neeboo

neeboo ka vruksh

neeboo (Citrus limon, Linn.) chhota ped athva saghan jhaadeedaar paudha hai. iski shaakhaaeain kaaaintedaar, pattiyaaain chhoti, danthal patala tatha patteedaar hota hai. fool ki kali chhoti aur maamooli rangeen ya bilkul safed hoti hai. praaroopik (tipikl) neeboo gol ya andaakaar hota hai. chhilka patala hota hai, jo goode se bhali bhaaainti chipka rahata hai. pakane par yeh peele rang ka ya haraapan liye hue hota hai. gooda paandur hara, amleeya tatha sugandhit hota hai. kosh rasayukt, sundar evam chamakadaar hote hain.

neeboo adhikaanshat: ushnadesheeya bhaagon mein paaya jaata hai. iska aadisthaan sambhavat: Bhaarat hi hai. yeh himaalaya ki ushn ghaatiyon mein jangali roop mein ugata hua paaya jaata hai tatha maidaanon mein samudratat se 4,000 foot ki ooainchaai tak paida hota hai. iski kai kismein hoti hain, jo praaya: prakand ke kaam mein aati hain, udaaharanaarth florida raf, karna ya khatta neeboo, janbeeri aadi. kaagaji neeboo, kaagaji kalaaain, galagal tatha laaim silhat hi adhiktar ghareloo upayog mein aate hain. inmein kaagaji neeboo sabse adhik lokapriya hai. iske utpaadan ke sthaan Madras, Mumbai, Bengal, Punjab, madhya pradesh, Maharashtra Hyderabad, Delhi, Patiala, uttar pradesh, Mysore tatha Baroda hain.

neeboo ki upayogita jeevan mein bahut adhik hai. iska prayog adhiktar bhojya padaarthon mein kiya jaata hai. isse vibhinn prakaar ke padaarth, jaise tel, pektin, sitrik aml, ras, skvaash tatha saar (essence) aadi taiyaar kiye jaate hain.

anukram

parichay

vitaamin si se bharpoor neeboo sfoortidaayak aur rog nivaarak fal hai. iska rang peela ya hara tatha svaad khatta hota hai. iske ras mein 5% saaitrik aml hota hai tatha jiska pH 2 se 3 tak hota hai. kinvan paddhati ke vikaas ke pehle neeboo hi saaitrik aml ka sarvapramukh strot tha. saadhaaranat: neeboo ke paudhe aakaar mein chhote hi hote hain par kuchh prajaatiyaaain 6 meter tak lambi ug sakti hain. neenboo ki utpatti kahaaain hui iske baare mein koi thos pramaan naheen hai parantu aamtaur par log yahi maanate hain ki yeh paudha mool roop se Bhaarat, uttari myaanmaar evam cheen ka nivaasi hai.[1][2] khaane mein neeboo ka prayog kab se ho raha hai iske nishchit pramaan to naheen hain lekin Europe aur arab deshon mein likhe gaye dasveen sadi ke saahitya mein iska ullekh milta hai. mugal kaal mein neeboo ko shaahi fal maana jaata tha. kaha jaata hai ki Bhaarat mein pehli baar asam mein neeboo ki paidaavaar hui.

paushtik gun

neeboo

neeboo mein A, bi aur si vitaaminon ki bharpoor maatra hai-vitaamin A agar ek bhaag hai to vitaamin bi do bhaag aur vitaamin si teen bhaag. ismein -poteshiym, loha, sodiym, maiganeshiym, taanba, faasforas aur kloreen tattv to hain hi, proteen, vasa aur kaarboj bhi paryaapt maatra mein hain.[3] vitaamin si se bharpoor neeboo shareer ki rog pratirodhak kshamata badhaane ke saath hi anti aakseedeint ka kaam bhi karta hai aur kolestraal bhi kam karta hai. neeboo mein maujood vitaamin si aur poteshiym ghulanasheel hote hain, jiske kaaran jyaada maatra mein iska sevan bhi nukasaanadaayak naheen hota. raktaalpata se peedit mareejon ko bhi neeboo ke ras ke sevan se faayda hota hai. yahi naheen, neeboo ka sevan karne vaale log jukaam se bhi door rahate hain. ek neeboo din bhar ki vitaamin si ki jaroorat poori kar deta hai. neeboo ke kuchh ghareloo prayogon par lagbhag har bhaarateeya ka vishvaas hain. aisa maana jaata hai ki din bhar tarotaaja rahane aur sfoorti banaae rakhane ke liye ek gilaas gunagune paani mein ek neeboo ka ras va ek chammach shahad milaakar peena chaahiye. ek baalti paani mein ek neeboo ke ras ko milaakar garmiyon mein nahaane se dinbhar taajagi bani rahati hai. garmi ke mausam mein haije se bachane ke liye neeboo ko pyaaj va pudeene ke saath milaakar sevan karna chaahiye. loo se bachaav ke liye neeboo ko kaale namak vaale paani mein milaakar peene se dopahar mein baahar rahane par bhi loo naheen lagti. iske alaava ismein vitaamin A, seleniym aur jink bhi hota hai. gale mein machhali ka kaanta fans jaae to neeboo ke ras ko peene se nikal jaata hai.[4]

kheti

neenboo ke paudhe ke liye paala atyant haanikaarak hai. yeh dakshin Bhaarat mein achhi tarah paida ho sakta hai, kyonki vahaaain ki jalavaayu ushn hoti hai aur paala tatha sheetavaayu ka nitaant abhaav rahata hai. paudhe vibhinn prakaar ki bhoomi mein bhali prakaar ugate hain, parantu upajaaoo tatha samaan banaavat ki domat mitti, jo aath foot ki gaharaai tak ek si ho, aadarsh samajhi jaati hai. sthaayi roop se paani ekatrit rahana athva sadaiv ooainche star tak paani vidyamaan rahana, ya jahaaain paani ka star ghatata badhta rahe, aise sthaan paudhon ki vruddhi ke liye anupayukt hain.

neeboo ke paudhe saadhaaranataya beej tatha gooti se utpann kiye jaate hain. niymaanusaar paudhon ko 20-20 foot ke antar par lagaana chaahiye. iske liye, dhaai foot x dhaai foot x dhaai foot ke gaddhe upayukt hain. inmein barasaat ke theek pehle gobar ki sadi hui khaad, ya kanpost khaad, ek man prati gaddhe ke hisaab se daalani chaahiye. paudhe lagaate samay gaddhe ke madhya se thodi mitti hataakar usamein paudha laga dena chaahiye aur us sthaan se nikli hui mitti jad ke chaaron or lagaakar daba deni chaahiye. July ki varsha ke baad jab mitti achhi tarah baith jaae tabhi paudha lagaana chaahiye. paudhe lagaate samay yeh bhi dhyaan rakhana chaahiye ki jameen mein inki gaharaai utani hi rahe jitni rop mein thi. paudhe lagaane ke baad tunrat hi paani de dena chaahiye. jalavrushti par nirbhar rahanevaale kshetron ke atirikt anya kshetron mein kai baar sinchaai ki aavashyakta padti hai. sinchaai ka parimaan jalavrushti ke vitran evam maatra par nirbhar hai.

har sinchaai mein paani itni hi maatra mein dena chaahiye jisse bhoomi mein paani ki aardrata 4-6 prati shat tak vidyamaan rahe. sinchaai karne ki sabse upayukt vidhi 'ring' reeti hai.

neeboo prajaati ke sabhi prakaar ke falon ke liye khaad ki koi nishchit maatra abhistaavit naheen ki ja sakti hai. par saadhaaran roop se neeboo ke liye 40 ser gobar ki khaad, ek ser

suparafausfet tatha aadhaar ser potaasiym salfet paryaapt hota hai. gaun tatvon ki bhi isko aavashyakta padti hai, jinmein mukhya jasta, boran, taaainba tatha mainganeej hain.

jahaaain par sinchaai ke saadhan hain, vahaaain par antaraashasya lagaana laabhaprad hoga. dakshin Bhaarat tatha asam mein anannaas tatha papeeta neeboo ke pedon ke beech mein lagaate hain. inke atirikt tarakaariyaaain, jaise gaajar, tamaatar, mooli, mircha tatha baigan aadi bhi, saralataapoorvak utpann kiye ja sakte hain.

neeboo prajaati ke paudhon ko siddhaant: kam kaat chhaaaint ki aavashyakta padti hai. jo kuchh kaat chhaaaint ki bhi jaati hai, vah pedon ki vaanchhaneeya aakaar dene ke liye aur achhi dasha mein rakhane ke liye ki jaati hai.

uttari Bhaarat mein saadhaaranat: fal saal mein do baar aate hain, parantu inke foolane ka pramukh samay vasant ritu (February-March) hai. iske utpaadan ki koi vishvasaneeya sankhya praapt naheen hai, kintu neeboo ki vibhinn kismon ka utpaadan prati ped 150 se 1,000 falon ke lagbhag hota hai.

neeboo ko anek prakaar ke rog tatha keede bhi haani pahuainchaate hain. inmein se shalk (scab), neeboo kainkar, saaitras red maait (Citrus red mite), green mold (Penicillium digitatum), meeli bag (mealy bugs) ityaadi pramukh hain.

desh utpaadan (tan mein)
Flag of India.svg Bhaarat 2,060,000F
Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico 1,880,000F
Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina 1,260,000F
Flag of Brazil.svg braajeel 1,060,000F
Flag of Spain.svg Spain 880,000F
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg cheeni janavaadi ganaraajya 745,100F
Flag of the United States.svg sanyukt raajya America 722,000
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey 706,652
Flag of Iran.svg Iran 615,000F
Flag of Italy.svg Italy 546,584
World Map Icon.svg World 13,032,388F
koi prateek naheen = aadhikaarik aankade, F = FAO anumaanit:, A = sakal (aadhikaarik, ardh aadhikaarik aur anumaanit: aankade shaamil ho sakte hain);

strot: sanyukt raashtra ka khaadya aur krushi sangathan: aarthik aur saamaajik vibhaag: saankhyakeeya shaakha

utpaadan

vishv mein sabse adhik neeboo ka utpaadan Bhaarat mein hota hai. yeh vishv ke kul neeboo utpaadan ka 16 pratishat bhaag utpann karta hai. maiksiko, arjanteena, Brazil evam Spain anya mukhya utpaadak desh hain. daahini or vishv ke das sheersh neeboo utpaadak deshon ki soochi hai (2007 ke anusaar). neeboo, lagbhag sabhi prakaar ki bhoomiyon mein safalataapoorvak utpaadan deta hai parantu jeevaansh padaarth ki adhikta waali, uttam jal nikaas yukt domat bhoomi, jiski gaharaai 2-2.5 mi.ya adhik ho, aadarsh maani jaati hai. bhoomi ka pi-H 6.5-7.0 hone se sarvottam vruddhi aur upaj milti hai.

iski kuchh pramukh kismein hain kaagaji neeboo, pramaalini, vikram, chakradhar, pi ke M-1 (P K M-1) aur saain sharbati. inmein se kaagaji neeboo sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn kism hai. iski vyaapak lokapriyta ke kaaran ise khatta neeboo ka paryaaya maana jaata hai. pramaalini kism guchhe mein falati hai, jismein 3 se 7 tak fal hote hain. yeh kaagaji neeboo ki tulana mein 30 pratishat adhik upaj deti hai. iske fal mein 57 pratishat (kaagaji neeboo mein 52 pratishat) ras paaya jaata hai. vikram naamak kism bhi guchhon mein falan karti hai. ek guchhe mein 5-10 tak fal aate hain. kabhi-kabhi May-June tatha December mein bemausami fal bhi aate hain. kaagaji neeboo ki apeksha yeh 30-32 pratishat adhik utpaadan deti hai. chakradhar naamak kism khatta neeboo ki beej rahit kism hai jo ropan ke chauthe varsh se fal dena praarambh kar deti hai. ismein 60-66 pratishat ras paaya jaata hai. iske fal praaya:January - February, June-July tatha sitmbar-October mein milte hain. pi ke M-1 naamak kism uchch utpaadan dene waali kism hai, jiske fal gol, madhyam se lekar bade aakaar ke hote hain. peele rang ke falon mein lagbhag 52 pratishat tak ras milta hai. saai sharabati uchch utpaadan kshamata waali kism hai. ismein greeshm falan ki pravrutti pai jaati hai. beejarahit (seedales) neeboo- yeh ek naya chayan hai jo anya kismon se doguna utpaadan deta hai. yeh ek pachhaiti kism hai jiske fal halke gulaabi rang vaale aur patale chhilke vaale hote hain. iske atirikt taahiti ya parshiyn varg ke neeboo gunasootr trigunit hote hain. fal aakaar mein bade va beejarahit hote hain. asam ke kuchh kshetron mein abhayapuri laaim tatha kareemaganj laaim bhi ugaaye jaate hain.[5]

puraane samay se hi neeboo ek garbh nirodhak ke roop mein istemaal hota raha hai, par aadhunik yug mein iske is gun ki or logon ne dhyaan kam hi diya hai. Australia ke kuchh vaigyaaniko ne apne ek shodh ke dauraan paaya hai ki neeboo ka ras maanav shukraanu ko maarane mein saksham hai, saath hi yeh H I vi vishaanu ko bhi maar deta hai.[6]

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain