narakat

narakat ke paudhe

narakat ek ghaas hai jiske paudhe ka tana khokhala gaaainth wala hota hai. pehle iski kalam banaayi jaati thi. iska upayog taati, jhopada, chhappar aadi banaane ke kaam aati hai. ise kachche baandhon ke bagal mein laga dene se iski jadein mitti ko baaaindh leti hain jisse mitti ka kataanv naheen ho paata. isko indhan ke roop mein evam furniture aadi ke liye bhi upayog mein laaya jaata hai.

baahari kadiyaaain

arundo doneks L. (vishaalakaaya ken) si 3 ghaas prajaati ki upaprajaati arundinoidi ke poesi parivaar ke antargat aane wala ek baarahamaasi ghaas hai. jo saamaanyat: nam mitti tatha kam khaare paani mein ugata hai vishaalakaaya ken dakshin pashchimi nadi ke tat par paaya jaane wala ek aakramanasheel ghaas hai. yeh bhoomadhya besin tatha madhya poorv Asia ka mool nivaasi hai tatha dakshini kailiforniya mein sajaavati paudhe ke roop mein aayaatit kiya gaya. dakshin pashchim kshetr mein erijona end new maiksiko aate hain jinke antargat gyaarah raashtreeya van aate hain.

iske paudhe nau se tees foot tak lambe, baans ki tarah khokhale tatha 2 se 3 seinteemeetar vyaas ki drudh gaanthein hoti hain. saamaanya paristhitiyon mein iski pattiyaan roopaantarit, patali nokadaar, 30 se 60 seinteemeetar lambi, 2 se 6 seinteemeetar chaudi hoti hain. pattiyon ka rang saleti va hara tatha pattiyon ke aadhaar par reshon ka guchha hota hai. kul milkar paudhe baahar se saamaanya ikh ya baans jaise dikhaai dete hain.

arundo doneks mein aksar pachheti garmiyon mein fool aate hain joki 49 se 60 seinteemeetar lambe, seedhe va halake pankhon se dhake hue hote hain. praaya: iske fal beejarahit hote hain tatha kabhi kabhi upajaaoo kshamata vaale hote hain. is prajaati mein vaanaspatik prajanan bhoomigat prakandon dvaara hota hai. prakand sakht, reshedaar tatha gaaainthoyukt hote hain, iske chataai jaise faile hue kathor reshe hote hain jo jameen mein ek meter tak gahre chale jaate hain.

bandhyah ya anurvar beejon ke kaaran is prajaati mein alaingik prajanan hota hai. yeh prajaati nyoonatam 7 degree seinteegret tatha adhiktam 30 degree seinteegret taapamaan par ugaai ja sakti hai. baadh jaisi paristhitiyon mein prakand yadi 5 seinteemeetar tak ke chhote chhote tukado mein vibhaajit hone par bhi pun: ankurit hone ki kshamata rakhate hain.

prakaash santrupti ke abhaav ke kaaran yeh ek uchch prakaash sanshleshak kshamata waali ghaas hai. anya si 3 aur si 4 prajaatiyon ki tulana mein kaarban daai oksaaid vinimay ki dar adhik hai. alaingik prajanan ke kaaran ismein anuvaanshik parivrtanasheelata kam hoti hai. kataan ko niyantrit karne waali prajaati ke atirikt jal nikaasi khaaiyon ke roop mein bhi iska prayog kiya jaata hai. praakrutik paristhiti mein,adhiktam kaarban daai oksaaid 19.8 aur 36.7 ke beech vikirn pattiyaan ki aayu ke aadhaar par , yeh patti pravaahakattv dvaara viniymit hai.

ootak sanvardhan takaneek sookshm prajanan tatha jananadravya sanrakshan ki upayogi vidhi hai. is takaneek dvaara A. arundo ke nae paudhe taiyaar karne mein paaramparik vidhi se kam samay lagta hai. jisse na keval beemaariyon rahit svasth paudh kam samay mein taiyaar kiye ja sakte hain, balki sanvardhanon ko anuvaanshik roop se sthaayi bhi banaaya ja sakta hai. kam maatra mein upalabdh ootak se kaanch ki parakhanaliyon mein krutrim lavan maadhyam ke upayog se poore varsh svasth paudh taiyaar ki ja sakti hai. sanvardhan ke lagbhag chaar se chhah saptaah pashchaat pratyek parakhanali mein nayi svasth parantu chhoti paudh taiyaar ho jaati hai. inheen paudh ko pun: sanvardhit karke prati paadapakon se anya paudh taiyaar ki ja sakti hai. is takaneek dvaara ek paudhe se teen se chaar maheene mein do sau se chaar sau tak paudhe taiyaar kiye ja sakte hain.

krutrim paristhitiyon mein sanrakshit krushi vaaniki fasal A. arundo ke paudhon ko jeevaanuon ke sankraman se bachaane hetu vibhinn prakaar ke raasaayanik ghol jaise baavisteen, tveen- 20 athva marakurik kloraaid ki alag -2 saandrata se upachaarit kiya jaata hai. sanvardhan ke liye muraasige evam sakoog dvaara prastaavit paudh paushak maadhyam jismein vibhinn prakaar ke paudh vardhak niyantrak ki aanshik maatra (ki alag -2 saandrata), teen se chh: pratishat sharkara evam kuchh maatra mein ardh thos chipchipe ghatak ka mishran prayukt kiya jaata hai. sanvardhit karne se pehle paudh paushak maadhyam ko 121 degree seinteegred taapamaan par 15 se 18 minute ke liye upachaarit karke jeevaanunaashak banaaya jaata hai. satah upachaarit chhote chhote paadapakon ko guchhon se vibhaajit karke paudh paushak yukt parakhanaliyon mein 25 se 28 degree seinteegred taapamaan par sanvardhit karke krutrim roop se bane sanvardhan kaksh mein rakha jaata hai.

ootak sanvardhan takaneek dvaara taiyaar kiye gaye paudhe krutrim paristhitiyon mein sakht takaneek ke maadhyam se khet mein sthaanaantarit karne ke liye taiyaar ho jaate hain. in paudhon ko kaanch ki parakhanaliyon se nikaalkar paudhon ki jadon se krutrim paudh paushak maadhyam tatha chipchipe ghatak (agaar) door karne ke liye unhein bahate paani ke nal ke neeche dhoya jaata hai. tatpashchaat paudhon ko nishfal mitti yukt 10 semi vyaas ke plastic ke gamale mein ropit kar diya jaata hai. paudhon yukt gamalon ko chhidrit paaradarshi pauleetheen bag (20 × 30 semi) se dhakakar 25 mein 30 degree celcius taapamaan 10 μ mol meter-2 prati second ke vikirn ke saath taapadeept balbon dvaara pradaan ki roshani ke neeche ek saptaah ke liye 10 ghante prakaash avadhi ke tahat rakha jaata hai. paudhon ko ek din ke antaraal par agale saptaah ke liye ek chauthaai saamarthya v uske baad ek saptaah tak aadhi saamarthya vaale MS krutrim paudh paushak lavan se sinchit kiya jaata hai. paudhon yukt gamalon ko chhaaya aur uchch aardrata waali paristhiti mein rakha jaata hai.. ek saptaah baad pauleetheen bag ko thoda sa hata diya jaata hai aur teen saptaah baad paudhon ko poori tarah se prakaash mein laane ke ek saptaah ke baad. mitti, lakdi ka buraada aur firm kshetr ki khaad ke mishran 2:1:1 mein sthaanaantarit kar diya jaata hai.