nauinjeeniyri

'argonaut' naamak fraanseesi jahaaj ka niyantran kaksh (kantrol room)
praakrutik gas ke utpaadan ke liye P-51 naamak manch : aise manchon ka nirmaan bhi nauinjeeniyri ke antargat aata hai.

nauinjeeniyri (Naval engineering) praudyogiki ki vah shaakha hai jismein samudri jahaajon evam anya masheenon ke design evam nirmaan mein vishishti (spesalaaijeshan) pradaan ki jaati hai. iske alaava kisi jalayaan par niyukt un vyaktiyon (kriu membars) ko bhi nauinjeeniyr (neval engineer) kaha jaata hai jo us jahaaj ko chalaane evam rakharakhaav ke liye jimmedaar hote hain. iske alaava nauinjeeniyron ko jahaaj ka seevej, prakaash vyavastha, vaataanukoolan evam jalapradaaya vyavastha bhi dekhni padti hai.

anukram

itihaas

nauinjeeniyri, naukaaon ke nirmaan tatha unke sanchaalan ki kala bahut puraani hai. iski charcha praacheenatam saahitya mein pai jaati hai.

yadyapi Bhaarat ke praacheen granthon ka ek bada bhaag lupt ho gaya hai, kintu ved, puraanaadi jitne bhi praacheen granth is samay upalabdh hain unke adhyayan se siddh hota hai ki vaidik kaal mein bhi bhaarateeya log sadrudh jahaaj banaakar samudrapaar ke sudoor deshon mein vyaapaar tatha digvijya ke liye jaaya karte the. yuktiklpataru naamak ek praacheen granth mein to naukaaon tatha jahaajon ke das das bhed bhi bataae gaye hain. bhojaraaj ke samay mein likhit ek granth mein kaashthon ka vargeekaran karke bataaya hai ki naukaanirmaan ke liye se kaashth adhik upayukt honge.[1]. mahaabhaarat ke aadi parv mein vidur dvaara sthaapit ek nauka ke liye "sarvavaatasahaan naavan yantrayuktaan pataakineem" kehkar uske yantrachaalit hone ka bhi sanket kiya hai.

Europeeya itihaas se bhi pata chalta hai ki 18veen shati ke antim bhaag tak jahaaj lakadiyon ko dhaatu ki keelon aur pattiyon se jodkar hi banaae jaate the aur samudra mein paalon ki sahaayata se hava ki shakti dvaara sanchaalit kiye jaate the. 1784 E. mein jab James vaat ne apna dvikriyaatmak panp engine (double-acting steam engine) bana liya, tab vahaaain ke logon ka dhyaan jahaajon mein vaashp ki shakti ka prayog karne ki taraf gaya aur kramash: unka dhaaaincha bhi poornataya ispaat ka banaaya gaya. vastut: naukaaon par injanon ke prayog ke prayaas to 18veen shati se hi hone lage the. vaashpainjanachaalit naukaaon ka sankshipt vikaasakram nimn prakaar hai :

  • 1698 E. mein professor paupen (Papain) aur laaipasits (Leibnits) ke beech hue ek patravyavahaar se vidit hota hai ki ek nauka mein sevari (Savery) ka panp engine lagaakar uske paidal chakr ko paani ki dhaara ke bal se chalaane ka prayatn kiya gaya tha. is prayog ke samay pro॰ paupen bhi upasthit the, lekin yeh prayog asafal raha.
  • 1707 E. mein swayam pro॰ paupen ne maarbarg mein ek nauka par sevari ka panp engine lagaakar safalataapoorvak usaka sanchaalan kiya, lekin mallaahon ne iska ghor virodh kiya aur us nauka par aakraman bhi kiya, jismein paupen ki jaan mushkil se bachi.
  • 1736 E. mein jaunathain hals (Jonathan Hulls) ne "steematag" naamak nauka par nyookomen (Newcomen) ka vaayumandaleeya engine lagaakar, uske paidal chakron ko rasson dvaara ghumaane ka prayatn kiya, lekin vah prayog bhi asafal raha.
  • 1783 E. mein France ke maurkvas d joofvra (Morquis de Jouffroy) ne 150 foot lambi tatha 16 foot chaudi nauka par vaut ka ek kriyaatmak engine lagaakar uske 14 foot vyaas ke paidal chakr ko chalaaya. lekin France ki sarkaar se protsaahan na milne ke kaaran yeh prayog bhi asafal raha.
  • 1787 E. mein filaadelfiya ke John Fitch (John Fitch) ne nauka ne vaut ke ek kriyaatmak engine dvaara uske paidal ko chalaakar teen chaar meal prati ghante ki gati se sanchaalan kiya, lekin kai vyaavahaarik kathinaaiyon ke kaaran ve asafal rahe. iske pashchaat 1796 E. mein unhonne ek prakaar ka skroopropelar banaakar vaut ke ekakriyaatmak engine dvaara nauka chalaane ka prayatn kiya, lekin engine anupayukt hone ke kaaran propelar ko ek samaan bal se gati naheen mili at: yeh prayog bhi asafal raha. vaastav mein 1752 E. mein bernooli (Bernoulli) ne hi skroopropelar ka aavishkaar kiya tha, lekin use chalaane ke liye upayukt prakaar ka engine na milne par prayaas asafal raha.
  • 1788 E. mein Scotland ke Miller (Miller), Taylor (Taylor) aur saaimingtan (Symington) naamak injeeniyron ne 25 foot lambi aur 7 foot chaudi nauka par ekakriyaatmak, chaar inch vyaas ke cylinderon se yukt, do engine lagaakar paidal chakr ko chalaaya, jisse paaainch meal prati ghanta ki raftaar bhi praapt ki, lekin donon injanon ka samakaalan (synchronisation) theek na hone ke kaaran prayog asafal raha.

uparyukt vivran mein ham dekhte hain ki 18veen shataabdi mein injanon dvaara naukaaon ko chalaane ke jitne bhi prayog hue, lagbhag asafal rahe kyonki engine ki banaavat ekadish kriyaatmak hone ke kaaran usaki chaal mein sthirta naheen aane paati thi.

  • 1801 E. mein saaimingtan ne shaaralaut dandais (Charlotte Dundas) naamak nauka banaakar use forth (Forth) aur klaaid (Clyde) nahar mein chalaaya, jiska paidalachakr vaut ke banaae dvikriyaatmak engine se chalta tha. yahi sarvapratham prayog hai, jo safal samjha jaata hai.
  • 1807 E. mein New York ke raabart fultan (Robert Fulton) ne kleramaaain (Clermont) naamak nauka banaai, jiski lanbaai 133 foot, chaudaai 18 foot aur gaharaai 9 foot thi. is par boltan aur vaut (Boulton and Watt) ka banaaya ek dvikriyaatmak engine lagaaya tha, jiske silindar ka vyaas do foot aur stroke chaar foot tha. paidalachakr ke chalne par nauka ki gati paaainch meal prati ghanta ho jaati thi. yeh prayog bhi safal raha.
  • 1812 E. mein England ke henari bul (Henry Bull) ne apne poorvavarti injanon ke samast doshon ko sudhaarakar, teen ashvashakti ka dvikriyaatmak engine banaaya. ise 30 tan bhaari, 40 foot lambi aur foot chaudi kaumet naamak nauka par lagaaya. is nauka
  • san 1812 mein nirmit ne glaasago or greenak ke beech kai varshon tak yaatriyon ke le aane, le jaane ka kaam kiya. yeh prayog itna safal raha ki 1814 E. mein isi namoone ki paaainch naukaaeain aur bani, fir unakein kud sudhaarakar 1820 E. mein 20 naukaaeain taiyaar ki gayi. fir to inki banaavat tatha injanon mein anek mahatvapoorn sudhaar kar glaasgo nagar ke Robert nepiyr aind sons ne vyaapaarik dhang ek se ek kaarkhaana kholkar 1840 E. tak 1,325 naukaaeain bana daaleen. inmein aur bhi adhik sudhaar kar anya kaarakhaanedaaron ne 1888 E. tak 1930 samudri jahaaj tatha naukaaeain bana leen. aarambh mein inapar jo paidalachakr lagaae jaate the unke trijyeeya disha mein sthir paidal lagaae jaate the; baad mein inhein sudhaarakar pankhanuma asthir paidal lagaae gaye.

vaut ke dvikriyaatmak engine mein bhi kai aise dosh the jinke kaaran naukaasanchaalan mein badi asuvidha hoti thi. aaranbhik kaal mein steefeinsan ke vaalv gatiyantr ka bhi upayog hua, lekin jab jvaayaj (Joys) ke vaalv gatiyantr ka aavishkaar hua to nausanchaalan keliye iska upayog bada suvidhaajanak siddh hua. naukaaon par jagah ki kami ke kaaran uparyukt prakaar ke aade engine bade asuvidha janak rahate the, at: logon ne kai prakaar ke khade injanon ka bhi aavishkaar kiya. 1850 E. tak England mein jitne bhi jahaaj ya naukaaeain bani unke paidalachakron ko chalaane ke liye bagali leevar yukt injanon ki hi pradhaanata thi, jo jahaaji kaamon ke liye saadhaaran beam engine ke hi parishkrut roop the. iske baad, graasahaupar naamak ek vishesh prakaar ke beam engine ka aavishkaar hua, jo apne poorvavatrti aade injanon ki apeksha kam jagah gherata tha

  • iske baad 1827 E. mein uttari amareeka ke Robert stiveinsan ne ek "vauking beam" naamak engine ka nirmaan kiya jiske cylinderon ka vyaas inch aur stroke 8 foot tha. iska paidalachakr prati minute 24 chakkar lagaata tha.
  • 1840 E. mein stapul (Stuple) engine aur 1885 E. mein daayagonail (Diagonal) engine ka aavishkaar huaajo jahaajon par bahut hi kam jagah gherate the. daaiganal engine mein jaais ke vaashp gatiyantr ka upayog hota tha.
  • 1850 E. mein dolak (Oscillating) engine ka aavishkaar hua, jiska silindar sthir rahane ke badle do choolon par jhooma karta tha. is engine ne itni safalta dikhaai ki puraani naukaaon par, ek shataabdi baad, ab bhi yeh kabhi kabhi dekhne ko mil jaata hai. 19veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein peinn ka trank injin (Penn's Trunk Engine) aur moodsle ka return kanekintag road (Moudslay's Return Connecting Rod) engine ka aavishkaar hua. aarambh mein to inse paidalachakr hi chalaae jaate the lekin inki anudaighrya lanbaai itni chhoti aur suvidhaajanak ban gayi ki inhein naukaaon par aada lagaakar skroopropelar bhi badi aane laga. kramash: yeh engine itna viksit ho gaya ki iske dvaara 9,000 ashv shakti tak praapt ki jaane lagi aur yeh sanyoji prakaar (compound) ke triprasaareeya bhi banane lage.
  • vaastav mein injanon ke sanyukteekaran ka vichaar James vaut ke dimaag mein bhi tha, lekin London ke orthar ulf (Arthur Woolf) ne 1804 E. mein apne banaae ek engine par 40 pound prati varg inch daab ki vaashp se hi sarvapratham safal prayog kiya. sanyukteekaran ki is prayukti ko dablyoo. maikanaut (W. Mc Naught) ne 1845 E. mein aur bhi parishkirut kiya. 1854 E. mein rainadaulf evam eldar (Randolph and Elder) naamak angreji jahaaj nirmaata ne skroopropelar yukt apne braindan (Brandon) naamak samudri jahaajapar sanyukteekaran ka safal prayog kiya jiski vaashp daab 22 pound prati varg inch thi. iske baad 1870 E. tak sabhi jahaajon par sanyukt engine lagaae jaane lage. inki vaashp daab 60 pound prati varg inch tak hoti thi.
  • 1874 E. mein A. si. kark (A. C. Kirk) ne apne skroopropelar yukt praapootis (Propoutis) naamak jahaaj par triprasaar (triple expansion) engine lagaaya, jiske cylinderon ka vyaas kramash: 23 inch, 41 inch aur 62 inch tha tatha unka stroke 42 inch tha. yeh engine ek maanak prakaar ke jahaaji engine ke roop mein samjha jaane laga. 1880 E. mein in injanon ki vaashp daab 100paaund prati varg inch, 1890 E. mein 160 pound prati varg inch aur 1900 E. mein 200 pound prati varg inch tak badh gayi.
  • idhar antardahan injanon ka prayog naukaaon par aarambh ho jaane ke kaaran aur deejl engine jahaajon par suvidhaajanak siddh ho jaane ke kaaran, vaashp aur antardahan injanon mein pratidvandvita badhne lagi. at: vaashp injanon ki kaaryakshamata badhaane ke liye, alpadaab silindar ke aage vaashp tarabaain lagaana aarambh ho gaya. 1894 E. mein hi tarabaainon keaavishkaar paarasans ne skroo propelar yukt ek jahaaj par svanirmit tarabaain lagaaya. is jahaaj ki lanbaai 100 foot, chaudaai 9 foot aur bhaar, tan tha. iska tarabaain akele hi jahaaj ke skroopropelar ko badi dakshata se chalaata tha, lekin ismein engine ki apeksha prati ashv shakti adhik vaashp kharch hota tha. at: anya bade jahaajon mein khade triprasaar injanon ki kshamata badhaane ke liye engine ke sahaayak roop mein hi tarabaain, jismein alpadaab silindar se nikla hua vaashp hi kaam karta tha, lagaaya jaane laga.
  • 1914 E. mein "britainik" naamak jahaaj mein chaar silindar yukt, triprasaar engine lagaaya gaya, jiske silindar kramash: 54 inch, 84 inch aur 97 inch vyaas ke tatha 75 inch stroke yukt the aur iske bauyalar ki vaashp daab 230 pound prati varg inch thi. iske cylinderon mein 16,000 soochit ashv shakti (I. H. P.) utpaadit kar tatha nodak dhuron ko 77 chakkar prati minute chalaane ke baad, alp daab cylinderon se nikla hua vaashp 9 pound prati varg inch ki daab par madhyavarti ek paarasans tarabaain ko chalaata tha, jisse 18,000 dhureeya ashv shakti (shaft horse power) 170 chakkar prati minute par praapt ho jaati thi. 1930 E. tak tarabaainon mein giyrabaks (gear box) lagaakar pranoditr yukt bade bade jahaajon ko bina injanon ki sahaayata se, keval tarabaainon dvaara hi chalaaya jaane laga.

ab to jahaaji bauyalar bhi itne unnat ho gaye hain ki jalanaalika baayalaron se 575 pound prati varg inch daab ka vaashp, jiska taap lagbhag 399roo sein. hota hai, 2,00,000 pound prati ghanta tak praapt kiya ja sakta hai. aadhunik jahaaji vaashp engine bhi ab itne shaktishaali banaae jaane lage hain ki unke dvaara chatushprasaar kram ke pratyek silindar se 1,000 se lekar 3,000 tak ashvashakti praapt ki ja sakti hai.

vintarathar (Winterthur) ki suljr brothers (Sulzer Brothers) naamak farm jahaaji upayogon ke liye is prakaar ke diesel engine banaati hai jinki pratyek ikaai mein 1,000 ashv shakti utpann karanevaale 10 silindar tak hote hain. ye dohare stroke ki vidhi se kaam karte hain.

naushakti sanyantr tatha upasaadhitr

(Marine power plants and accessories)

paidalachakr (Paddle wheel)

paidalachakr

engine chaalit jahaajon ke aaranbhik kaal mein sabhi naukaaeain paidal chakron (Paddle wheel) dvaara hi chalaai jaati theen, lekin pranoditr (propeller) ka aavishkaar ho jaane ke baad se samudri jahaajon mein paidalachakron ka prayog band ho gaya, fir bhi nadiyon mein chalanevaali naukaaon mein ab bhi inka prayog hota hai. lakdi ke plavon (floats) ki banaavat ke anusaar paidalachakr do prakaar ke hote hain :

(1) areeya plav (sthir paidal) yukt chakr, aur
(2) pankhanuma chal plav (asthir paidal) yukt chakr

areeya plav to chakr ki paridhi ke oopar traijya disha mein pakke kase hote hain. pankhanuma plav apni chool par thoda ghoomkar aavashyakataanusaar tirchhe bhi ho jaate hain. areeya plarvon mein yeh dosh hai ki paani se oopar uthate samay ve kuchh paani apne saath bhi le jaate hain, jise uthaane mein engine ki shakti ka thoda apavyaya hota hai. doosra dosh yeh hai ki paidal chakr ke chakkar ke keval thode se bhaag mein ve lagbhag oodhrvaadhar sthiti mein rah paate hain. ismein hi ve paani par achhi taakat laga sakte hain. pankhanuma plav apne traijya sanyojak dandon ki sahaayata se, jo chakr ke vaksh se sambandhit rahate hain, aavashyakataanusaar apni chool par ghoomkar apne kon ko badalkar, jab tak ve paani mein rahate hain usapar poora dabaav daalte hain. baahar nikalne par ve apne saath adhik paani bhi naheen uthaate.

paidal chakron ko chalaanevaale engine

paidal chakron ko chalaanevaale dhure naukaaon ke madhya bhaag mein aade lagaae jaate hain aur nauka ke madhya mein do engine is prakaar lagaae jaate hain ki yadi chaahein to donon engine milkar donon hi paidalachakron ko ek saath chalaaeain aur chaahein to asanbaddh hokar keval apne apne hi paidalachakr ko yathechha, ek aage aur doosra peechhe ki taraf chalaakar, aavashyakataanusaar nauka ki disha ko badal dein ya paitara badli karein. aisa kar sakane ke liye donon injanon ke dhuron beech mein jahaaain milte hain, vahaaain ek dhure ke sire ko panaaleedaar (w) (splined) banaakar usapar sarakati hui, chaalak charkhi (sheave) laga dete hain. jab donon ko ek saath chalaana hota hai tab vah charkhi sarakakar doosare dhure par bani ek kraink pin mein fains jaati hai. paidal chakron ki chhoti naukaaon ko chalaane ke liye khade engine to apne jhonke ke kaaran anupayukt hote hi hai aur aade engine bahut jagah gherate hain; at: inke liye 19veen shataabdi mein kai vishesh prakaar ke engine banaae gaye the, jo ooainche bhi naheen thi aur adhik jagah bhi naheen gherate the. in injanon mein stapul engine (Stuple engine), daayaigonail engine (Diagonal engine), ausileting engine (Oscillating engine), pen ka trank engine (Penn's Trunk engine) aur maaudsle ka return kanakting road engine (Moudslay's Return Connecting Rod Engine) mukhya hain.

peinch praneditr

aadhunik madhyam aakaar ke aadhunik jalayaan ka nodak (propelar)

peinch pranoditr ke siddhaant aur kriya (Principles and action of screw propeller)

aadhunik jahaajon ko chalaane ke liye unke pichhle sire par jo pankhenuma yantr lagaaya jaata hai use nodak ya pranoditr athva 'pranodi peinch' kehte hain. iski aakruti pankhenuma dikhaai deti hain, lekin kriya theek choodeedaar peinch ke samaan hi hoti hai. yeh pankhenuma peinch samudra ke paani mein choodi si kaatata hua jahaaj ko lekar aage badh jaata hai. peinch ke oopar to hamein choodiyon ki poori veshthanein dikhaai padti hain, lekin in pankhon mein naheen dikhaai padteen, kyonki pratyek pankhudi, ek bahut bade (pitch) pichvaale abhiklpit peinch ki patali si angodi (slice) ki ek traijya faaaink hain. saadhaaran peinch mein jaise-jaise choodi ki galiyon ki sankhya badhti hain usaki leed (lead) ki lanbaai bhi usi anupaat se badh jaati hai. pranoditr ki pankhudiyon ka vakr bhi ek bahut badi leed mein fit hota hua banaate hain. at: yadi koi pankha chhoti leed ka hai to use lambe faasale ko tay karne ke liye adhik chakkar lagaane padeinge aur yadi vah bade leed ka hai to vah kam chakkaron mein hi us faasale ko tay kar sakta hai. jis prakaar thos peinch aur leed ke hisaab se chakkar lagaane par ek nishchit faasala tay kar leta hai, paani mein chalanevaala yeh pankhenuma peinch vaisa hi naheen kar sakta, kyonki paani taral padaarth hone ke kaaran idhar udhar vah jaata hai. is prakaar jahaaj ki chaal mein jo kami aa jaati hai use pranoditr ka sarpan ya sarak (slip) kehte hain.

sarvapratham jab pranoditr ka aavishkaar hua, us samay jahaaji injeeniyron ke saamane use tej chaal se chalaane ki samasya I. paindalachakron ko chalaanevaale engine bahut hi dheeme (gears) ki sahaayata leni padi. baad mein drut gati se chalanevaale khade engine ban jaane aur fir tarabaain tatha diesel injanon ka prayog aarambh ho jaane se yeh samasya hal ho gayi.

pranoditr sanchaalan

pranoditr ke theek prakaar se kaam karne ke liye yeh aavashyak hai ki uske pankhe paani mein poori tarah se doobe rahein. at: use chalaanevaale dhure bhi jahaaj ke peechhe ki taraf kisi upayukt prakaar ke chhed mein se hokar uske frem aur aavaran ke baahar nikle rahein. yeh jal-tal-rekha se kaafi neeche hota hai. un chhedon ki paridhi aur dhuron ki paridhi ke beech aisa prabandh bhi hota hai ki samudra ka paani usamein se jahaaj mein na ghusne paae. is kaam ke liye anek prakaar ki yuktiyon banaai gayi hain. saadhaaran yuktiyon mein dhura garam bhi ho jaata hai, at: ismein tel bharakar chalaane ka prarvadh aur vishesh avsaron par garam paani se taap kam karne ka prabandh bhi kiya gaya hai. jin jahaajon mein do ya teen pranoditr lagaae jaate hain unamein bagali pranoditron ke dhuron ki kholon ko sahaara dene ke liye jahaaj ke baajoo ke frem mein uchit prakaar se braiket lagaakar, unamein kholon ko sthirta se baaaindhakar pranoditr ka dhura chalaaya jaata hai.

pranoditr ka nod (Thrust of propeller)

pranoditr ghoomate samay jab paani ko cheerakar jahaaj ko aage ki taraf dhakelata hai, us samay usaki pratikriya ke roop mein usi parimaan ka nod aage ki taraf mudta hai, jisse beyaringon (bearings) ke bahut hi sheegra ghis jaane tatha purjon ke sthaanachyut ho jaane ka dar rahata hai. at: pranodi dhure ki pichhli khol, jismein se vah dhura peechhe ki taraf baahar nikla rahata hai aur engine athva tarabaain ke beech ek bauksanuma nodak beyaring laga diya jaata hai, jiske bheetar ki taraf khaaainchon mein dhure par bani kai kaalarein (collar) sahi sahi baithi rahati hain aur ve sab milaakar pranodi pankhe se aanevaale nod ko sah leti hain. beyaring ke khaaainchon mein, dhure ki kaalaron ke donon taraf, mulaayam peetal ke bane ardhachandraakaar astarapatt daal diyejaate hain aur oopar se unapar tel chuaane ka prabandh rahata hai. kai nodak beyaring baukson mein tel ki naaaind neeche ki taraf bani hoti hai, jismein dhure ki kaularein khandash: doobi hui chala karti hain. inmein lage astarapatt ghode ki naal ki aakruti ke hote hain.

pranoditron ko chalanevaale engine

vaashp tarabaainon ke aavishkaar ke pahile tak, pranoditron ko chalaane ke liye oopar ki taraf silindaronvaale khade vaashp engine kaam mein laae jaate the, jo aksar chatushsanyoji (quadruple compound) prakaar ke hua karte the. jahaajon mein pratyek pranoditr ko chalaane ke liye do do engine ek jode mein lagaae jaate hain. jab jahaaj ka paribhraman ho ya disha badalani ho tab un do mein se keval ek ka hi prayog kiya jaata hai. jahaaj ko teji se aage chalaate samay donon engine milkar ek pranoditr ko chalaate hai.

vaashp tarabaain

pranoditron ko chalaane ke liye aajkal tarabaainon ka rivaaj badhta ja raha hai, kyonki ye kai baaton mein injanon se bhi adhik suvidhaajanak tatha saste padte hain. vaise inmein injanon ki apeksha vaashp ka kharcha prati ashvashakti adhik hota hai. chitr 16, mein ek pranoditr yukt chhote jahaaj mein ek uchch daab aur ek alp daab ke tarabaainon ka joda unke sanghanitr sahit dikhaaya hai. tarabaain badi teji se ghoomanevaala yantr hai, idhar pranoditr se dakshataapoorvak kaam lene ke liye use tarabaain ki apeksha kaafi mand gati se chalaana padtaahai. at: pranoditr ki chaal mand karne ke liye beech mein chhoti aur badi garaari lagaana aavashyak ho jaata hai. tarabaain ki dhuri par chhota piniyn (pinion) aur pranoditr ke dhure par bada piniyn lagaaya jaata hai.

kisi jahaaj mein kahaaain kahaaain tarabaain baithaae jaaain yeh, baat us jahaaj ke aakaar evam prakaar par nirbhar karti hai. sab se saral tareeka to yeh hai ki ek pranoditr ke liye kam se kam ek tarabaain to avashya hi hona chaahiye. doosra tareeka yeh hai ki uchchadaab aur alpadaab ke tarabaain ka joda sanghanitr sahit pratyek pranoditr ke saath lagaae jaae. is prabandh mein bauyalar mein se aanevaala taaja vaashp pehle uchchadaab ke tarabaain mein aur fir alpadaab ke tarabaain mein kaam karne ke baad sanghanitr mein jaakar visrjit ho jaaega. is prabandh mein utpaadit shakti ka is prakaar se samavibhaajan kiya jaata hai ki pratyek tarabaain ka joda ek ek pranoditr ko giyr ke maadhyam se donon taraf svatantrataapoorvak chala sake. kai jahaajon mein, jinmein teen pranoditr hote hain, uchchadaab ki tarabaain to beech ke pranoditr ko chalaata hai aur donon baajuon mein lage alpadaab tarabaain bagali pranoditron ko chalaate hain.

injanon aur tarabaainon ka sanyukt prayog

tarabaainon ke prayog ke aaranbhik kaal mein aur aajkal bhi, kai bade bade jahaajon mein sanyoji injanon (compound engines) ke saath saath tarabaainon ka bhi prayog kiya jaata hai. jab jahaaj poore veg se aage chalta hai tab to tarabaain aur engine donon hi milkar kaam karte hain, lekin jab jahaaj ko ulta chalaana hota hai tab tarabaain ka sambandh dhure se kaat diya jaata hai. aisa karte samay alpadaab ke silindar mein kaam karne ke baad vaashp, tarabaain mein jaakar kaam karne ke badle seedhe sanghanitr mein chala jaata hai. ismein jahaaj ka madhyavarti pranoditr to uchchadaab, madhyadaab aur alpadaab ke triprasaareeya sanyoji engine dvaara chalaaya jaata hai aur alpadaab ke silindar mein kaam kar chukane ke baad vaashp lagbhag nau pound prativrg inch ki daab par, baajuon mein lagi tarabaainon ko chalaata hai, jisse baajuon ke pranoditr chalte hain. fir baad mein yeh vaashp sanghanitr mein jaakar visrjit ho jaata hai. jin bade jahaajon ki raftaar 16 not prati ghanta se neechi ho unheen mein engine aur tarabaainon ka sanyukt vinyaas upayogi ho sakta hai. isse ooainchi raftaaravaale jahaajon ke liye to poornataya tarabaainon ka prayog hi laabhadaayak rahata hai.

jahaaji vaashp injanon tatha tarabaainon ke sahaayak evam anusangi upakaran

(Auxiliaries and accessories for steam engines and turbines)

bauyalar

20veen shataabdi ke pratham charan tak jahaaji injanon ko vaashp dene ke liye agninaal baayalaron ka hi adhiktar prayog hua karta tha, jinmein skauch (Scotch) sarvottam samjha jaata tha aur jalanaal baayalaron mein vilkauks-baibakauk (Wilcox Babcok) baayalar hi shreshth samjha jaata tha. ab jalanaalika baayalaron ka prachaar badhta ja raha hai, kyonki inke dvaara uchch daab ka vaashp vipul maatra mein bahut hi thode samay mein praapt kiya ja sakta hai. ab vilkauks-baivakauk mein bhi bahut sudhaar ho gaye hain. inke atirikt staling (Stirling) bauyalar, thauranikraapt (Thornycroft) bauyalar, yaaro (Yarrow) bauyalar, hvaaitafaustar (Whitefoster) bauyalar aadi, jalanaalika baayalaron ka jahaaji kaamon mein bahut prayog hua karta hai.

samudri paani khaara hota hai at: usaka prayog seedha hi bauyalaron mein naheen kiya ja sakta aur yeh peene ke yogya bhi naheen hota. jahaajon par is paani ko kaam ke yogya banaane ke liye aasavan yantr (distiller), udvaashpak (evaporator) aadi upasaadhitr lagaae jaate hain. bauyalar ke bheetar paani pahuainchaane ke liye vishesh prakaar ke bharanayantr (feed pump) aur bauyalar mein pravesh karne ke pehle hi use kaafi garam karne ke liye bharan taapak (feed heater) lagaae jaate hain. injanon aur tarabaainon mein prayog karne ke baad vaashp ko vrutha na jaane dekar, use sanghanitron mein jamaakar tatha thandhaakar paani ke roop mein fir se prayog ke laayak bana liya jaata hai. aasavanayantr aur udvaashpak to sanghanitr ke paani mein honevaali kami ko hi poora karte hain. khaadya padaarthon ko poori yaatra bhar surakshit rakhane ke liye prasheetitr (refrigerator) lagaae jaate hain. sanvaatan (ventilation) tatha chhote yantronpakaranon ko atakaav ki jagahon par chalaane ke liye vaayusanpeedk (air compresser), prakaash ke liye vidyudatpaadak yantr (vidyut janitr/ dynamo), karn giyr (steering gear) tatha krenon ke liye dravachaalit panp (hydraulic pumps) aadi upasaadhitron ke roop mein lagaae jaate hain. bandaragaahon par pahuainchane par muya vaashp engine band kar diye jaate hain. vahaaain jahaaj ko aage peechhe chalaane tatha prakaash aur marammat ke kaamon ke liye chhote deejl aur tel engine lagaae jaate hain.

jahaajon ko chalaane ke liye antardahan injanon ka upayog

ghaat naukaaon (ferries) aur nadiyon mein chalanevaali naukaaon (river boats) ke sanchaalan ke liye aajkal tel aur petrol injanon ka adhiktar prayog hota hai. samudra mein chalanevaale chhote jahaaj auto saaikal ke anusaar kaam karanevaale deejl injanon se chalaae jaate hain. bahut bade jahaaj to ab bhi vaashp engine aur tarabaainon se bhi chalte hain, kyonki deejl jahaajon par lagbhag 5-6 deejl engine milkar ek pranodak dhure ko chala paate hain. deejl injanon mein ek hi silindar hota hai, jo saadhaaranataya 1,000 ashvashakti se adhik ka naheen hota. aadhunik prakaar ke achhe se achhe, vishesh prakaar ke, deejl engine se bhi prati silindar do ya dhaai hajaar se adhik ashvashakti naheen praapt ki ja sakti. yadi ek pranoditr ke liye paaainch deejl engine bhi ek saath lagaae jaaeain to ve hajaar ashvashakti hi praapt hogi, jabki ek aadhunik prakaar ke bade jahaaj ko nirtar 70-80 hajaar ashvashakti ki aavashyakta hua karti hai. isliye bahut bade jahaajon ka chalaane ke liye ab bhi vaashp injanon ka hi prayog kiya jaata hai. haaain, unapar chhote mote kaamon ke liye deejl injanon se sahaayata li ja sakti hai. beshak, chhote jahaajon ke liye deejl engine sarvatha upayukt hote hain, kyonki inka prayog karne se bauyalar, koyala, udvaashpak, bharanajalataapak, bharan filtar, bharanapanch aur sanghanitron ki aavashyakta naheen rahati aur unase bacha hua sthaan vyaapaarik maal laadne ke kaam mein aa sakta hai. thodi si jagah mein hi poori yaatra ke liye tel bhar kar rakha ja sakta hai, deejl injanon ke chaugird achhi safaai rakhi ja sakti hai, kyonki vahaaain raakh, koyala aur dhueain ka kaam hi naheen hota. faayaramain jaise kushal karmachaariyon ki bhi aavashyakta naheen rahati aur ek hi chaalak kai injanon ko sainbhaal sakta hai, at: vetan mein bhi bachat ho jaati hai.

steeyaring giyr tatha radar

aadhunik samudri jahaaj ka aritr (radar) : nodak (pankhe) ke aage lamba, laal aayataakaar sanrachana; yeh yaan ki disha badalne ke kaam aati hai.

jahaajon tatha naukaaon ka sanchaalan (daayein-baanyein modna) radar (Rudder) ke dvaara hota hai, jo starnapost (kudaas) ke aadhaar par laga hota hai. ise chalaane ke liye chhoti naukaaon mein to radar ke danthal ke oopari sire par haathacharkhi laga di jaati hai, lekin bade jahaajon mein use chalaane ke liye chhote injanon ya jalashaktichaalit (haaidraalik) yantron ki sahaayata li jaati hai. radar ko ghumaane ke liye aavashyak bal radar ke aakaar, jahaaj ki raftaar aur jahaaj ki anudairghya madhyarekha se radar ke palle ke kon par nirbhar karta hai. udaaharanat:, yadi koi jahaaj 15 not prati ghante ki raftaar se chal raha ho uske radar ke paani mein doobe hue bhaag ka kshetrafal 100 varg foot ho tatha madhyarekha se usaka kon 30 degree ho to ganit dvaara yeh siddh kiya ja sakta hai ki us radar ko ghumaane mein 32,130 pound ka bal lagaana padega, jo maanaveeya saamarthya ke baahar ki baat hai. is kaam ke liye brown ki haaidraulik stiyring telimotar, haireesan ka stiyring giyr (jismein do chhote chhote vaashp injanon ka prayog hota hai), hesti (Hastie) ka stiyring giyr aur haile-shau maartinyoo (Hele Shas Martinue) ka haaidraulik stiyring giyr aadi mukhya hain. chhote vaashp injanon ke jor se kuchh dantachakr chalakar radar dand ke oopar lage ek bade dantachakr ko aavashyakataanusaar ghuma dete hain. us chakr ko ichhit jagah par rok rakhane ke liye vishesh prakaar ki kamaani aur klach break aadi bhi lage hote hain.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain