nautanki

'sultaana daakoo' naamak mashahoor nautanki ke ek pradarshan mein devendr sharma aur palak Joshi
ek aur nautanki ka najaara

nautanki (نaaوaaٹaaنaaکaaی, Nautanki) uttar Bhaarat, Pakistan aur Nepal ke ek lok nrutya aur naatak shaili ka naam hai. yeh bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein praacheenakaal se chali aa rahi svaang parampara ki vanshaj hai aur iska naam multaan (Pakistani Punjab) ki ek aitihaasik 'nautanki' naamak Rajkumari par aadhaarit ek 'shahajaadi nautanki' naam ke prasiddh nrutya-naatak par pada.[1][2] nautanki aur svaang mein sabse bada antar yeh maana jaata hai ki jahaaain svaang jyaadaatar dhaarmik vishyon se taallok rakhata hai aur use thodi gambheerta se pradarshit kiya jaata hai vahaaain nautanki ke maujoo prem aur veer-ras par aadhaarit hote hain aur unamein vyangya aur tanj mishrit kiye jaate hain. Punjab se shuroo hokar nautanki ki shaili teji se lokapreeya hokar poore uttar Bhaarat mein fail gayi. samaaj ke uchch-darje ke log ise 'sasta' aur 'ashleel' samajhte the lekin yeh lok-kala panapati gayi.[3]

anukram

itihaas aur vikaas

adhiktar sameekshakon ka maanana hai ki 'nautanki svaang shaili ka hi ek viksit roop hai'.[4] nautanki ki kathaaeain aksar kisi vyakti par ya mahatvapoorn vishay par hoti hain, masalan aalha-oodal ki nautanki. isi tarah, 'sultaana daakoo' ki nautanki isi naam ke uttar pradesh ke bijnaur jile mein hue ek daakoo ki kahaani bataati hai. Bhaarat ke svatantrata sangraam ke dauraan us vishay par bahut si nautankiyaan huin thi jinhonein jan-saadhaaran ko is sangraam mein shaamil hone ki prerana di. aajkal dahej-kupratha, aatankvaad aur saampradaayik ladaai-jhagadon ke viruddh nautankiyaaain dekhi ja sakti hain.[1] darshakon ki roochi banaae rakhane ke liye nautankiyon mein aksar prem-sambandh ke bhi kuchh tatv hote hain jinka prayog ashleelta ke liye bhi kiya ja sakta hai. isliye bahut si ashleel nautankiyaaain bhi dedh-sau saal se chalti aa raheen hain, jis se aksar nautanki ki shaili badnaam bhi hoti I hai.[1] paaramparik roop se nautankiyon mein paisa banaane ke liye yeh zaroori tha ki darshakon ko kabhi bhi oobane na diya jaae, isliye adhiktar nautankiyon mein 10 minute ya us se kam avadhi ki ghatnaaon ko ek silsile mein jodkar banaaya jaata hai jismein har bhaag mein darshakon ki roochi banaae rakhane ki koshish ki jaati hai. kahaani dilchasp rakhane ke liye veerata, prem, majaak, gaane-naachane aur dharm ko milaaya jaata hai aur kathaakaar prayaas karta hai ki darshakon ki bhaavanaaeain lagaataar oopar-neeche hon aur badalti rahein.

kavita

nautanki mein kavita aur saadhaaran bolachaal ko milaane ki pratha shuroo se rahi hai. paatr aapas mein baatein karte hain lekin gahari bhaavanaaon aur sandeshon ko aksar tukabandi ke jriye prakat kiya jaata hai. gaane mein saarangi, tabale, haaramoniym aur nagaade jaise vaadya istemaal hote hain.[5] misaal ke liye 'sultaana daakoo' ke ek roop mein sultaana apni premika ko samajhaata hai ki vah greebon ki sahaayata karne ke liye paida hua hai aur iseeliye ameeron ko lootata hai.[6] usaki premika (neel kainval) kehti hai ki use sultaana ki veerata par naaj hai (ismein roohelakhand ki kuchh khadi-boli hai):

sultaana
pyaari kangaal kis ko samajhti hai too?
koi mujh sa dabangar na rashk-A-kamar
jab ho khvaahish mujhe laaooain dam-bhar mein tab
kyonki meri daulat jama hai ameeron ke ghar
neel kainval
aafreen, aafreen, us khuda ke liye
jisne aise bahaadur banaae ho tum
meri kismat ko bhi aafreen, aafreen
jis se sarataaj mere kahaae ho tum
sultaana
pa ke jr jo na khairaat kaudi kare
un ka dushman khuda ne banaaya hooain main
jin greebon ka gmakhvaar koi naheen
un ka gmakhvaar paida ho aaya hooain main
sultaana
pyaari kangaal kis ko samajhti hai too?
koi mujh-sa dabang naheen
jab meri marji ho ek saans mein la sakta hooain
kyonki ameeron ki daulat par mera hi hak hai
neel kainval
vaah, vaah, us khuda ke liye
jisne aise bahaadur banaae ho tum
meri kismat ko bhi vaah, vaah
jis se sarataaj mere kahaae ho tum
sultaana
pa ke sona jo kaudi bhi na daan kare
khuda ne mujhe unka dushman banaaya hai
jin greebon ka dard baantane wala koi naheen
un ka dard hataane wala bankar main paida hua hooain

uchchaaran

krupaya dhyaan deejiye ki nautanki mein aksar hindi-urdoo ke paaramparik shabdon ka prayog hota hai. 'khairaat' aur 'khuda' jaise shabdon mein bindu-vaale 'kh' ka uchchaaran bindu-rahit 'kh' se jra alag hai aur 'khraab' aur 'khreed' jaise shabdon se milta-julata hai. isi tarah 'greeb' aur 'gm' jaise shabdon mein bindu-vaale 'g' ka uchchaaran bindu-rahit 'g' se thoda alag hai aur 'glat' aur 'gaayab' jaise shabdon se milta hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. a aa i The world encyclopedia of contemporary theatre, Volume 3, Don Rubin, Taylor & Francis, 2001, ISBN 978-0-415-26087-9, ... The nautanki, performed in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Rajasthan, is an operatic drama which also belongs to the swang tradition. It has a limited dance content, and combines it with elements of singing, recitation, storytelling ...
  2. Ideals, images, and real lives: women in literature and history, Alice Thorner, Sameeksha Trust (Bombay, India), Orient Blackswan, 2000, ISBN 978-81-250-0843-9, ... Perhaps the most striking instance is the story of Nautanki Shahzadi, The Princess Nautanki', whose name came to signify this theatre genre. 'Nautanki' means a woman whose weight is nine tanks (a tank equals four grams), implying that she was very delicate ...
  3. The Politics of the Urban Poor in Early Twentieth-Century India, Nandini Gooptu, Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 978-0-521-44366-1, ... Nautanki was the object of elite disapproval, being regarded as `low' or `lewd' in character and essentially a form of entertainment for the lower classes. In face, in urban areas, the main clientele of nautanki came from the bazar poor ...
  4. abhivyakti, Narayan bhakt, ... yeh kehna kathin hai ki nautanki ka manch kab sthaapit hua aur pehli baar kab iska pradarshan hua, kintu yeh sabhi maanate hain ki nautanki svaang shaili ka hi ek viksit roop hai. bharat muni ne naatya shaastr mein jis sattak ko naatak ka ek bhed maana hai, iske vishay mein mahaakavi evam naatakakaar jayashankar prasaad tatha hajaari prasaad Dwivedi ka kehna hai ki sattak nautanki ke dhang ke hi ek tamaashe ka naam hai...'
  5. Musical heritage of India, Manorma Sharma, APH Publishing, 2007, ISBN 978-81-313-0046-6, ... Nautanki is a highly musical play of western Uttar Pradesh. The music of Nautanki is not classical though based on the classical ragas. Nagara is the main musical instrument. Sarangi, Harmonium, Dholak and Dholaki are the other ...
  6. Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theatre of North India, Kathryn Hansen, pp. 139, University of California Press, 1991, ISBN 978-0-520-07273-2, ... The opening chaubola states: 'It was his job to loot the treasuries of the rich / And always bring relief to the poor and helpless.' Somewhat later Sultana declares his mission to be that of an equalizer sent by God: 'For those who have found wealth and given not a penny to charity, God has made me the enemy. / For those who are poor and have no consoler, I have been born to share their sorrows.' ...