naurman

san 1130 tak naurmanon dvaara raaj kiye gaye kshetr (laal rang mein)
Italy ke aadraano shahar mein bana ek puraana naurman gadh

naurman (angreji: Norman) madhyakaal ke aarambh mein uttari fraans mein logon ki ek jaati thi jo uttari Europe se aaye vaaiking hamlaavaron aur sthaaneeya (fraink aur gailo-roman) jaatiyon ka mishran the. yahaaain naurman jaati 10vi sadi ki shuruaat mein ubhari aur aane waali sadiyon mein ismein badlaav aate rahe. inglaind, Europe aur madhya poorv ke ilaakon par inhone apni gahari chhaap chhodi hai. uttari fraans ka jo kshetr unki maatrubhoomi tha use ab "noramaandi" (fraansisi: Normandie) bulaaya jaata hai.

anukram

bhaasha aur sanskruti

yeh log fraansisi bhaasha ki "naurman fraansisi" naam ki upabhaasha bolte the, jismein kaafi saahitya likha gaya. unhonne bhavan nirmaan ki ek nayi romanaisk naamak shaili ko janm diya. unhonne dakshin Italy, inglaind aur madhya poorv mein kai ilaakon par kbja kar ke apna raaj chalaaya. inglaind par san 1066 ke baad chale naurman-shaahi ke daur ka sabse pehla raaja William vijayi tha aur uske baad angreji bhaasha mein naurman fraansisi ke prabhaav se bahut teji se badlaav aaye aur bahut se fraansisi shabd hamesha ke liye angreji ka hissa ban gaye.

vyaktitv

11veen sadi ke ek jaifri maalaatera naamak bhikshu aur itihaasakaar ne naurmanon ka bakhaan kuchh is tarah kiya -

chaalaaki inki pehchaan hai, kuchh bada milne ke chakkar mein apni puraani dharohar se ghruna karne vaale, faayda aur jameen ki laalasa se bhare hue, bejhijhk nakl karne vaale, bade dil aur laalach ke beech kaheen tike hue, yaani ki in do vipreet cheejon ke mishran vaale log the. inke mukhya purush khaasakar thaath se rahate the kyonki vah chaahate the ke dusare unke baare mein aisa samajhein. oopar se is nasl ko fusalaana aata tha, bolachaal ki kala seekhakar usamein itne maahir the ke bachche bhi bhaashan de sakte the, aisi nasl thi ke kaanoon ka danda na ho to kisi ko bhi bech khaae. agar naseeb mein mehnat, bhookh aur sardi mile to aaraam se bardaasht karte the, shikaar aur cheelabaaji ke shaukeen the, ghodon se bahut lagaav tha aur har tarah ke hathiyaar aur yuddh ke anya saamaan ko bahut pasand karte the.[1]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh