipoliyn ke vishaal vyaktitv ka aavirbhaav hota hai.

naipoliyn ke udaya tak French kraanti poorn araajakata mein parivrtit ho chuki thi. jaikobin aur girandist dalon ki pratidvandvita aur vaimanasya ke parinaam svaroop hi us 'aatank ka shaasan' sanchaalit kiya gaya tha, jismein ek ek karke sabhi kraantikaari yahaaain tak ki swayam raabsapiyr bhi maar daala gaya tha. 1793 i॰ mein toolaan (Toulan) ke ghere mein naipoliyn ko pratham baar apna shaurya evam kalaapradarshan ka avsar mila tha. daairektari ka ek pramukh shaasak bairaas usaki pratibha se aakarshit ho utha. fir 1795 mein jab bheed kanrveshan ko hui thi, to daairektari dvaara vishesh roop se aayukt hone par naipoliyn ne kushalataapoorvak kanveinshan ki raksha ki aur samvidhaan ko hone diya. in safalataaon ne saare France ka dhyaan naipoliyn ki or aakrusht kiya aur daairektari ne use Italy ke abhiyaan ka netrutv diya (2 March 1796). ek saptaah pashchaat usane jojefeen (Josephine) se vivaah kiya aur taduparaant apni sena sahit Italy mein pravesh kiya.

itaalavi abhiyaan

Italy ka abhiyaan naipoliyn ki sainik tatha prashaasakeeya kshamata ka jvalant udaaharan tha. is baat ki ghoshana poorv hi kar di gayi thi ki French sena Italy ko ostriya ki daasata se mukt karaane aa gayi hai. usane pehle teen sthaanon par shatru ko paraast kar ostriya ka (Piedmont) se sambandh tod diya. tab saaradeeniya ko yuddhaviraam karne ke liye vivsh kar diya. fir lodi ke sthaan mein use meelaan praapt hua. rivoli ke yuddh mein maintuaa ko samarpan karna pada. aarkadyook Charles ko bhi sandhiptr prastut karna pada aur lyooban (Leoben) ka samjhauta hua. in saare yuddhon aur vaartaaon mein naipoliyn ne peris se kisi prakaar ka aadesh naheen liya. Pope ko bhi sandhi karni padi. lonbaardi ko sisaalapaain tatha jinoaa ko laaigyooriyn ganatantr mein parivrtit kar French namoone par ek vidhaan diya. in safalataaon se ostriya ke pair ukhad gaye aur use kainpo faurmiyon (Campo Formio) ki sandhi ke liye naipoliyn ke sanmukh nat hona pada tatha is jatil paristhiti mein ostriya ko apne belaliym pradeshon se aur raain ke seemaant kshetron tatha lonbaardi se apna haath kheench lena pada. naipoliyn ke in yuddhon se tatha chhote raajyon ko samaapt kar vruhat ikaai mein parivrtit karne ke kaaryon se, Italy mein ek raashtreeya aandolan khada hua jo itihaas mein reesaurjeemeinto (Risorgimento) ke naam se prasiddh hai.

itaaliyn abhiyaan se lautane par naipoliyn ka bhavya svaagat hua. daairektari bhi bhayabheet ho gayi tatha naipoliyn ko France se door rakhane ka upaaya sochane lagi. is samay France ka pratidvandvi keval Britain rah gaya tha. naipoliyn ne Britain ko haraane ke liye uske saamraajya par kuthaaraaghaat na karna uchit samjha tatha apni misr-abhiyaan-yojana rakhi. daairektari ne use turant sveekaar kar liya. 1798 i॰ mein bonaapaart ne misr ke liye prasthaan kiya. Britain par pratyaksh aakraman karne ke sthaan par Britain ke poorvi saamraajya ko mistr ke maadhyam se samaapt karne ki yojana French shaasakon ko sangat prateet hui. maimaluk Turkey se iska saamana pairaamid ke tathaakathit yuddh mein hua. kintu british nausena ka bhoomadhyasaagareeya adhyaksh commander nelsan naipoliyn ka peechha kushalataapoorvak kar raha tha. usane aage badhkar fraanseesiyon ko neel nadi ke yuddh mein titr-bitr kar diya tatha tarki ko bhi ingalaid ki or se yuddh mein pravesh karne ke liye vivsh kar diya. nelsan ki is safalta ne Britain ko ek dviteeya gut banaane ka avsar diya aur Europe ke ve raashtra, jinhein naipoliyn daba chuka tha, France ke viruddh abhiyaan ki taiyaari karne lage.

Turkey ke yuddh mein pravisht ho jaane par naipoliyn ne Syria ka abhiyaan chheda. keval terah hajaar ki ek seemit tukadi ke saath ekar (Acre) ki or badha kintu Sydney smith jaise kushal senaani dvaara rok diya gaya. yeh naipoliyn ke liye varadaan siddh hua. ab naipoliyn Syria mein ek doosare French saamraajya ki rachana mein lag gaya. kintu France is samay ek naajuk sthiti se gujar raha tha. at: naipoliyn ne misr mein apni satta sthaapit karne mein safaleebhoot hote hue bhi France mein prakat ho jaana vaanchhaneeya samjha. naipoliyn ke France mein pravesh karte hi halachal paida ho gayi. anukool vaataavaran paakar November, 1799 mein naipoliyn ne satta hathiya kar daayarektari ka vightan kiya aur naya vidhaan banaaya. is vidhaan ke anusaar teen kaunsal (Consul) niyukt hue. kuchh samay pashchaat saari shaktiyaaain pratham kaunsal naipoliyn mein kedrit ho gayi. France ek deergh ashaanti se thak chuka tha tatha kraanti ko sthaapitv ki or le jaane ke liye antarakaaleen shaanti param aavashyak thi. kintu shaanti sthaapana ke poorv ostriya ko natamastak kar dene ke liye ek itaaliyn abhiyaan aavashyak tha.

naipoliyn ne 1800 i॰ mein Italy ka doosra abhiyaan basant ritu mein praarambh kiya tatha mereingo (Marengo) ki vijay praapt kar aastriya ko lyoonavil (Luneville) ki sandhi ke liye vivsh kar diya, jismein pehle ki kaimpoformiyon ki saari shartein doharaai gayi. ab dviteeya gut toot gaya aur nepoliyn ne ingalaind se aamiain (Amiens) ki sandhi 1801 i॰ mein ki, jiske antargat donon raashtron ne ek doosare ke vijit pradesh vaapas kiye. ab nepoliyn ne ek sudhaar yojana kaaryaanvit kar France ko shaasan aur vyavastha di. France ki aarthik sthiti mein anushaasan diya. shiksha paddhati mein abhootapoorv parivartan kiye. bhoomikr vyavastha sudrudh ki. peris ka saundaryeekaran kiya. sena mein yathesht parivartan kiye tatha France ki vyavastha ko ek vaigyaanik aadhaar diya, jo ab bhi nepoliyn code ke naam se vikhyaat hai. Pope se ek kaun kauradet (Concordat) kar kaithalik jagat ka samarthan praapt kar liya.

France ka samraat

barlin mein naipoliyn ka pravesh (27 October 1806)

in sudhaaron se naipoliyn ko yathesht safalta praapt hui aur March 1804 i॰ mein vah France ka samraat ban gaya. is ghatna se saare Europe mein ek halachal paida hui. France aur Britain ke beech fir yuddh ke baadal mandaraane lage. naipoliyn ne ingalaind par aakraman karne ke liye uttari samudri tat par bolon (Boulogne) mein apni sena bheji. ingalaind ne iske uttar mein apne english channel sthit nausena ki tukadi ko jaagaruk kiya aur fir har bhidant mein naipoliyn ko chakit karta gaya. aamiain ki sandhi ke samaapt hote hi William pit shaasan mein aaya aur usane ingalaind, ostriya, yas aadi raashtron ko milaakar ek truteeya gut (1805) banaaya. naipoliyn ne fir ostriya ke viruddh morchaabandi ki aur sisaalapaain ganatantr ko samaapt kar swayam Italy ke raaja ka pad grahan kiya. ostriya ko ulm (Ulm) ke yuddh mein haraaya. ostriya ka shaasak Francis bhaag gaya aur jaar ki sharan li. idhar traafalagar ke yuddh mein nelasan ne naipoliyn ki jalasena ko hara diya tha, jisse ostriya ko fir se naipoliyn ko chunauti dene ka mauka mil gaya tha. lekin aastaralitj ke yuddh mein haar jaane par aastriya ko presavarg ki lajjaapoorn sandhi sveekaar karni padi. is safalta se naipoliyn ka ullaas badh gaya aur ab usane Germany ko raundana praarambh kiya. jena (Jena) aur aarasated (Auerstedt) ke yuddhon mein 14 October 1806 i॰ mein haraakar raain sandhi ki rachana kar apne bhaai Joseph bonaapart ke shaasan ko majaboot kiya. ab keval roos rah gaya jise naipoliyn ne June 1807 i॰ mein freedalaind (Friedland) ke yuddh mein haraakar July 1807 ki tilsit (Tilsit) ki sandhi ke liye vivsh kiya.

saare Europe ka svaami ho jaane par ab nepoliyn ne ingalaind ko haraane ke liye ek aarthik yuddh chheda. saare Europe ke raashtron ka vyaapaar ingalaind se band kar diya tatha Europe ki saari seema par ek kathor niyantran laagoo kiya. Britain ne iske uttar mein Europe ke raashtron ka France ke vyaapaar rok dene ki ek nishedhaatmak aajnyaa prachaarit ki. Britain ne apni kshatipoorti upaneveshon se vyaapaar badha kar kar li, kintu Europeeya raashtron ki aarthik sthiti bigadne lagi aur ve France ki is yaatana se peedit ho uthe. sabse pehle Spain ne is vyavastha ke viruddh vidroh kiya. parinaamasvaroop naipoliyn ne Spain par chadhaai ki aur vahaaain ki satta chheen li. is par Spain mein ek raashtreeya vidroh chhid gaya. nepoliyn isko daba bhi naheen paaya tha ki use ostriya ke vidroh ko dabaana pada aur fir kram se prasha aur roos ne bhi is vyavastha ki avajnyaa ki. roos ka vidroh nepoliyn ke liye vinaashakaari siddh hua. uske Moscow abhiyaan ki barbaadi itihaas mein prasiddh ho gayi hai. peris lautakar nepoliyn ne pun: ek sena ekatr ki kintu laaipajig (Leipzig) mein use fir prasha, roos aur aastriya ki sanmilit senaaon ne haraaya. chaaron or raashtreeya sangraam chhid jaane se vah sakriya roop se kisi ek raashtra ko na daba saka tatha 1814 i॰ mein elba dweep (Elba Island) bhej diya gaya. mitr raashtron ki senaaen vaapas bhi naheen ho paayeen theen ki soochana mili ki nepoliyn ka shatadivseeya shaasan shuroo hua. at: mitr raashtron ne use 1815 mein vaataraloo ke yuddh mein haraakar saint hailana (St. Helena) ka kaaraavaas diya. vahaaain 1821 i॰ mein paaainch May ko usaki mrutyu hui.

inhein bhi dekhein

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