needaralaind

needaralaind

Netherland yurop mahaadveep ka ek pramukh desh hai. yeh uttari-poorvi Europe mein sthit hai. iski uttari tatha pashchimi seema par uttari samudra sthit hai, dakshin mein Belgium evam poorv mein Germany hai. Netherland ki rajdhani emsatardam hai. "the Hague" ko prashaasanik rajdhani ka darja diya jaata hai.

Netherland ko aksar haulaind ke naam sambodhit kiya jaata hai evam saamaanyat: Netherland ke nivaasiyon tatha iski bhaasha donon ke liye dach shabd ka upayog kiya jaata hai.

anukram

parichay

needaralainds Europe ke uttar-pashchim mein samudra ke kinaare sthit sthit desh hai. ise haulaind bhi kehte hain, kintu iska raashtreeya naam 'needaralainds' hai. iska adhikaansh kshetr samudratal se bhi neeche hain, jiske kaaran iska naamakaran hua hai. iske poorv mein pashchimi, Germany, dakshin mein Belgium, pashchim aur uttar mein uttari saagar hain. iska kshetrafal 33,591 varg kimi. hai. is desh ki sarvaadhik lanbaai 304 kimi. (uttar-dakshin) tatha adhiktam chaudaai 256 kimi. (dakshinpashchim se uttar-poorv) hai.


Netherland pehli sansadeeya lokatantr deshon mein se ek hai. yeh Europeeya sangh (E.you.), North etalaantik treeti organization (na.to.), aarthik evam vikaas sangathan (O.i.si.di.) evam vishv vyaapaar sangathan (dabloo.ti.O.) ka sansthaapak sadasya hai. Belgium tatha laksamabarg ke saath yeh "benelaks" aarthik sangh ka roop leta hai.

yeh paanch antaraashtreeya adaalaton ka mejbaan hai : sthaayi madhyasthata nyaayaalaya (pi.si.A), antarraashtreeya nyaayaalaya, poorvi yugoslaavaakiya ke liye antaraashtreeya aparaadhik tribunal (I.ti.si.vaai), antarraashtreeya aparaadhik nyaayaalaya (I.si.si) evam tribunal for Lebanon. iname se pratham chaar nyaayalaya, yooropiyn sangh ki khufiya egeinsi (Europol) tatha nyaayik sahayogi egeinsi (yurojast) Netherland ke the Hague shahar mein sthit hain. yahi kaaran hai ki "the Hague" ko vishv ki 'nyaayik rajdhani' kaha jaata hai. 157 deshon ki aarthik savatantrata ki soochi mein Netherland ka sthaan 15 hai.

Netherland bhaugolik sandarbh mein ek nichla desh hai. iska lagbhag 20% kshetr samudri tal se neeche hai. lagbhag 21% aabaadi samudri tal se neeche rahati hai evam lagbhag 50% aabaadi samudri tal se bas ek meter ki ooainchaai par hai.

banavaat

is desh ke kshetrafal mein tateeya kataav ke kaaran kami tatha pravaah pranaali ke ghumaav aur baaaindh dvaara ismein vruddhi hoti rahati hai. Europeeya mahaadveep ke anya kisi bhi desh ke itne nivaasi apne desh ke kshetr nirmaan mein naheen lage hain jitne ki needaralainds mein.

is desh ki sthaleeya aakrutiyaaain tatha samudri seemaaeain mukhyataya maas, raain aur skheldai nadiyon ke delta se prabhaavit hoti hain. delta ka nirmaan pratyaksh roop se in nadiyon ke jvaareeya kshetr mein girne se hota hai. isse ooaincha utha hua bhaag samaapt ho jaata hai aur patale tatha lambe gaddhon ka nirmaan hota hai, jo nadiyon ki vegavati dhaaraaon dvaara laae gaye avasaadon se bhar jaate hain. is tarah delta kshetr ka vistaar hua hai.

is desh ki sarvaadhik ooainchaai sudoor dakshin poorv kone mein needaralainds Germany tatha Belgium ke milnabindu par (322 meter) hai. yahaaain bahut hi kam kshetr ki ooainchaai samudratal se 46 meter adhik hai. 35 pratishat se bhi adhik bhoomibhaag to aimsataradaim ke star se bhi ek meter kam ooaincha hai.

jalavaayu

is desh ki jalavaayu lagbhag sabhi jagah ek samaan hai. January sabse thanda maheena hai. yootrekht (Utrecht) nagar ka ausat vaarshik taap 1.2 degree hai. iske poorv ka adhikaansh him se dhaka rahata hai. needaralainds mein dakshin-pashchimi havaaeain varsh ke nau maheene chalti hain, inse jaade ka taap thoda sa badh jaata hai, lekin April se June tak pashchimi havaaeain chalti hain, jo greeshm ritu ko thoda sa nam kar deti hain. vaayu ki disha ke kaaran desh ka pashchimi bhaag poorvi bhaag ki apeksha nam hai. desh ke madhya ki ausat vaarshik varsha 27 inch hai.

varsha ke dinon ki sankhya 200 se kuchh adhik hai lekin is kaal mein saapekshik aardrata bahut adhik (80 pratishat) rahati hai. isse dhundh tatha samudri tushaar praaya: padte hain, jinka haanikaarak prabhaav fraaisalaind aur jeelaind par padta hai tatha yahaaain fefade sambandhi beemaariyaaain adhik hoti hain.

praakrutik vanaspati

is ghane base desh mein jungle alp maatra mein hain. yahaaain ki vanaspati ko chaar bhaagon mein baaainta ja sakta hai :

  • 1. jhaadeevaali vanaspati,
  • 2. charaagaah,
  • 3. baaloo ke teele ki vanaspati aur
  • 4. tateeya vanaspati.

jhaadiyaaain desh ki poorvi baaluka pradesh mein pai jaati hain. baaloo ke teelon par vanaspatiyaaain apni hi jaati ki doosari jagah ki vanaspatiyon se chhoti tatha patali hoti hain. yahaaain ka mukhya paudha dach ailm (Dutch elm) ya chikna narakat hai, jo baalukaakanon ka aapas mein baaaindhe rakhane ke liye prati varsh ugaaya jaata hai. isse chataaiyaaain banaai jaati hain. iske atirikt baloot, devadaar, cheed, lindan, safeda aadi vanaspatiyaaain evam foolon mein dach tyoolip atyant prasiddh hain. samudra tat par kuchh paudhon ka upayog keechadvaale bhaag ko sukhaane tatha nikshep ko badhaane ke liye kiya jaata hai.

pashu

jangalon ki kami ke kaaran jangali jaanavar kam paae jaate hain. poorvi shushk jangali kshetr mein harin tatha lomadi paryaapt sankhya mein pai jaati hai. oodavilaav tatha reechh bhi kaheen kaheen milte hain. eremin nevala tatha dhruveeya tatha billiyaaain (Pole Cats) praaya: sabhi jagah pai jaati hain. yahaaain vibhinn prakaar ki chidiyaaain bhi milti hain. jangali murga, vaaj, neelakanth, maigapaai, kauva, ulloo, kabootar, laava, cheel tatha bulabul yahaaain ke mukhya pakshi hain. paalatoo jaanvaron mein gaaya, bail, suar, ghode, bhedein, murgiyaaain aadi mukhya hain.

krushi

yaheen ki mukhya fasalein gehooain, raai, jai, aaloo, chukandar, jau ityaadi hain. niryaat ke liye defodils tatha tyulip (ek prakaar ke sundar fool) adhik ugaae jaate hain.

vidyut, gas evam khanij

koyala, petrol tatha namak yahaaain ke mukhya khanij hain. koyale ki khaanein linbarg pradesh mein hai. yahaaain vidyuchhakti kaafi paida ki jaati hai.

udyog dhandhe

yahaaain ke udyogon mein dhaatu, vastr aur bhojya saamagri ka nirmaan, khanan, rasaayan aur silaai udyog mukhya hain. inke atirikt sheesha, choona mitti evam patthar ki vastueain banaane, heera jaise keemati pattharon ko kaatne tatha paalish karne, kaark tatha lakdi ki vibhinn vastueain banaane, chamade aur rabar ki vastueain taiyaar karne tatha kaagaj banaane ki udyog hote hain.

vyaapaar

vyaapaar ki vruddhi ke liye needaralainds, Belgium aur laksemabarg ne baineelaks sangh ki sthaapana ki hai jiske anusaar ek doosare desh ke aayaat-niryaat vyaapaar par kar naheen dena padta. needaralainds se vyaapaar karanevaale desh mukhyat: England, sanyukt raajya amareeka, pashchim Germany, Belgium, laksemabarg, France tatha sveedan hain. vyaapaar mein aigsatagdaim pramukh tatha rotaradaim evam Hague dviteeya sthaan rakhate hain.

yaataayaat

yahaaain yaataayaat ka bahut vistaar hua hai. naugamya nadiyon evam naharon ki kul lanbaai 6,768 kimi. hai jismein se 1,710 kimi. tak 100 ya isse adhik meetrik tan ki kshamataavaale jahaaj ja sakte hain. rel maargon mein bhi kaafi unnati hui hai.

sampoorn relon ki vyavastha 'di needaralainds relavej' (N. vi.) naamak ek sanyukt company dvaara hoti hai. rotaradaim, aimsataradaim, Hague prasiddh havaai adde hain.

janasankhya evam nagar

ek lakh se adhik janasankhyaavaale nagar aimsataradaim, aarnahem, breda, aaiyoven, ensakhede, groningen, haaralem, hilvarasam, nijmaigan, rotaradaim, tilvarg yootrekht, di Hague hain.

yahaaain dharm sambandhi poori svatantrata hai. shaahi parivaar dach rifaurmd church se sambandh rakhata hai. iske atirikt protestaint, old Catholic, roman Catholic tatha yahoodi anya mukhya dharm hain.

jaati, bhaasha aur dharm

Netherland ke mool nivaasi dach hain. fraankish (Frankish), seksan (saxon) aur freejn (Frisian) jaise alag alag vanshon ke hote hue bhi ve paraspar bhinn naheen dikhaai dete. haal mein Indonesia se aae log, jo praaya: yooreshiyn hain, avashya sabse bhinn maaloom padte hain. kuchh rakt mishran ke kaaran bhi pehle jaise ekaroopata ab dachon mein naheen rah gayi hai.

dach bhaasha yahaaain ki pradhaan aur raajakaaj ki bhaasha hai. freesalaind (Friesland) mein freejan ka prachalan hai. yeh engalo-saiksan bhaasha ke nikat padti hai, kintu anek roopon mein yeh dach se bhi milti julati hai. Netherland ke nivaasi fraanseesi, angreji aur jarman bhi jaante hain. ye bhaashaaeain vahaaain ke schoolon mein padhaai jaati hain.

43 pratishat nivaasi protesteint aur 38 pratishat roman Catholic dharmaavalanbi hain. 17 pratishat asaanpradaayik hain aur shesh 2 pratishat vibhinn maton ke anuyaayi hain. protesteinton mein adhiktar log kailvinist church ko maanate hain. lootharavaadiyon ki sankhya 1 pratishat se adhik kabhi naheen rahi.

itihaas

bhoogol

arthavyavastha

Netherland ek samruddh aur khuli arthavyavastha wala desh hai evam 1980 ke dashak ke pashchaat sarkaar ki bhoomika arthavyavasthaayi nirnayon mein kam ho gayi hai. yahaaain ki pramukh audyogik gatividhiyaaain hain : bhojan prasanskaran (yuneeleevar, heneken), vitteeya seva (I.N.ji.), raasaayanik (di.S.M.), petrolium (shel) evam vidyut machinery (filips aur A.S.M.L.).

praakrutik saadhanon ki kam ke kaaran Netherland baahar se kachcha maal maingaakar unase vibhinn prakaar ke samaan taiyaar karta hai, aur unka niryaat karta hai. teksataail, dhaatukaarmik (Metallurgical), kaashthakala, tail shodhan, aadi yahaaain ke mukhya udyog hain. krushigt utpaadan ke ek tihaai bhaag ka niryaat hota hai.

saari arthavyavastha praaya: antarraashtreeya vyaapaar par aadhaarit hai. iseeliye anya deshon ki aarthik avasthaaeain Netherland ko nyoonaadhik prabhaavit karti hain.

sandarbh