nechar (patrika)

Nature
First title page, November 4, 1869
sankship‍aat sheershak (aaya॰aesa॰ao॰ 4) Nature
vishay Interdisciplinary
bhaasha English
prakaashan vivran
prakaashak Nature Publishing Group (United Kingdom)
prakaashan itihaas 1869–present
aavruti Weekly
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(2008)
31.434
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aaya॰aesa॰aesa॰aena॰ 0028-0836 (print)
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jaalasthal


nechar ' - yeh british ki ek pramukh vaigyaanik patrika hai jo pehli baar 4 November 1869 ko prakaashit ki gayi thi. duniya ki antarvishya vaigyaanik patrikaaon mein is patrika ka ullekh sabse uchch sthaan par kiya jaata hai.[1] ab to adhikaansh vaigyaanik patrikaaen ati-vishisht ho gayeen hain aur nechar un gini-chuni patrikaaon mein se hai [anya pramukh saaptaahik patrikaaen hain - saayans (Science) aur proseedings of the naishanal academy of saayanses (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) ] jo aaj bhi, vaigyaanik kshetr ki vishaal shreni ke mool anusandhaan lekh prakaashit karti hai. vaigyaanik anusandhaan ke aise anek kshetr hain jinmein kiye jaane vaale nae va mahatvapoorn vikaason ki jaankaari tatha shodh-sambandhi mool-lekh ya patra nechar ' mein prakaashit kiye jaate hain.

haalaanki is patrika ke pramukh paathakagan anusandhaan karne vaale vaigyaanik hain, par aam janta aur anya kshetr ke vaigyaaniko ko bhi adhikaansh mahatvapoorn lekhon ke saaraansh aur up-lekhan aasaani se samajh aate hain. har ank ke aarambh mein sampaadakeeya, vaigyaaniko ki saamaanya dilchaspi vaale muddon par lekh va samaachaar, taaja khabaron sahit vigyaan-nidhikran, vyaapaar, vaigyaanik naitikta aur anusandhaanon mein hue nae-nae shodh sambandhi lekh chhaape jaate hain. pustakon aur kala sambandhi lekhon ke liye bhi alag-alag vibhaag hain. patrika ke shesh bhaag mein jyaadaatar anusandhaan-sambandhi lekh chhaape jaate hain, jo aksar kaafi gahre aur takaneeki hote hain. choonki lekhon ki lambaai par ek seema nirdhaarit hai, at: patrika mein aksar anek lekhon ka saaraansh hi chhaapa jaata hai aur anya vivranon ko patrika ke website par supplementary material (poorak saamagri) ke tahat prakaashit kiya jaata hai.

2007 mein, nechar ' aur saayans ' - donon patrikaaon ko sanchaar va maanavata ke liye prince of asturiyaas award pradaan kiya gaya.[2]

anukram

itihaas

'nechar ' se poorvagat vaigyaanik patrikaaen

unneesaveen shataabdi mein, khaas kar sadi ke uttaraardh mein, anekaanek vaigyaanik vikaas ke liye Britain sabse pramukh kendra tha. uske baad Britain mein bruhat paimaane par takaneeki aur audyogik parivartan hue aur bahut unnati hui.[3] is sadi ki atyadhik jaani-maani patrikaaen theen - royal society dvaara prakaashit nirneet -patrikaaen jinmein Charles daarvin se lekar aaijk nyootan aur Michael faraade jaise mahaan vaigyaaniko ke anusandhaan-lekh chhaape gaye the. iske alaava, is avadhi ke dauraan, lokapriya vaigyaanik patrikaaon ki sankhya -1850 ke dashak se 1860 ke dashak ki tulana mein - duguni ho gayi.[4] in lokapriya patrikaaon ke sampaadakon ke anusaar, in prakaashanon ki parikalpana isliye ki gayi taaki ye "vigyaan ke mukh-patra" bankar aam janta ko vaigyaanik duniya se jodne ka kaam kar sakein.[4]

haalaanki nechar ' ka janm 1869 mein hua, par apne khaas dhang ki yeh pehli patrika naheen thi. nechar ' se pehle bhi Recreative Science: A Record and Remembrancer of Intellectual Observation naamak ek patrika prakaashit hua karti thi, jiski shuruaat 1859 mein hui thi - ek saamaanya etihaasik patrika ke roop mein, lekin aage chalakar usamein bhautikeeya prekshan vigyaan aur takaneeki vishyon ka samaavesh hua aur lekh kam hue.[5] patrika ke mool naam mein kai baar parivartan hue - pehle intalekchyual objrvar, a reevyoo of naicharal history, maaikroskopik reesarch, aind reekriyetiv saayans aur aakhir mein studeint aind intalekchyual objrvar of saayans, literature, aind Art .[6] reekriyetiv saayans ' mein jyaadaatar khagol shaastr aur puraatatv-vigyaan jaise bhautiki vigyaan vishyon ka samaavesh hota tha, par intalekchyual objrvar ' mein saahitya aur kala-sambandhi vishyon ka bhi samaavesh karke patrika ka vistaar kiya gaya.[6] reekriyetiv saayans ' se milti-julati ek aur vaigyaanik patrika thi - paupyular saayans reevyoo ', jiska janm hua 1862[7] mein aur jismein vigyaan ke vividh vishyon ka samaavesh alag-alag sheershakon - jaise: 'saayantifik samari' ya 'kvaartarali retrospekt' - ke tahat kiya gaya, saath hi pustak-sameeksha aur naveenatam vaigyaanik kaaryon va prakaashanon sambandhi vivran va tippaniyon ko bhi sammilit kiya gaya.[7] nechar ' se pehle England mein do anya patrikaaen prakaashit hoti theen, jinke naam the - kvaartarali journal of saayans ' aur saayantifik opiniyn ' aur jinki sthaapana kramash: 1864 va 1868 mein hui thi.[6] jo patrika nechar ' ke sampaadakeeya aur parikalpana se sabse zyaada milti-julati thi, vah thi - the reedar ' - jiska janm hua tha 1864 mein aur jismein -paupyular saayans reevyoo ' ki hi tarah - vigyaan ke saath-saath saahitya va kala-sambandhi vishyon ka bhi samaavesh kiya gaya taaki vaigyaanik-samudaaya ke alaava anya paathakagan bhi faayda utha sakein.[6]

ye sabhi ek jaisi patrikaaen aakhirkaar asafal huin. sirf paupyular saayans reevyoo ' hi sabse zyaada - arthaat 20 varshon tak chali aur aakhir 1881 mein usaka prakaashan bhi band ho gaya. reekriyetiv saayans ' aur studeint aind intalekchyual objrvar ' -in donon ka prakaashan to 1871 mein pehle hi band ho chuka tha. ye sabhi ek jaisi patrikaaen aakhirkaar asafal huin. sirf 'paupyular saayans reevyoo' hi sabse zyaada - yaani 20 varshon tak chali aur aakhir 1881 mein usaka prakaashan bhi band ho gaya. kvaartarali journal ' ke sampaadakeeya vibhaag mein anekaanek badlaav hue aur aakhir 1885 mein yeh patrika bhi band ho gayi. the reedar ' patrika band hui 1867 mein aur sabse ant mein saayantifik opiniyn ' - sirf 2 saal tak chalne ke baad, June 1870 mein band ho gayi.[5]

'nechar ' ki rachana

the reedar ' ke band hone ke baad, bahut jald hi, uske ek poorv sampaadak - naurman laukyar ne ek nayi vaigyaanik patrika ki rachana ki, jiska naam nechar ' rakha gaya,[8] jo prakhyaat kavi William vardsavarth ki ek kavita ki pankti se li gayi thi. yeh pankti thi - "too the saulid ground of nechar trasts the maayand dait bilds for aay" (To the solid ground of nature trusts the Mind that builds for aye").[9] prapratham maalik va prakaashak elegjeindar maikamiln dvaara prakaashit nechar ' ka prayaas bhi apni poorvaj patrikaaon ki tarah hi tha, arthaat -"parishkrut paathakon ko vaigyaanik pragati sambandhi jaankaari padhne ke liye ek sulabh manch pradaan karna".[8] jainet brown ka kehna hai, "'nechar ' ki rachana, usaka janm aur vikaas kiya gaya keval ek vivaadaatmak uddeshya ko poora karne ke liye, jo us samay ki kisi bhi anya vigyaan patrika se kaheen badhkar tha."[8] nechar ' ke praarambhik sanskaranon mein, X club naamak ek samooh ke sadasyon dvaara likhit lekh prakaashit hote the. yeh un vaigyaaniko ka samooh tha jo unmukt, pragatisheel aur kuchh had tak, us samay ke, vivaadaaspad vaigyaanik maanyataaon mein vishvaas rakhate the.[8] Thomas henari haksli dvaara shuroo kiye is samooh mein Joseph hookar, harbart speinsar aur John tindaal jaise mahatvapoorn vaigyaaniko ke alaava anya paanch vaigyaanik tatha ganitjnya bhi shaamil the aur ye sabhi vaigyaanik daarvin ke aam-peedhi ke vikaasaatmak siddhaant ke utsuk samarthakon mein se the. 19 veen sadi ke uttaraardh mein, roodhivaadi vaigyaaniko ke samooh ne is siddhaant ki kadi aalochna ki.[10] vaigyaanik unmuktata ki vajah se hi shaayad nechar ' ko, kuchh hisson mein, apni poorvaj-patrikaaon se kaheen zyaada safalta haasil hui. 1966 se 1973 tak aur 1980 se 1995 tak, nechar ' patrika ke sampaadak rah chuke John maidoks ne, patrika ke saunvein sanskaran ke bhojan-samaaroh mein sujhaav diya ki "shaayad 'nechar' ki patrakaarita ki gunavatta ne hi 'jarnalijm' (patrakaarita) ke paathakon ko aakarshit kiya. maidoks ne kaha ki "yahi vo tareeka hai jisse logon mein - jo anyatha ek doosare se alag-alag rahate hain - ek samudaaya mein hone ki bhaavana ko jagaaya ja sakta hai. isi kaam ko laukyar ki patrika ne shuroo se kiya."[11] iske alaava, maidoks ka ullekh hai ki patrika ko apne praarambhik varshon mein maikamiln parivaar dvaara mili aarthik-sahaayata ki vajah se bhi patrika ko, apni poorvagat patrikaaon se kaheen zyaada khulkar panapane aur viksit hone ki taakat mili.[11]

20veen aur 21veen sadi mein 'nechar ' ka roop

20veen sadi mein, khaaskar 90 ke dashak ke uttaraardh mein, 'nechar ' patrika mein anekaanek vikaas aur vistaar hue.

sampaadak

impeeriyl college ke professor'naurman laukyar nechar ' ke sansthaapak the. unke baad, doosare number par the - richrd gregari jinhonne 1919 mein patrika ke sampaadan ki baagdor sambhaali.[12] nechar ' ko antarraashtreeya vaigyaanik samudaaya mein sthaapit karne mein gregari ka bahut bada haath raha. royal society ne unki nidhan-soochana mein likha, "gregari hamesha vigyaan ke antarraashtreeya sanparkon mein bahut dilchaspi rakhate the aur unhonne hamesha antarraashtreeya vaigyaanik sanghon ki gatividhiyon se sambandhit lekhon ko nechar ' mein badi udaarata se chhaapa."[13] 1945 se 1973 ke dauraan, nechar ' ke sanpaadakatv mein teen baar parivartan hue - pehle 1945 mein A.J.vi.Gale va L.J.ef. brimbal (jo 1958 mein ekamaatr sampaadak bane), fir 1965 mein John medoks aur aakhirkaar 1973 mein David Davis.[12] 1980 mein, medoks ek baar fir sampaadak bane aur 1995 tak bane rahe. uske baad se, Phillip Campbell ne nechar ' ke sabhi prakaashanon ke 'editor-in-cheef' ki padavi sanbhaal rakhi hai.[12]

'nechar ' ka vistaar aur vikaas

1970 mein, nechar ' ne Washington mein apna pehla kaaryaalaya khola aur fir usaki shaakhaaen khuleen - 1985 mein new yaurk mein, 1987 mein tokyo va Munich mein, 1989 mein pairis mein, 2001 mein sain Francisco mein, 2004 mein bost mein aur 2005 mein haang kaang mein. patrika ke bruhat vistaar ki shuruaat hui 1980 dashak mein, jab das se bhi adhik nayi patrikaaen prastut ki gayeen. in nayi patrikaaon mein shaamil hain: 'nechar pablishing groop' - jiski rachana 1999 mein ki gayi aur jismein nechar ', 'nechar reesarch jarnals', 'staukatan press speshalist jarnals' aur 'maikamiln refareins' (jiska naam badalkar NPG refareins rakha gaya) bhi shaamil hai.

1997 mein, nechar ' ne khud apni website -www.nature.com - banaayi aur 1991 mein, nechar pablishing groop ne nechar reevyoos ' ki shrunkhala shuroo ki.[12] nechar ke website par kuchh lekh va nibandh muft upalabdh hain. anya lekhon ke liye website par adhishulk bharakar sveekruti paana aavashyak hai.

'nechar' ka daava hai ki 300,000 se bhi adhik varishth vaigyaaniko va adhikaariyon ko milaakar, uske kul paathakon ki sankhya aaj 600,000 se bhi adhik hai. haalaanki patrika ki lagbhag 65,000 pratiyon ka vitran hota hai, par adhyayanon ke anusaar, ausatan, ek prati ko lagbhag 10 log padhte hain.[14]

30 October 2008 ko, 'nechar ' ne pehli baar kisi Amreeki raashtrapati pad ke ummeedavaar ka anumodan kiya - amareeka ke 2008 ke raashtrapati pad ke chunaav mein, Barack Obama ko unke prachaar-abhiyaan ke dauraan samarthan diya.[15][16]

'nechar ' mein prakaashan yogya

nechar ' mein kisi lekh ka prakaashit hona bade gaurav ki baat maani jaati hai aur in lekhanon ko aksar utkrusht maana jaata hai jisse padonnati, anudaan se aarthik-sahaayata aur pramukh maadhyamon mein mahatvapoorn sthaan ka laabh praapt hota hai. in sakaaraatmak pratikriyaaon ke parinaamasvaroop, nechar ' aur iski niktatam pratiyogi patrika saayans ' mein apne lekh chhapavaane ke liye vaigyaaniko mein ek zabardast hod lagi rahati hai. nechar' ki is prabhaavakaari pratishtha ka kaaran ek maapdand tha ki koi patrika anya kaamon ke liye kitne prashansa-patra haasil karti hai aur 2008 mein, 'nechar' ke khaate mein iski sankhya 31,434 (thaumasan ISI ke anusaar) thi jo kisi bhi vigyaan-patrika ke liye sabse adhik thi.

anya, adhikaansh vaigyaanik patrikaaon ki tarah, lekhanon ko pehle sampaadak dvaara praathamik jaanch-parakh se gujrana padta hai, uske baad sahayogiyon ki sameeksha (jiske tahat, sampaadak dvaara chune gaye khaas vaigyaanik - jo us vishay mein nipunata rakhate hain, par sameeksha ke liye diye anusandhaan se unka koi lena-dena naheen hota -lekhanon ko padhkar, unki aalochna karte hain, tippaniyaan dete hain) ke baad hi lekh chhaape jaate hain.

jiske tahat, sampaadak dvaara chune gaye vkhaas, 'nechar ' ke maamale mein, lekhanon ko sirf sameeksha ke liye bheja jaata hai aur vo bhi tab jab lekh kisi saamayik ya aadhunik vishay par ho aur us vishay mein kaafi saari nayi baaton par roshani daali gayi ho. parinaamasvaroop, vichaaraarth ke liye prastut adhikaansh lekh bina sameeksha ke hi asveekrut kiye jaate hain.

'nechar' ke mool 'mission stetameint' (lakshyokti) ke anusaar: stat

It is intended, FIRST, to place before the general public the grand results of Scientific Work and Scientific Discovery; and to urge the claims of Science to a more general recognition in Education and in Daily Life; and, SECONDLY, to aid Scientific men themselves, by giving early information of all advances made in any branch of Natural knowledge throughout the world, and by affording them an opportunity of discussing the various Scientific questions which arise from time to time.
—a20, 20

2000 mein isko sanshodhit kiya gaya:

First, to serve scientists through prompt publication of significant advances in any branch of science, and to provide a forum for the reporting and discussion of news and issues concerning science. Second, to ensure that the results of science are rapidly disseminated to the public throughout the world, in a fashion that conveys their significance for knowledge, culture and daily life.
—a20, 20

lekhanon ke liye aitihaasik patrikaaen

aadhunik itihaas ke kai ati mahatvapoorn vaigyaanik khoj-sambandhi lekh sabse pehle nechar ' mein chhape. neeche di gayi soochi mein, kuchh aise hi chuninda vishay hain jinpar likhe lekh nechar ' mein chhape aur in sabhi ka parinaam bhi kaafi vyaapak raha aur in lekhanon ko prashansa-patra bhi mile.

  • kanon ke laharaane ki prakruti - C. Davisson and L. H. Germer (1927). "The scattering of electrons by a single crystal of nickel". Nature 119: 558–560. doi:10.1038/119558a0.
  • parmaanu vikhandan - L. Meitner and O. R. Frisch (1939). "Disintegration of uranium by neutrons: a new type of nuclear reaction". Nature 143: 239–240. doi:10.1038/143239a0.
  • DNA ki sanrachana - J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick (1953). "Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids: A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid". Nature 171: 737–738. doi:10.1038/171737a0.
  • pehle maulikyular (aanavik) proteen ki sanrachana (maayoglobin) - J. C. Kendrew, G. Bodo, H. M. Dintzis, R. G. Parrish, H. Wyckoff and D. C. Phillips (1958). "A three-dimensional model of the myoglobin molecule obtained by X-ray analysis". Nature 181: 662–666. doi:10.1038/181662a0.
  • palsars - A. Hewish, S. J. Bell, J. D. H. Pilkington, P. F. Scott & R. A. Collins (1968). "Observation of a Rapidly Pulsating Radio Source". Nature 217: 709–713. doi:10.1038/217709a0.
  • ojon chhed - J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner and J. D. Shanklin (1985). "Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction". Nature 315 (6016): 207–210. doi:10.1038/315207a0.
  • krutrimta se banaaya (kloning) pratham stanadhaari praani (dauli naam ki bhed) - I. Wilmut, A. E. Schnieke, J. McWhir, A. J. Kind and K. H. S. Campbell (1997). "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells". Nature 385 (6619): 810–813. doi:10.1038/385810a0.
  • maanav jeenom - International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (2001). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome". Nature 409 (6822): 860–921. doi:10.1038/35057062.

sahayogiyon ki sameeksha mein asangatiyaan

2000-2001 ki avadhi mein, jain heindrik shaun dvaara chhalapoorn likhit paanch lekhon ki shrunkhala 'nechar ' mein chhapi. 'suparakandakativiti' vishay par likhe lekh mein di jaanakaariyaan vaigyaanik taur par glat paayeen gayeen. 2003 mein, nechar ' ne in lekhanon ko lauta diya. shaun ka yeh chhalapoorn kaand sirf nechar ' tak hi seemit naheen tha. saayans ' aur fijikl reevyoo ' jaisi anya pramukh patrikaaon ne bhi shaun ke lekhanon ko lauta diya.[17]

vautsan aur krik dvaara 1953 mein likhit, DNA ki sanrachana ki prasiddh khoj-sambandhi lekh ko chhaapane se pehle, nechar ' ne lekh ko sahayogi-sameeksha ke liye bheja hi naheen. nechar' ke sampaadak John maidoks ki tipnni thi, "'nechar' ne vautsan aur krik ke lekh ki sahayogi-sameeksha hi naheen hui thi...is lekh ko kisi anya nirnaayak ke paas bhi naheen bheja ja sakta tha...is lekh ki satyata to svayansiddh hai. is kshetr mein kaaryarat koi bhi nirnaayak... is lekh ki rachana ko dekhne ke baad chup naheen baith sakta tha."

ek glati to pehle hi ho chuki thi jab enariko frmi ne, 'beeta'-kshaya ke kamzor prabhaav sambandhi apna khoj-lekh prakaashan ke liye bheja tha. 'nechar ' ne is lekh ko, vaastavikta se koson door maanate hue, naamanjoor kar diya.[18] fir, 1934 mein, jaitshreeft fr fijeek ' patrika ne farmi ka lekh chhaapa aur 5 saal baad, jab frmi ke lekh ko vyaapak roop se sveekruti mil chuki thi, aakhirkaar nechar ' ne bhi frmi ka lekh chhaapa.[19]

jab paul lautarbar aur Peter mainsfeeld ko shodh ke liye shareer-vigyaan ya aushadhi mein Nobel puraskaar mila, to nechar ' ne bhi is lekh ko, jise usane pehle asveekrut kiya tha, lautarbar dvaara asveekruti ke liye appeal karne ke baad, chhaapa. nechar ' ne apne sampaadakeeya - "saathiyon ki asveekruti ka saamana"- mein, lekhanon ki asveekruti ke maamale mein glat kadam uthaane ki apni glati ko kbool kiya.

[T]here are unarguable faux pas in our history. These include the rejection of Cerenkov radiation, Hideki Yukawa's meson, work on photosynthesis by Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Hartmut Michel, and the initial rejection (but eventual acceptance) of Stephen Hawking's black-hole radiation.[20]

'nechar ' aur sambandhit patrikaaon ka prakaashan

'nechar ' ka sampaadan aur prakaashan United kingdam mein, maikamiln pablishrs (Macmillan Publishers) ki up-company nechar pablishing groop (Nature Publishing Group) dvaara kiya jaata hai. jiyorg vaun haulatjbrink pablishing groop (Holtzbrinck Publishing Group) ke paas maikamiln pablishrs ka svaamitv hai. 'nechar' ke kaaryaalaya landan, New York siti, sain Francisco, Washington, D.C., baustan, tokyo, haang kaang, pairis, Munich aur besingastok mein hain. nechar pablishing groop, anya vishishth patrikaaen bhi prakaashit karti hai - jinmein nechar nyoorosaayans ', nechar baayoteknaulauji ', nechar methads ', nechar klinikl practice ' ki shrunkhala, nechar strakcharal aind maulikyular baayaulauji aur nechar reevyoos ' shrunkhala ki patrikaaen shaamil hain.

vartamaan mein, nechar ' ke har ank ke saath nechar paudkaast '[21] naamak ek up-patrika hoti hai jismein ank mein chhape lekhon ke lekhakon se aur anusandhaan ka prachaar karne vaale patrakaaron se ki gayi baatcheet ke mukhya ansh chhaape jaate hain. iske prastutakarta hain - aidam radaraford aur keri smith aur ismein naveenatam anusandhaanon ke vishay mein vaigyaaniko se ki gayi baatcheet aur 'nechar' ke sampaadkon va patrakartaaon dvaara diye samaachaar chhaape jaate hain. saath hi ismein, niyamit roop se, 'podeeyam' (PODium) naam ka ek saaptaahik vibhaag hota hai jismein 60 sekands ke liye rai-mashavira diya ja sakta hai aur 'saaund of saayans' mein vigyaan se sambandhit sangeet ya anya vaigyaanik audio rekaurdings ki jaanakaariyaan paayi ja sakateen hain. inse pehle isko Cambridge university aur 'the neked saayantists' ke kris smith ne prastut kiya tha.

2007 mein, nechar pablishing groop ne 'klinikl faarmekauloji end theraapyootiks ', "di official journal of di American society of klinikl faarmekauloji end theraapyootiks", maulikyular therapi ', sarkaari maanyata praapt 'di American society of jeen therapi' aur intaranaishanal society for maaykrobaail ikauloji (ISME) journal ' ke prakaashan ka praarambh kiya. nechar pablishing groop ne 2007 mein nechar fotoniks aur 2008 mein nechar jiyosaayans ke prakaashan ke shuruaat ki. April 2009 mein nechar kemistri ke pratham ank ka prakaashan hua.

nechar pablishing groop sakriya roop se sv-sangrah prakriya ka samarthan karta hai aur 2002 mein yeh un pehle prakaashakon mein tha jisne lekhakon ko apne lekh ya yogadaan ko apne niji website par prakat karne ki anumati di, jiske liye ek vishishth laayaseins praapt kiya taaki lekhakon ko apne lekh-adhikaar (copyright) ka hastaantaran na karna pade. December 2007 mein, nechar pablishing groop ne, nechar patrikaaon mein kisi jeenom ke praathamik anukram sambandhi, pehli baar prakaashit hone vaale lekhon ke liye, jo gunaaropan, gair-vaanijyik, jaisa - 'kriyetiv kaumans' ka anported laayasans jaari kiya. 2008 mein, John S. paarting ne, 'nechar ' mein chhape ek lekh-sangrah ka sampaandan kiya jiska sheershak tha - H. ji. vels in nechar, 1893-1946: a risepshan reedar aur jise Peter laing dvaara prakaashit kiya gaya.

nechar parivaar ki patrikaaen

nechar ' ke alaava aur bhi teen parivaaron ki patrikaaen hain jinka naam nechar ' se juda hai aur jinka prakaashan nechar pablishing groop dvaara kiya jaata hai.[22]

shodh patrikaaen :
  • nechar baayoteknaulauji
  • nechar sel baayolauji
  • nechar kemikl baayolauji
  • nechar kemistri
  • nechar jenetiks
  • nechar jiyosaayans
  • nechar imyunaulauji
  • nechar mateeriyls
  • nechar medisin
  • nechar methads
  • nechar nainoteknaulauji
  • nechar nyoorosaayans
  • nechar
  • nechar fijiks
  • nechar strakcharal end maulikyular baayolauji
protokaul :
  • nechar protokaul
sameeksha patrikaaen :
  • nechar reevyoos Cancer
  • nechar reevyoos drag diskavari
  • nechar reevyoos jenetiks
  • nechar reevyoos imyunaulauji
  • nechar reevyoos maaikrobayolauji
  • nechar reevyoos maulikyular sel baayolauji
  • nechar reevyoos nyoorosaayans
nechar ki 'klinikl practice' (rog-chikitsa peshe se sambandhit) ki poorv patrikaaen:
  • nechar reevyoos kaardiyolauji
  • nechar reevyoos endokraainaulauji
  • nechar reevyoos gaistroentaraulauji end hepetaulauji
  • nechar reevyoos nefraulauji
  • nechar reevyoos nyooraulauji
  • nechar reevyoos klinikl aunkolauji
  • nechar reevyoos riyoometaulauji
  • nechar reevyoos yuraulauji
nechar ke online prakaashan :
  • nechar China
  • nechar India

granth soochi

  • (1953). "richrd aramaan gregari, 1864-1952." obichooari notises of feloj of the royal society 8(22).
  • (1970). "the nechar' seintenari dinr." nots end rikaurds of the royal society of landan 25(1).
  • (2006). "nechar pablishing groop: history." http://npg.nature.com/npg/servlet/Content?data=xml/02_history.xml&style=xml/02_history.xsl se 15 November 2006 ko pun:praapt
  • (2006). "'nechar' patrika ke baare mein." http://www.nature.com/nature/about/index.html se 20 November 2006 ko pun:praapt
  • baartan, aar. (1996). "nechar se theek pehle: 1860 ke dashak ke kuchh angreji lokapriya vaigyaanik patrikaaon mein vigyaan ke prayojan aur lokapriytaakaran ke prayojan." enaals of saayans 55: 33.
  • brown, J. (2002). Charles daarvin: the power of place . New York, alfred A. nof (Alfred A. Knopf), ink.
  • siyegel, aar. S. a. ji. E. (2006). satat chhaatravrutti ke liye ek sahakaari prakaashan model" journal of skolarali pablishing 37(2): 13.

sandarbh

  1. http://www.nature.com/nature/about/
  2. nechar patrika
  3. siyegal, "satat chhaatravrutti ke liye ek sahakaari prakaashan model," prushth 88
  4. a aa baartan, "nechar se theek pehle," prushth 3
  5. a aa baartan, "nechar se theek pehle," prushth 7
  6. a aa i E baartan, "nechar se theek pehle," prushth 6
  7. a aa baartan, "nechar se theek pehle," prushth 13
  8. a aa i E brown, Charles daarvin: the power of place, prushth 248
  9. kavita: "A volant traaib of baards on arth aar faaund"
  10. brown, Charles daarvin: the power of place, prushth 247
  11. a aa "nechar ka shataabdi dinr," prushth 13
  12. a aa i E "nechar pablishing groop: itihaas", 15 November 2006 ko pun:praapt
  13. "richrd aramaan gregari, 1864-1952," prushth 413
  14. janaankik: nechar, nechar ke paathakatv ki ek profaail.
  15. nechar: America ki pasand
  16. saaptaahik vigyaan patrika nechar raashtrapati pad ke ek ummeedavaar: Barack Obama ka samarthan karta hai
  17. "Retractions' realities". Nature 422 (6927): p. 1. 2003-03-06. doi:10.1038/422001a. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v422/n6927/index.html.
  18. richrd rods, the meking of the etomik bam, tachaston, New York, 1986. ISBN 0-671-44133-7
  19. farmi, E. (1934). 'varsuch einar theory der beeta-straahalen', jeitaskrift fur fisik, khand 88, prushth 161.
  20. "Coping with peer rejection". Nature 425: p. 645. 2003-10-16. doi:10.1038/425645a. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6959/full/425645a.html.
  21. "nature.com". Nature Podcast. http://www.nature.com/nature/podcast/index.html.
  22. patrikaaon ka parivaar

baahari link