neeti

uchit samay aur uchit sthaan par uchit kaarya karne ki kala ko neeti (Policy) kehte hain. neeti, sochasamajhakar banaaye gaye siddhaanton ki pranaali hai jo uchit nirnaya lene aur samyak parinaam paane mein madad karti hai. neeti mein abhipraaya ka spasht ullekh hota hai. neeti ko ek prakriya (procedure) ya nayaachaar ( naya+aachaar / protocol) ki tarah laagoo kiya jaata hai.

anukram

bhaarateeya saahitya mein neeti kaavya ka udbhav

neeti kaavya ka udbhav vishv saahitya ke praacheenatam granth rigved se maana gaya hai . iske saath hi baahman granthon , upanishdon, raamaayan, mahaabhaarat mein dharm aur neeti ka sadupadesh sammilit hai . in neeti granthon mein tatv gyaan aur vairaagya ka sundar sannivesh hai . inmein praay: sabhi dhaarmik vishvaason ka ullekh aur upadesh he . in neeti granthon mein lok jeevan ke vyavahaar mein aane waali baaton par vichaar karne ke saath hi saath jeevan ki asaarata ka niroopan kar maanav maatr ko 'moksh' ke saadhan ka upadesh bhi hai . bhaarateeya neeti ke antargat dharm evam darshan bhi samaahit ho jaate hain iseeliye neeti kaavya ka udbhav smruti granthon se bhi maana jaata hai. mahaabhaarat ke do bade prasagon ki shreemadbhaagavadgeeta evam viduraneeti to swayam hi neeti kaavya se sarvashreshth udaaharan hai . bhagavadgeeta to bhaarateeya sanskruti ka anmol ratn hai jiske maadhyam se hamein jeevan ki asaarata, aatma ki amarata, nishkaam karmavaad aadi ki shiksha milti hai . isi prakaar vidur neeti mein bhi kul dharm, sarv dharm, raaj dharm, vishv dharm va aatm dharm ke vividh svaroopon ko dekha ja sakta he . nimnalikhit shlok mein sadgruhasth ke ghar mein chaar logon ka nivaas aavashyak bataaya gaya hai -

chatvaari te taat gruhe vasantu shriyaabhijushtasya gruhasthadharm
vruddho jnyaaatirvasann: kuleen: sakha daridro bhagini chaanapatya
arthaat he taat, gruhasth jeevan mein aap jee se lakshmeevaan ke ghar mein chaar jan sada nivaas karte rahein - kutumb ka vrudvajan, sankat mein pada hua uchch kul ka vyakti, nirdhan mitr aur ni:santaan bahan.

neetikaavya ka vikaas

chaanakya neeti

neeti kaavya ka sarvapratham sangrah 'chaanakya sangrah' hai. isi ko 'chaanakya neeti' ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. ismein vyavahaar sambandhi padyon ke saath raajaneeti sambandhi shlokon ka sadbhaav bhi praapt hota hai. in neeti vishyak sadupadeshon ka sambandh chandragupt maurya ke prakhyaat guroo amaatya chaanakya ke saath juda hai parantu yeh spasht naheen ho paaya ki iska lekhak arthashaastr rachayita chaanakya hi hai. ho sakta hai ki chaanakya ke ek mahaneeya raajaneetivetta hone ke kaaran ise 'chaanakya neeti' ke naam se khyaati mili. Dr ludavik starnabaakh ne 'chaanakya neeti shaakha sampradaaya' naamak granth mein chaanakya ki neeti sooktiyon ki chh: vaachanaaon ka sangrah sampaadit tatha prakaashit kiya hai -

vruddhachaanakya (1-2 tak ) do vaachanaae
chaanakya neeti shaastr,
chaanakya saar sangrah
laghu chaanakya,

chaanakya raajaneeti shaastr

  • (a) vruddh chaanakya - iske antargat do vaachanaaen hain : pratham ko saamaanya vaachana tatha dviteeya ka alankrut vaachana kaha gaya hai. pratham vaachana mein aath adhyaaya hai tathaan dviteeya vaachana mein satrah adhyaaya hain . shlok praay: anushtap chhand mein hai.
  • (aa) chaanakya neetishaastr - truteeya vaachana ka naam chaanakya neetishaastr hai , iski avataranika mein ise naana prakaar ke shaastron se uddhrut raajaneeti ka samuchchaya tatha samast shaastron ka beej bataaya gaya hai
naana shaastroddhrutan vakshye raajaneeti samuchchayam
sarvabeejamidan shaastran chaanakyan saarasangraham.

ismein anushtup chhand mein nibddh 108 shlok hain .

chaanakyasaar sangrah

ismein teen shatak hain . pratyek shatak mein poore ek sau anushtup vidyamaan hai. ismein raajaneeti ke vistrut upadeshon ke saath hi saath lok neeti ki bhi sundar shiksha di gayi hai-

asaare khalu sansaare saarametachchatushtayam
kaashyaan vaas: sataan sango gangaarambh: shambhu sevanam .

uparyukt shlok mein kaashi vaas ko praathamikta di gayi hai . ho sakta hai ki iska sangrahakarta koi kaasheevaasi ho .

laghu chaanakya

pancham vaachana laghu chaanakya naam se prasiddh hai. iske pratyek adhyaaya mein 10 se 13 tak shlok hain . yeh vaachana Bhaarat mein alpajnyaaat hi rahi parantu Europe mein yeh kaafi prakhyaat rahi. Gale nes naamak yoonaani sanskrutajnya ne mool sanskrut ka yoonaani bhaasha mein anuvaad karke 1825 i0 mein is prakaashit kiya.

chaanakya raajaneeti shaastr

yeh vaachana bhi Bhaarat mein prasiddh naheen hui apitu navam shataabdi mein tibbati tanj roo mein anudit hokar sangraheet hui . is tibbati anuvaad ka pun: sanskrut mein anuvaad shaanti niketan se prakaashit hua hai . ismein 8 adhyaaya hain tatha 5382 shlok hain parantu 3972 shlok hi upalabdh hain .

yeh kehna ati kathin hai ki in sabhi granthon ke rachayita mahaatma chaanakya hi the parantu in granthon mein di gayi shiksha, upadesh va neeti vaakya maanav jeevan ke liye sarvatha upaadeya hain : saarvabhaum hain tatha inmein anubhav evam buddhi ki sookshmaabhivyakti hui hai . yatha -

naasti vidyaasaman chakshunaasti satyasaman tap:
naasti raagasaman du:khan naasti tyaagasaman sukham .
arthaat vidya ke samaan netr naheen hai , satya ke samaan tap naheen hai , raag ke samaan anya koi du:kh naheen hai tatha tyaag ke samaan anya koi sukh naheen hai .
naatyant saralaibhaavyan gatva pashya vanasthaleem
chhidyante saralaastatr kubjaastishthanti paadapaa: .
arthaat atyant saral (seedha) naheen hona chaahiye . yeh kathan kitna sateek hai kyonki yadi ham van mein jaakar dekhte hain to gyaat hota hai ki seedhe vruksh to logon dvaara kaat diye jaate hain parantu tedhe medhe vruksh naheen kaate jaate.
bhaav yeh hai ki sansaar mein chhadm pravruti ke logon ke dvaara praay: seedhe saade log shoshit hi hote hain.

neetidvishshthika

sundar paandaya dvaara rachit neetidvishshthika hi neeti vishay praacheen granth hai jiske vishay mein hamein nishchit jaanakaariyaan milti hai. ismein upadeshaatmak shaili mein 116 shlok hai. subhaashit granthakaaron na is rachana ke kai shlok uddhrut kiye hain parantu granth ka naamollekh naheen kiya hai. parantu kuchh anya vidvaanon ke inka ullekh kiya hai jiska vivran nimnalikhit hai-

  • 1. janaashraya (600 i0 ) ne iski ek pankti apne chhandovichit mein udadhrut ki hai.
  • 2. kumaaril (650 i0) evam shankaraachaarya ne unke anya granthon ke bhi shlok uddhrut kiye hain .
  • 3. bodhichryaavataar - shaantidev jinka samay 600 i0 ke lagbhag hai , dvaara rachit bodhichryaavataar granth bhi neetikaavya hai . isame bodhistv (jnyaaanapraapti ke ichhuk ) ke kartavyon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai . maanav maatr se pr me karne ke mahatva par vishesh bal diya gaya hai . is granth par kai teekaaen bhi likhi gain. shaantidev ne 6 shiksha samuchchaya va sootr samuchchaya bhi likhe parantu ye rachanaaen kam prasiddh huin .

neeti shatak

bhartruhari virchit neeti shatak, neeti kaavyon mein shreshth sthaan rakhata hai . in padyon mein unhone apan laukik vyaavahaarik gyaan ka sookshm parichay dete hue apne anubhavon ko atyant sahaj , saral , svaabhaavik evam sundar shabdon mein prastut kiya hai . maanav jeevan se sambandhit aisa koi bhi vishay , koi bhi samasya naheen hai jiski charcha is granth mein na ki gayi ho unki drushti mein sachcha maanav vahi hai jo apne man mein param santosh ki anubhooti karta ho . ve ek or to karm sidvaant ki vakaalat karte hain to doosari aur bhaagya ko bhi anadekha naheen karte hain. kuchh vishyon par unki dhaarana aaj bhi satya prateet hoti hai . yatha - is sansaar mein sabhi ka upachaar sambhav hai parantu moorkh ka naheen .

sarvasyaushadhamasti shaastravihitan moorkhasya naastyaushadham

vivek ka parityaag karne vaalon ka patan saikado prakaar se hota hai. yatha - vivekabhrashtaanaan bhavati vinipaat: shatamukh:

shareer ko aabhooshan naheen susajjit karte apitu susasnkrut vaani hi asli aabhooshan hai -

vaanyekaash samalankaroti purooshan ya sanskrutaardhaayate
ksheeyante khalubhooshanaani satatanvaagbhooshanann bhooshanam.

maanaveeya vyavahaaron aur pravrutiyon aur sadaachaar ka bhartruhari ne itna sookshm aur vyaapak adhyayan kiya ki usaki tulana kisi se naheen ki ja sakti . in tatvon ko kavi ne aatmasaat kiya tha aur swayam ke jeevan mein unka aacharan kiya tha . yahi kaaran hai ki sanskrut saahitya mein unke neeti vachanon ka saahitya mein unke neetivchanon ka vyaapak prachaar prasaar hua . shabd rachana, alankaar vidhaan, chhandon virchana aadi sabhi drushtiyon se yeh shatak paripusht hai .

vairaagya shatak

vairaagya shatak utkrusht shaili mein likha gaya neeti kaavya hai. ismein is shiksha par vishesh bal diya gaya hai ki manushyo mein saadhaaranat: hone vaale durgunon ko kese door kiya jaae-

chala lakshmeeshchalaa: praanaashchalan jeevit yauvanam
chalaachale ch sansaare dharm ekoti nishchal: .

ismein Shiv bhakti par bal dete hue sanyaas ki prashansa ki gayi hai -

kada sansaar jaalaantarbaddhan trigunaaraarjjubhi:
aatmaanan mochayishyaami shivbhaktishlaakaya.

mohamudgar

yeh rachana aadi shankaraachaarya dvaara virchit maani gayi hai . ismein saansaarik vishay ko chhodne aur maayaajaal se mukt hone ke upadesh diya gaya hai . ismein naitik aur daarshanik bhaav hain .

kuttneemat

Kashmir ke raaja jayaapeed (779 - 813 i0 ) ke aashrit evam amaatya kavi Damodar gupt dvaara virchit kuttaneemat bhi samaaj ko shiksha dene wala neeti kaavya hai . ise veshyaaon ka shiksha granth bhi kah sakte hain .

aaryaachhand mein nibddh yeh kaavya apni madhurata tatha snigdhata ke kaaran sanskrut saahitya mein chirsmaneeya rahega . prastut shlok mein veshyaaon ki tulana chumbak se ki gayi hai -

paramaarth kathora api vishyagatan lohakan manushyan ch
chumbak paashaanashilaaroopaajeevaashch karshanti .

arthaat jis prakaar chumbak patthar apni pahuainch mein aaye hue lohe ko apni aur kheenchata hai usi prakaar roop se jeevika praapt karne waali veshyaaen vishyo mein aasakt manushyon ko anivaarya roop se kheenchati hain .

subhaashitratnasandoh

jain lekhak amitgati ne 994 i0 mein subhaashitratnasandoh rachana rachi . ismein 32 adhyaaya hain . ismein jain saadhuon , devataaon aur hinduon ke vyavahaaron par katu aakshep hain .

dharmapareeksha

yeh rachana bhi amit gati ji ki hai . unhone is rachana mein hindu dharm ki apeksha jain dharm ka utkrusht bataaya hai .

kala vilaas

mahaakavi kshemendr ( 1050 i0 ) ne apni teevr nireekshan shakti ke dvaara tatkaaleen samaaj va dharm ka anusheelan kar neetiprak rachanaaen rachi jinmein se se kala vilaas pramukh sthaan rakhata hai . ismein 10 adhyaaya hain . kshemendr ne isame janta dvaara apanaae gaye aajeevika ke vibhinn saadhanon (kalaaon ) ka varnan kiya hai. ye kalaayein anek roop dhaaran kar maanavon ko thagati hain . ataev inki poori jaankaari evam bachane ke upaaya is kaavya mein hain . kala vikaas ke atirikt kshemendr ki anya rachanaaen is prakaar hain - darpadalan, chaarucharya, chaturvargasagrah, sevyasevakopadesh, samayamaatruka, deshopadesh

darpadalan

ismein saat adhyaaya hain , jismein kavi ne uchch kul, dhan, vidya tatha saundarya, saahas daan tatha tapasya se utpann tap ki ni:saarata dikhaai hai. yatha -

kulan kitan shrutan shaurya daanan tapastatha.
praadhaanyen manushyaanaan saptait me nahetav:.

ismein saat vichaar hain jinke aarambh mein tadvishyak upadeshaatmak sooktiyaaain tatha unki upaadeyata spasht karne hetu pradhaan paatr dvaara neetiyon ka mahatva spashtat: darshaaya gaya hai .

chaaroocharya

yeh sadaachaar vishyak shatak hai . iske maadhyam se kavi ne sundar vyavahaar hetu aavashyak niyma ( neetiyon ) ka varnan kiya hai .

chaturvargasagrah

yeh purooshaarth chatushtaya ka vivran dene wala kaavya hai. ismein chaar parichhed hain jinmein dharm, arth, kaam evam moksh ki prashansa nivisht ki gayi hai.

sevyasevakopadesh

kshemendr ne ismein sevak ki deen dasha evam svaamijnon dvaara kiye jaane vaale durvyavahaaron ka varnan bade hi rochak dhang se kiya hai . iyake kul 61 shlok hain . anekon chhando mein nibddh is kaavya ki shaili prasaadamayi hai.

samayamaatruka

ismein aath adhyaaya hain . ismein veshyaaon ke prapanchon ka varnan hai. ismein veshyaaon ke jaal se bachan ki shiksha di gayi hai.

deshopadesh

ismein tatha 'narmamaala' mein kavi ne haasyopadesh ke roop mein neeti parak upadesh diye hain . deshopadesh mein aath upadesh hain . kavi ka pradhaan lakshya hai ki haas se lajjit hokar koi bhi puroosh doshon mein pravrut naheen hoga -

haasen lajjitoutyantan na dosheshu pravartate
janastadupakaaraaya mamaayan svamudyam: .

narmamaala

ismein teen parichhed hain .

yogashaastr

jain kavi hemachandr ( 1088- 1172 i0) ne is rachana me jainon ke kartavyon tatha jain saadhuon dvaara apnaaye jaane vaale kathor niyamon ka varnan kiya gaya hai .

mugdhopadesh

kavi jalhan (1130 i0 ) ne is rachana mein veshyaaon ke chhal prapanch se bachane ki shiksha di gayi hai.

shaantishtak

shilhan ( 1205 i0) dvaara rachit is shatak mein maanasik shaanti ki praapti ke liye vishesh bal diya hai. is rachana par bhartruhari virchit neeti shatak vairaagya shatak ka prabhaav spashtat: jhalakata hai.

shrrungaar vairaagyatarangini

somaprabh ne 1267 i0 mein yeh rachana rachi . ismein striyon ke sansarg se haaniyaan va vairaagya ke laabhon ko bataaya gaya hai .

subhaashit neevi

vedaantadeshik (1268- 1269 i0) dvaara rachit is rachana mein 145 subhaashit shlokon ka sangrah hai. yeh rachana bhartruhari ke neetishtak se poornat: prabhaavit hai . iske saath hi is kavi ne 'vairaagya panchak' naamak rachana bhi rachi hai.

drushtaantakalikaashatam

kavi kusum Dave dvaara rachit yeh kaavya anushtap chhand mein rachit hai . vallabh Dave (1500 i0 ) na is kavi ka ullekh kiya hai . at: kusumadev ka kaal is samay se poorv ka hi hai . is kaal ke poorvaadh mein neeti kathan hai tatha uttaraardh mein usaki pushti drushtaant dvaara ki hai .

neeti manjari

dyaadvived ne 1492 i0 mein 'neeti manjari' ki rachana ki . ismein vruddh devata aadi praacheen granthon ke udaaharanon ke maadhyam se diya gaya hai. katipya sthalon par ved mantron ki vyaakhya bhi ki hai.

bhaamini vilaas

panditraaj jagannaath ( 1590 - 1665 E ) dvaara rachit bhaamini vilaas mein kramash: chaar bhaag hain - anyokti, shrungaar, karoon aur shaant . inmein kramash: 101 , 100 , 19 aur 32 shlok hain . panditraaj paanditya ke paara praveen hain . sthaan-sthaan pad kaavya saundarya , alankrut padaavali, bhaav saundarya, ras pravanata, jnyaaanagarima aur hrudayagraahita ka darshan hota hai . yatha -

sapadivilyetu raajyalakshmeeroopari patantvathava krupaan dhaara
apaddaratutaraan shir: krutaanto me tu matirn manaagapaitu dharmaat .

arthaat chaahe raajyalakshmi chali jaae, chaahe talavaar ki chot sahi pade, chaahe mrutyu aa jaae, parantu man kabhi bhi dharm ka parityaag na kare .

kali vidmban

neelakanth Dixit (1630 i0 ) ne chaar rachanaaen rachi . jinmein pratham kali vidmban hai . ismein kaliyug ki vidambana ka utkrusht chitran hai . yeh ek vayangyapradhaan kaavya hai . yatha -

yatr bhaaryaagiro vedaa: yatr dharmoऽrthasaadhanam
yatr svapratibha maunan tasmai shreekalaye nam:

sabhaaranjanashatak

neelakanth Dixit ji ki anya kruti is shatak mein yeh bataaya gaya hai ki kis prakaar vidvanmandali ko tatha raajya sabha ke vyaktiyon ko prasann karna chaahiye .

shaanti vilaas

Dixit ji ki truteeya kruti shaanti vilaas mein 51 shlok hain jo mandaakraanta chhand mein virchit hain . is kaavya mein bhautik jeevan ki anityata ka chitran bade hi rochak dhang se kiya gaya hai. saath hi moksh praapti hetu Shiv se praarthana bhi ki gayi hai .

vairaagya shatak

Dixit ji ki chaturth kruti vairaagya shatak mein vairaagya poorn jeevan vyateet karne ke anekaanek laabh bataaye gaye hain .

upadesh shatak

almoda nivaasi parvateeya kavi jinka samay 18veen shataabdi ka uttaraardv hai, ne upadesh shatak naamak kaavya aarya chhand mein racha hai . iske janopayogi upadesh svaroop 100 shlok hain .

subhaashit kaustubh

ve kataadhvari ( 1650 i0 ) rachit prastut kaavya bhi upadeshaatmak shaili mein rachit neeti kaavya hai.

lokokti muktaavali

dakshina moorti naamak kavi dvaara rachit yeh kaavya naana chhando mein nibddh hai. ismein 94 shlok hain jinmein vidvatprashansa, durjan, tyaag , dvait ninda , shiksha padvati , vishaad paddhati tatha gyaan paddhati mein varnya-vishay ka vibhaajan hai .

kuchh pramukh neetiyaaain

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain