narasi Mehta

narasi Mehta

narasi Mehta (gujaraati: નaaરaaસaaિaaંaaહ મaaહaaેaaતaaા; 16veen shati E.) gujaraati bhaktisaahitya ki shreshthatam vibhooti the. unke krutitv aur vyaktitv ki mahatta ke anuroop saahitya ke itihaasagranthon mein "narasinh-meera-yug" naam se ek svatantr kaavyakaal ka nirdhaaran kiya gaya hai jiski mukhya visheshata bhaavapravan krushnabhakti se anuprerit padon ka nirmaan hai. padapraneta ke roop mein gujaraati saahitya mein narasi ka lagbhag vahi sthaan hai jo hindi mein sooradaas ka. vaishnav jan to taine kahiye J peed paraai jaane re' pankti se aarambh honevaala suvikhyaat pad narasi Mehta ka hi hai. narasi ne ismein vaishnav dharm ke saaratatvon ka sankalan karke apni antardrushti evam sahaj maanaveeyata ka parichay diya hai. narasi ki is udaar vaishnav bhakti ka prabhaav Gujarat mein aaj tak lakshit hota hai.

pushtimaarg mein narasi ko "vadheyo" maana jaata hai par narasi kisi sanpradaaya se sambaddh prateet naheen hote. unki bhakti bhaagavataashrit thi. anyaanya leelaaon ki apeksha Krishna ki raasaleela narasi ka vishesh priya thi aur bhaavaatmak taadaatmya ki sthit mein unhonne apne ko "deevatiyo" ya deepavaahak bankar raas mein bhaag lete hue varnit kiya hai. ve Gujarat ke sarvaadhik lokapri vaishnav kavi hain tatha lokakalpana mein unke jeevan se sambaddh kinvadantiyon evam chamatkaarik ghatnaaon ke prati sahaj vishvaasabhaavana milti hai.

anukram

jeevanavrutt

aitihaasik drushti se narasi Mehta ke jeevanakaal ka nishchaya ek samasya rahi hai. unki "haaramaala" naamak kruti mein di gayi tithi san. 1512 tatha varnit ghatna se siddh ra maandalik (san. 1487 se 1528) ki samakaaleenata ke aadhaar par kuchh itihaasakaaron ne unhein 15veen shati E. mein rakha aur bahut kaal tak "vruddhamaanya samay" (1414-81 E.) nirvivaad sveekrut kiya jaata raha parantu; k.ma. munshi ne anek tark vitrkon dvaara use atishya vivaadaaspad bana diya. unke anusaar chaitanya ke prabhaav ke kaaran narasi Mehta ka samay 1500-1580 E. se poorv naheen maana ja sakta. yadyapi gujaraati ke anekaanek maanya vidvaanon ne is vivaad mein bhaag liya hai tathaapi vah ab bhi praaya: anirneet hi hai. unki rachanaaon mein jayadev, naamadev, raamaanand aur meera ka ullekh milta hai.

narasi Mehta ka janm joonaagadh ke sameepavarti "talaaja" naamak gram mein hua tha aur unke pita krushnadaamodar vadanagar ke naagaravanshi kuleen braahman the. unka avsaan ho jaane par baalyakaal se hi narasi ko kashtamaya jeevan vyateet karna pada. ek katha ke anusaar ve aath varsh tak goonge rahe aur kisi krushnabhakt saadhu ki krupa se unhein vaani ka varadaan praapt hua. saadhu sang unka vyasan tha. udyamaheenata ke kaaran unhein bhaabhi ki katooktiyaaain sahani padteen aur antat: gruhatyaag bhi karna pada. vivaahoparaant patni maanikbaai se kuainvar baai tatha shaamaladaas naamak do santaanein hui. krushnabhakt hone se poorv unke shaiv hone ke pramaan milte hain. kaha jaata hai, "gopeenaath" mahaadev ki krupa se hi unhein krushnaleela ka darshan hua jisne une jeevan ko sarvatha nai disha mein mod diya. gruhasth jeevan mein chamatkaarik roop se apne aaraadhya ki or se sahaayata praapt hone ke anek varnan unki aatmacharitparak kai rachanaaon mein upalabdh hote hain.

isi tarah Bhagwan ne kai baar naraseela ki madat ki. inmein "hundi", "jhaari", "maameru" aur "haar" ka prasang sarvapramukh hai. "dhedh" prasang bhi narasi ki jeevani mein yathesht mahatva rakhata hai kyonki uske falasvaroop unka saamaajik bahishkaar kar diya gaya. ve stri aur shoodr ko bhakti ka adhikaari samajhte the jiske kaaran samast naagar jaati unase kshubdh ho gayi thi. narasi ne apni antarvrutti ka baahya prabhaavon se kunthit naheen hone diya. yeh unke vyaktitv ki sabse badi visheshata hai.

aap ghar ke kaam kaaj mein bilkul bhi dhyaan naheen dete the. saara samay Krishna bhakti mein hi lage rahate. aap ke bhaai ne aap ki shaadi maanekabaai se car di taaki aap ghar ki jimmedaari sainbhaalane lagein, lekin shaadi se bhi narasinh ko koi farak naheen pada .

narasinh Mehta ki bhaabhi aap ko bahut bhala bura kehti thi. ek din bhaabhi ki baaton se tang aakar aap jungle chale gaye aur bina khaae piye 7 din tak shivji ke mandir mein aaraadhana ki . Bhagwan Shiv ek saadhu ke roop mein pragat hue. narasinh ji ke anurodh par Bhagwan Shiv aap ko vrundaavan mein raas leela dikhaane ko le gaye. aap raas leela dekhte hue itne kho gaye ki mashaal se apna haath jala bethe . Bhagwan Krishna ne apne sparsh se haath pehle jaisa kar diya aur narasinh ji ko aasheervaad diya . ghar aakar aap ne bhaabhi ka dhanyavaad kiya .

ek samay narasinh aur unke bhaai teerth yaatra par jaate samay ek jungle mein se gujar rahe the. donon bahut thak chuke the aur bhookh bhi bahut lagi thi . kuchh duri par ek gaaainv dikhaai diya . us gaaainv ke kuchh log in donon ke paas aaye aur kaha ki agar aap kahein to ham aap ke liye khaana le aate hain, par lekin ham shudr (neech) jaati ke hain . narasinh ji ne unhein kaha ki sabhi parameshvar ki santaan hain aap to hari ke jan hain mujhe aap ka diya bhojan khaane mein koi aapatti naheen . narasinh ne khushi se bhojan khaaya lekin unke bhaai ne bhojan khaane se inkaar car diya . chalne se pehle narasinh jab gaaainv vaalon ka dhanyavaad karne ke liye uthe to unhein kaheen bhi gaaainv najar naheen aaya .

aachaarya shri gareeb das mahaaraaj ji ne bhakt maal mein narasinh Mehta ji ke saath hue do ghatnaaon ka varnan kiya hai .

saanval shaah ki ghatna

aaye hain saadhu naraseela ke paas . hundi karo nai naraseela jo das . 55 .

paanch sau roopaye jo deenhein jo rok . karo beg hundi dvaara naath posh . 56 .

sad sad likhi beg kaagaj mangaaya . teeke diya shaah saanval chadhaaya . 57 .

dvaara nagar beech pauhanche hain sant . paaya na saanval liya hai ju ant . 58 .

dvaara nagar ke ju bole bakaal . naheen shaah saanval naraseela ghar ghaal . 59 .

curry hai ju karuna abarana aanand . bhaye shaah saanval jo saahib govind . 60 .

chilki karaare hajaare hajaar . dine duchand jo saanval muraar . 61 .

dohari kalam taank bahiyaan binod . bhaye shaah saanval naraseela pramodh . 62 .

chaure gine beg palla bichhaaya . dekhain dvaara nagar ke sakal shaah . 63 .

kharache khaaye santaun kinhein mukaam . dvaara nagar beech deenhein ju daam . 64 .

saanval shaah santaun se kinha basekh . naraseela se bandagi hundi dhyon anek . 65 .

pehli naraseela nai deenha bhandaar . peechhe saanval shaah pauhanche pukaar . 66 .

ek baar dvaaraka ko jaane vaale kuchh saadhu narasinh ji ke paas aaye aur unhein paanch sau roopaye dete hue kaha ki aap kaafi prasiddh vyakti ho aap apne naam ki paanch sau rupayon ki hundi likh kar de do ham dvaaraka mein ja kar hundi le leinge. pehle to narasinh ji ne mana karte hue kaha ki main to gareeb aadmi hooain, mere pehchaan ka koi seth naheen jo tumhe dvaaraka mein hundi de dega, par jab saadhu naheen maane to unhon ne kaagaj la kar paanch sau roopaye ki hundi dvaaraka mein dene ke liye likh di aur dene vaale (tika) ka naam saanval shaah likh diya.

(hundi ek tarah ke aaj ke demand draft ke jaisi hoti thi. isse raaste mein dhan ke chori hone ka khatra kam ho jaata tha . jis sthaan ke liye hundi likhi hoti thi, us sthaan par jis ke naam ki hundi ho vah hundi len vaale ko rokh de deta tha .)

dvaaraka nagari mein pahuainchane par santon ne sab jagah pata kiya lekin kaheen bhi saanval shaah naheen mile . sab kehne lage ki ab yeh hundi tum naraseela se hi lena .

udhar narasinh ji ne un paanch sau rupayon ka saamaan laakar bhandaara dena shuroo kar diya. jab saara bhandaara ho gaaya to ant mein ek vruddh sant bhojan ke liye aae . narasinh ji ki patni ne jo saare bartan khaali kiye aur jo aata bacha tha us ki chaar rotiyaan banaakar us vruddh sant ko khilaai . jaise hi us sant ne roti khaai vaise hi udhar dvaaraka mein Bhagwan ne saanval shaah ke roop mein pragat ho kar santon ko hundi de di .

aachaarya ji anndev ki chhoti aarti mein bhi is baat ka pramaan dete hain. jaise

roti chaar bhaaraja ghaali, naraseela ki hundi jhaali .

(bhaaraja – patni, ghaali- daali, dena, jhaali- ho gayi)

saanval shaah ek seth ka bhesh banaakar santon ke saamane aae . aur bhare chauk mein santon ko hundi ke roopaye diye . dvaaraka ke sabhi seth dekhte hi rah gaye .

naraseela ji ki dhyoti ki shaadi ki ghatna

beti naraseela ki bheli chadhaaya . chaalo pita teri dhyoti ka vyaah . 67 .

main nirdhan bhikhaari naheen merai daam . aaoonga beti main sumarunga Ram . 68 .

naraseela khaali gaye palla jhaar . aage khari ek samadhani ujaar . 69 .

bhaatai aaye hain jo dhi ke pita . karuve ke ghaalya ju ham koon bata . 70 .

samadhani kahai sakhiyon main sunaaya . do bhaathe ghaale hain karuve pitaaya . 71 .

naraseela suni kar jo huye aadheen . lajja raakho mere saahib prabeen . 72 .

aaye vishvambhar jo gaade ladaaya . lyaaye maal mukta jo keenhi sahaaya . 73 .

suhe jareebaab masaroo apaar . gahana sunahari aur moti hajaar . 74 .

heere hari bhaanti laali surang . chaahai su devai chhuti dhaar gang . 75 .

nagadi aur jinsi khajaanein mauhar . utarain jareebaab jheeni dauhar . 76 .

chunnari chidaanand lyaaye anoop . jhaalar kinaari jareedaar saroop . 77 .

samadhani sulakhani khari hai ju paas . bhare bhaat narasi jo heeryon nivaas . 78 .

ghore turangam diye hain jo daan . arath bahal paalaki kiye hain kurbaan . 79 .

kalangi Ru jhabbe sunahari hamel . heere jadaaooain moti rangarel . 80 .

narasi arasi hai samudra mein sir . gaibi khajaane amaane jo cheer . 81 .

bhaathe pare doya dhoon dhoon dhamaak . dekhein duni chishm khaulai jo aankh . 82 .

chaandi sone ke hain bhaathe ju doya . samadhani liya mukh ulataai goya . 83 .

bheli – gud ki dali (shagun ke tor par di jaati thi. jaise aaj kal card ke saath mithaai ka dibba dete hai.)

samadhani – kudamani (beti/bete ki saaains)

bhaatai – maama

bhaat – naanakashak (ladki ya ladke ke vivaah mein naana / maama ki taraf se di jaane waali saamagri)

karuve – kanyaadaan

bhaathe – mitti ke thele ya bartan,

ek samay narasinh ki dhyoti ki shaadi thi. narasinh ki ladki unhein shagun ke tor par gud dete hue boli ki pita ji aap ne shaadi mein jarur aana hai . narasinh bahut gareeb the unhonne kaha ki beti mere paas to shaadi mein dene ke liye kuchh bhi naheen hai . main aa jaaoonga lekin Bhagwan ka naam hi looainga . jab narasinh ji dhyoti ki shaadi mein pahunche to kisi stri ne un ki samadhani ne poochha ki ladki ke maama aur naana mein aaye hai, unhonne kanyaadaan mein kya diya hai . aage se samadhani ne majaak mein kah diya ki do bhaathe diye hain.

yeh sun kar narasinh sharminda ho gaye aur Bhagwan ko yaad kar unhein usaki ijjat bachaane ko kehne lage . tabhi Bhagwan bail gaadi laad kar saamaan ki laae . Bhagwan ladki ke liye laal soot, chunari, vivaah ki saari jari (kapade), gahana, moti, heere, ghode, paalaki tatha anek tarah ke upahaar le kar aae . narasinh ji ne khushi khushi bhaat (naanakashak) diya . tabhi donon bhaathe dhoon dhoon kar toot gaye aur sabhi dekh kar hairaan rah gaye ki donon bhaathe sone aur chaandi se bhare the . aur is tarah Bhagwan ne apaar saamagri dekar apne priya bhagat narasinh ki laaj rakh li .

rachanaaeain

vishay aur vastu ki drushti se narasi ki samast rachanaaeain mukhyat: do vargon mein rakhi ja sakti hain. pratham varg mein "saamaladaasano vivaah" tatha "haaramaala" ki ganana ki jaaegi. inmein kavi ne apne jeevan ki kisi alaukik ghatna ka varnan kiya hai. doosare varg mein nimnalikhit nau rachanaaeain aati hain jinki srushti poornataya krushnacharit ko aalanban maankar ki gayi hai-

1. surat sangraam

2. govindagaman

3. chaatureechhabbeesi

4. chaaturi shodashi

5. daanaleela

6. sudaamaacharit

7. raasasahastrapadi

8. shrrungaaramaala

9. baalaleela

inke atirikt kuchh prakeernak pad "heendolaana pado", "bhaktijnyaaanaanaan pado" "krushnajanmasamenaan pado", "krushnajanmabadhaainaan pado" tatha "vasantanaan pado" naam se sangruheet milte hain. inse gyaat hota hai ki shrrungaarik prakrutivrnan, vaatsalya bhaav tatha jnyaaanapradhaan bhakti ki O narasi ki vishesh pravrutti thi. poorvokt sabhi rachanaaeain narasinh Mehta krut "kaavyasangrah" naam se ek saath prakaashit ho chuki hain. iske atirikt inka prakaashan "bruhat kaavyadohan" "praacheen kaavya traimaasik" tatha "praacheen kaavya sudha" aadi mein bhi hua hai. munshi dvaara ullikhit "naagadaman" aur "maanaleela" sheershak rachanaaeain svatantr krutiyaaain na hokar vishay vishesh ke padasangrah maatr hain. ke.ka. shaastri ne hastalikhit granthon ki shodh ke aadhaar par aur bhi anek krutiyon ka naamollekh kiya hai jinmein adhikaansh padasangrah maatr hain. "soorat sangraam" aur "govindagaman" naam rachanaaon ki praamaanikta sandigdh maani jaati hai.

baahari kadiyaaain