neetiktha

1-2-Le-Corbeau-et-le-renard-Steinhowel.jpg

neetiktha (Fable) ek saahityik vidha hai jismein pashu-pakshiyon, ped-paudhon evam anya nirjeev vastuon ko maanav jaise gunon wala dikhaakar upadeshaatmak katha kahi jaati hai. neetiktha, padya ya gadya mein ho sakti hai. panchatantr, hitopadesh aadi prasiddh neetikthaaeain hain.

anukram

bhaarateeya saahitya mein neetikthaaeain

bhaarateeya jeevan ka praakrutik padaartho ke saath itna ghanisht sanbadh ho gaya tha ki pashu pakshiyon aadi ke udaaharanon se vyaavahaarik upadesh dene ki pravrutti vaidik kaal se hi lakshit hoti hai. manushya aur machhali ki katha rigved mein praapt hoti hai. chhaandogyopanishd mein bhi udgeeth shvaan ka aakhyaan varnit hai. puraanon mein to bahut si neeti-kathaayein praapt hoti hai. mahaabhaarat mein vidur ke mukh se aisi hi anek kathaayein kahalaai gayi hai.

teesari shataabdi isa poorv ke bharahut ke stoop par bahut hi neeti-kathaaon ke naam khude hai. patanyajali (150 i0) ne apne mahaabhaashya mein bhi 'ajaakrupaaneeya' aur 'kaakataaleeya' JC lokoktiyon ka prayog kiya hai . jainon aur bauddhon ki likhi hui neeti-kathaayein bhi isi samay ki hain. bauddh granth 'jaatak sangrah' 380 i0poo0 mein hi vidyamaan tha. iske atirikt 668 i0 ke ek cheeni vishvakosh mein anek bhaarateeya neeti- kathaaon ke anuvaad upalabdh hote hain. ye kathaayein jaisa ki us vishvakosh mein nirdisht hai, bauddh granthon se sangraheet hain , jinki sankhya praay: 200 likhi hui hai. in sab pramaanon k aadhaar par yeh spasht siddh ho jaata hai ki neeti-kathaayein Bhaarat ki hi apni vastu hain , jinhein anya deshon ne unase udhaar liya hai tatha yeh bhi gyaat hota hai ki yeh isa poorv paryaapt sankhya mein vidyamaan thi.

panchatantr

panchatantr' sanskrut neetiktha-saahitya ka atyant vishv praacheen aur mahatvapoorn granth hai. ismein neeti ki badi upaadeya, shikshaaprad aur manohar kahaaniyaaain hain . beech-beech mein saaragarbhit aur nishkarshamaya padyon ka bhi sannivesh hua hai. is granth ke rachanaakaal ka to pata naheen lagta hai, par yeh gyaat hota hai ki lagbhag chhathi shati ke baadshah nausherakhaan ke aadesh se pahalavi bhaasha mein panyachatantr ka anuvaad 'buraajoi' naamak hakeem ne kiya. yeh anuvaad upalabdh naheen hai . unamein seeriyn tatha arabi roopaantar praapt hote hain jinke naam kramash: 'kalilang dimnag' (570) aur 'kalilh vimnah' (750) hain. isse gyaat hota hai ki pustak ka naam us samay kadaachit 'karakat aur damanak' raha hoga . yeh to pratyaksh hai ki panchatantr 550 i0 mein uske pahalavi mein anoodit kiye jaane ke samay ke poorv paryaapt prasiddh ho chuka tha. kautilya ke arthashaastr ka us par spasht prabhaav parilkshit hota hai. iske atirikt usamein swayam vishnugupt ka naam bade aadar se liya jaata hai. 'deenaar' shabd ka prayog bhi isa ke baad ki rachana siddh karta hai. panchatantr ka rachana kaal 300 i0 ke lagbhag maana ja sakta hai.

panchatantr ka svaroop

yadyapi panchatantr apne moolaroop mein naheen praapt hota, parantu uske kai sanskaran praapt hote hain, jins usaki bhaasha shaili aur vishay ka aabhaas milta hai.

  • (1) seeriyn tatha arabi mein anoodit sanskaran
  • (2) iska uttar pashchim bhaarateeya sanskaran, jo gunaadhya ki bahukata (bruhatkatha) mein arntanihit hai jo ab somadev ke 'kathaasaritsaagar' aur kshemendr ki 'vruhatkatha manjari' mein nihit hai
  • (3) tantraakhyaayika mein surakshit roop jiske do Kashmiri sanskaran praapt hote hain,
  • (4) panchatantr ka saral sanskaran, jo adhuna bhaaratavarsh mein prachalit hai,
  • (5) iska dakshin bhaarateeya sanskaran, jo bhaaravi (600 i0) ke baad ka hai,
  • (6) 1660 i0 mein meghavijyakrut panchaakhyaanoddhaar mein
  • (7) poornabhadr (1199 i0 ) ke jain sanskaran .

is prakaar se panchatantr ek vipul aakhyaan saahitya ka pratinidhi granth hai . ye sab sanskaran mool panchatantr k roopaantar hain . inke aadhaar par shri efa0 edagartan dvaara sampaadit sanskaran ab sabas adhik vishvast, praamaanik aur praacheenatam roop ka parichaayak maana jaata hai.

panchatantr ki rachana ka uddeshya

panchatantr ki rachana ka mool uddeshya raajaneeti ki shiksha dena hai, jaisa ki lekhak vishnu sharma ne swayam prastaavana mein dhang se likh diya hai. is granth mein ab mitrabhed, mitralaabh, sandhivigrah, labdhapranaanash tatha apareekshitkaarakam paaye jaate hain. parantu iske pehle 12 tantr rahe honge, jaisa ki praacheen svaroopon se gyaat hota hai.

granth ki shaili

granth mein pashupakshi aadi sadaachaar, neeti evam lok vyavahaar ke vishyon mein baatcheet karte hain, jinmein lekhak ki chuhul, vinodapriyta tatha chhedchhaad sarvatr samaan roop se dekh padti hai. granth ki bhaasha chalti hui saral, muhaavaredaar tatha granth ke poornat: anuroop hai. usaka gadya subodh bhaashi hai, samaas chhote chhote se hain tatha vaakya vinyaas mein duroohata naheen hai. kathaanak ka varnan gadya mein kiya gaya hai par upadeshaatmak sooktiyaan padyon mein hai, jo praacheen granthon mahaabhaarat evam jaatak aadi se sangruheet hai. lekhak ki kushalata un padyon ke chayan tatha kathaanak mein yatha sthaan unke baithaane mein hai.

panchatantr ka vishvavyaapi prachaar

panchatantr ki kathaaon ka prachaar vishvavyaapi ho chuka hai. baaibal ke baad panchatantr hi sansaar ki sabse adhik prachalit pustak hai jiska anuvaad praay: 50 bhaashaaon mein ho gaya hai.

hitopadesh

neeti kathaaon mein panchatantr ke baad hitopadesh ka sthaan hai. is granth ke rachayita Narayan pandit the, jinke aashrayadaata dhavalachandr, Bengal ke koi raaja the. is granth ki ek paandulipi 1373 i0 ki praapt hoti hai at: 14veen shataabdi ke poorv granth ki rachana hona sidv ho jaata hai. is granth ka aadhaar panchatantr hai . is tathya ko granthakaar ne savayan apni prastaavana mein spasht: sveekaar kiya hai - '' panyachatantraatathaanyasmaad granthaadaakrushya likhyate '' . hitopadesh ki 43 kathaaon mein se 25 kathaayein to panyachatantr se hi li gayi hain. pratham do parichhed mitralaabh aur suhrudabhed ka aadhaar panchatantr hi hai . hitopadesh mein 4 parichhed hai - mitralaabh, sruhrudabhed, vigrah, aur sandhi .

hitopadesh ki shaili

hitopadesh mein padyon ki sankhya adhik hai . kaheen-kaheen to inka itna adhik baahulya ho gaya hai ki katha ke pravaah ki svaabhaavik gati mein vyaaghaat sa padta prateet hota hai . ye padya anya praacheen granthon ke atirikt kaamandakeeya neetisaar se paryaapt maatra mein liye hain aur atyant upadeshapoorn hain . iski bhaasha saral, svaabhaavik aur subodh aur shaili sahaj hi mein samajh mein aa jaane waali hai .

hitopadesh ka prachaar

is granth ka prachaar bhaaratavarsh mein panyachatantr se kaheen adhik hai . jaisa ki abhi likha ja chuka hai, ye padya atyant uchch koti ki naitik shiksha ke aadarsh ko pratipaadit karte hain, udaaharanaarth ek padya dekhiye -

vyaumakaantavihaarinoऽpi vihgaa: sanpraapnuvantyaapadan,
badhyate nipunairagaadhasalilaatmatsyaa: samudraadapi
durneetan kimihaasti kin sucharitan k: sthaanalaabhegun:
kaalo hi vyasanaprasaaritkaro gruhrunaati dooraadapi .

neeti kathaaon ki visheshataayein

sanskrut saahitya mein sthaan-sthaan par aadarsh ya upadesh ki pravrutti spasht lakshit hoti hai. kaavyon aur naatakon mein aise anek padya milte hain jinmein sooktiyon ke maadhyam se neeti athva sadaachaar ka uchch aadarsh upasthit kiya gaya hai. is upadeshaatmak pravrutti ka poorn paripaak neetikthaaon mein spasht hota hai.

1. ye neeti kathaaen baalopayogi hain aur inmein 'kathaachhalen baalaanaan neetitdih kathyate' kathaaroop mein neeti ke rahasyon ko samajhaaya gaya.

2. inmein maanav paatr na hokar jeev-jantu ya pashu-pakshi paatr hain

3. ye mukhyataya neetishaastr aur arthashaastr se sanbadv hain

4. inmein jeevan ka vyaavahaarik paksh varnit hain . dainik jeevan, dainik vyavahaar, vyakti aur samaaj ka sampark, kartavya-akartavya ka upadesh aadi varnit hain .

5. inmein neeti aur dharm ki shiksha di hai , at: dharmashaastr se bhi inka sambandh hai.

6. inmein jeevan ke bhale aur bure donon pakshon ka varnan hai. jais - jeevan ki pavitrata , kartavyapaalan, mitr ki raksha, vachan-paalan aadi guno ke varnan ke saath hi braahmanon ka chhal-prapanch , aur dambh, ant:pur ke kapat-vyavahaar , striyon ki dushcharitrata aadi doshon ka bhi varnan hai.

7. inmein jeevan ka lakshya aadarshavaadita na bataakar lok-vyavahaarajnyaata aur neeti nipunata bataaya gaya hai.

8. neeti-kathaaon ke paatr pashu-pakshi aadi manushyon ke tulya mitrata, prem, vivaad, lobh, chhal, vishvaasaghaat, sandhi, vigrah aadi karte hain . unke raaja, mantri, doot aadi sabhi kuchh hain. ve avasarochit sabhi kaarya karte hain. ye maanaveeya gunon aur svabhaav se yukt hain .

9. inka pratipaadya vishay sadaachaar, raajaneeti aur vyavahaarajnyaaan hai.

10. inmein jeevan ki safalta ke liye aavashyak sabhi gunon ka varnan hai jin baaton ko na jaanane s manushya jeevan mein asafal hota hai, unki chetaavani bhi kathaaon dvaara di gayi hai.

11. ye neeti kathaaen pashu pakshiyon aadi se sambaddh hain, at: maanavamaatr ke liye rochak aur upaadeya hai.

12. inmein ek mukhya katha ke antargat anek upakathaaon ka samaavesh hai

13. inmein katha, neeti, sadaachaar, vyavahaarajnyaaan, dharm, darshan, upadesh aur kaavya-saundarya ka sundar samanvaya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein