neem

"aajaadeeraakhta indeeka"
आज़ादीराख्ता ईन्दीका
aajaadeeraakhta indeeka
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
jagat: paadap
vibhaag: maagnolyofiuta
gan: Sapindales
kul: Meliaceae
vansh: Azadirachta (aajaadeeraakhta)
jaati: A. indica
dvipd-naamakaran
Azadirachta indica aajaadeeraakhta indeeka
Azadirachta indica

neem bhaarateeya mool ka ek sadaabahaar vruksh hai. yeh sadiyon se sameepavarti deshon- Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, myaanamaar (barma), Thailand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka aadi deshon mein paaya jaata raha hai. lekin vigat lagbhag dedh sau varshon mein yeh vruksh bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ki bhaugolik seema ko laangh kar Africa, Australia, dakshin poorv Asia, dakshin evam madhya amareeka tatha dakshini prashaant dveepasamooh ke anek ushn aur up-ushn katibndheeya deshon mein bhi pahuainch chuka hai. iska vaanaspatik naam 'Melia azadirachta athva Azadiracta Indica' hai.

anukram

varnan

fool va pattiyaaain Kolkata, pashchim Bengal, Bhaarat.

neem ek teji se badhne wala sadaabahaar ped hai, jo 15-20 mi (lagbhag 50-65 foot) ki oonchaai tak pahunch sakta hai aur kabhi-kabhi 35-40 mi (115-131 foot) tak bhi ooncha ho sakta hai. neem ek sadaabahaar ped hai lekin gambhir sookhe mein iski adhiktar ya lagbhag sabhi pattiyaan jhad jaati hain. iski shaakhaaon ka prasaar vyaapak hota hai. tana apekshaakrut seedha aur chhota hota hai aur vyaas me 1.2 meter tak pahuainch sakta hai. iski chhaal kathor, vidrit (daraarayukt) ya shalkeeya hoti hai aur iska rang safed-dhoosar ya laal, bhoora bhi ho sakta hai. rasadaaru bhoora-safed aur ant:kaashth laal rang ka hota hai jo vaayu ke sampark mein aane se laal-bhoore rang mein parivrtit ho jaata hai. jad pranaali mein ek majaboot mukhya moosala jad aur achhi tarah se viksit paarshv jadein shaamil hoti hain.

20-40 semi (8 se 16 inch) tak lambi pratyaavarti pichhaakaar pattiyaan jinmein, 20 se lekar 31 tak gahre hare rang ke patrak hote hain jinki lanbaai 3-8 semi (1 se 3 inch) tak hoti hai. agrast (terminal) patrak praaya: unupasthit hota hai. parnavrunt chhota hota hai. konpalon (nayi pattiyaaain) ka rang thoda baingani ya laalaami liye hota hai. paripakva patrakon ka aakaar aamtaur par asamamiteeya hota hai aur inke kinaare danteeya hote hain.


fool safed aur sugandhit hote hain aur ek latakate huye pushpaguchh jo lagbhag 25 semi (10 inch) tak lamba hota hai mein saje rahate hain. iska fal chikna (aromil) golaakaar se andaakaar hota hai aur ise ninboli kehte hain. fal ka chhilka patala tatha gooda reshedaar, safed peele rang ka aur svaad mein kadva-meetha hota hai. goode ki motaai 0.3 se 0.5 semi tak hoti hai. guthali safed aur kathor hoti hai jismein ek ya kabhi-kabhi do se teen beej hote hain jinka aavaran bhoore rang ka hota hai.

neem ke pedon ki vyavasaayik kheti ko laabhadaayak naheen maana jaata. makka ke nikat teerthayaatriyon ke liye aashray pradaan karne ke liye lagbhag 50000 neem ke ped lagaae gaye hain.[tathya vaanchhit]

neem ka ped bahut had tak cheeneeberi ke ped ke samaan dikhta hai, jo ek behad jahareela vruksh hai.

hareli parv ke avsar par neem ke saath Chhattisgarh ka ek graameen

paaristhitiki

neem ka ped sookhe ke pratirodh ke liye vikhyaat hai. saamaanya roop se yeh up-shushk aur kam nami vaale kshetron mein falata hai jahaaain vaarshik varsha 400 se 1200 mimi ke beech hoti hai. yeh un kshetron mein bhi fal sakta hai jahaaain vaarshik varsha 400 mimi se kam hoti hai par us sthiti me iska astitv bhoomigat jal ke star par nirbhar rahata hai. neem kai alag-alag prakaar ki mitti mein viksit ho sakta hai, lekin iske liye gahari aur reteeli mitti jahaaain paani ka nikaas achha ho, sabse achhi rahati hai. yeh ushnakatibandheeya aur upaushnakatibandheeya jalavaayu mein falane wala vruksh hai aur yeh 22-32° seinteegred ke beech ka ausat vaarshik taapamaan sahan kar sakta hai. yeh bahut uchch taapamaan ko to bardaasht kar sakta hai, par 4 degree celcius se neeche ke taapamaan mein murajha jaata hai. neem ek jeevanadaayi vruksh hai visheshakar tateeya, dakshini jilon ke liye. yeh sookhe se prabhaavit (shushk pravan) kshetron ke kuchh chhaaya dene vaale (chhaayaadaar) vrukshon mein se ek hai. yeh ek naajuk ped naheen hain aur kisi bhi prakaar ke paani meetha ya khaara mein bhi jeevit rahata hai. Tamil Nadu mein yeh vruksh bahut aam hai aur isko sadkon ke kinaare ek chhaayaadaar ped ke roop me ugaaya jaata hai, iske alaava log apne aaaingan mein bhi yeh ped ugaate hain. shivkaashi (sivkaasi) jaise bahut shushk kshetron mein, in pedon ko bhoomi ke bade hisse mein lagaaya gaya hai aur inki chhaaya mein aatishbaaji banaane ke kaarkhaane ka kaam karte hain.

upayog

neem ek bahut hi achhi vanaspati hai jo ki bhaarateeya paryaavaran ke anukool hai aur Bhaarat mein bahutaayat mein paaya jaata hai. aayurved mein neem ko bahut hi upayogi ped maana gaya hai. iska svaad to kadva hota hai lekin iske faayde anek aur bahut prabhaavashaali hai. [1] [2] [3]

1- neem ki chhaal ka lep sabhi prakaar ke charm rogon aur ghaavon ke nivaaran mein sahaayak hai.

2- neem ki daatun karne se daant aur masoode svasth rahate hain.

3- neem ki pattiyaan chabaane se rakt shodhan hota hai aur tvacha vikaar rahit aur kaantivaan hoti hai. haan pattiyaan avashya kadvi hoti hain, lekin kuchh paane ke liye kuchh to khona padta hai masalan svaad.

4- neem ki pattiyon ko paani mein ubaal us paani se nahaane se charm vikaar door hote hain aur ye khaastaur se chechak ke upachaar mein sahaayak hai aur uske vishaanu ko failane na dene mein sahaayak hai.

5- neenboli (neem ka chhota sa fal) aur usaki pattiyon se nikaale gaye tel se maalish ki jaaye to shareer ke liye achha rahata hai.

6- neem ke dvaara banaaya gaya lep baalo mein lagaane se baal svasth rahate hain aur kam jhadte hain.

7- neem ki pattiyon ke ras ko aankhon mein daalne se aankh aane ki beemaari mein laabh milta hai(netrashoth ya kanjektivaaitis)

8- neem ki pattiyon ke ras aur shahad ko 2:1 ke anupaat mein peene se peeliya mein faayda hota hai aur isko kaan mein daalne se kaan ke vikaaron mein bhi faayda hota hai.

9- neem ke tel ki 5-10 boondon ko sote samay doodh mein daalkar peene se zyaada paseena aane aur jalan hone sambandhi vikaaron mein bahut faayda hota hai.

10- neem ke beejon ke choorn ko khaali pet gunagune paani ke saath lene se bavaaseer mein kaafi faayda hota hai.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain